Evidence-Based Practice Chapter 3

research problem
area of concern when there is a gap in knowledge that requires a solution

case study
a description of a single or novel event; a unique methodology used in qualitative research that may also be considered a design or strategy for data collection

pilot
a small study to test a new intervention with a small number of subjects before testing with larger samples; adopting an innovation based on a trial basis

replication
repeated studies to obtain similar results

generalize
applying findings from a sample to a wider population

systematic reviews
a rigorous and systematic synthesis of research findings about a clinical problem

research topic
a clinical problem of interest

problem statement
a formal statement describing the problem addressed in the study. Must include 1.) the scope of the research problem 2.) the specific population of interest 3.) the independent and dependent variables 4.) the goal or question the study intends to answer Example: The use of alcohol by college freshmen contributes to alcohol-related injuries and emergency department visits at a state university.

purpose statement
a statement indicating the area of the study. Example: To determine if brief screening and nursing intervention for alcohol use during freshman orientation reduces self-reported alcohol use at a state university.

research question
an interrogatory statement describing the variables and population of the research study. Example: Is there a difference in self-reported alcohol use between college freshman who receive brief screening and nursing intervention for alcohol use…

hypotheses
formal statements of the expected or predicted relationship among two or more variables derived from either the problem statement or the research question

associative
a type of relationship such that when one variable changes, the other variable changes

covary
when change in one variable is associated with change in another variable

causal
a type of relationship such that one variable determines the presence or change in another variable

simple
a type of hypothesis that describes the relationship among just two variables

complex
a type of hypothesis describing the relationships among three or more variables

nondirectional
a type of hypothesis in which the statement of the relationship among two variables does not predict the direction of the relationship. Commonly used in exploratory and descriptive studies, commonly use words such as “associated,” “correlated,” or “related.”

directional
a type of hypothesis in which the statement describes the direction of a relationship among two or more variable. Commonly use words such as “increase,” “decrease,” “less,” “more,” “smaller,” and “greater.”

null
a type of hypothesis that states that there is no relationship between the variables; the statistical hypothesis

statistical
a type of hypothesis that states that there is no relationship among the variables; null hypothesis

research
a type of hypothesis that indicates that a relationship among two or more variables exists

hypothesis testing
collection of objectively measurable data that are gathered through the five senses to confirm or refute a hypothesis; empirical testing; a test for construct validity

empirical testing
collection of objectively measurable data that are gathered through the five senses to confirm or refute a hypothesis; hypothesis testing

independent x
the variable that influences the dependent variable or outcome; intervention or treatment that is manipulated by the researcher

dependent y
the variable or outcome that is influenced

mediators
extraneous variables that come between the independent variable and dependent variable; necessary to complete a cause-effect link; specify how or why a particular event or effect occurred.

moderators
extraneous variables that affect the relationship among the independent and dependent variables; affects the direction and/or strength of the relationship

confounding
a extraneous variable or factor that interferes with the relationship between the independent and dependent variables

PICOT
a model used in EBP to formulate EBP questions; patient, intervention of interest, comparison of interest, outcome of interest, and time frame used to formulate EBP

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