Medical Terminology Chapter 3 Word Parts & Terms

ankyl/o
crooked, bent, or stiff

arthr/o
joint

chondr/o
cartilage

cost/o
rib

crani/o
skull

-desis
surgical fixation of bone or joint

kyph/o
hump

lord/o
bent backward

-lysis
loosening or setting free; could also mean breaking down or destruction

myel/o
bone marrow or spinal cord

oss/e, oss/i, ost/o, oste/o
bone

scoli/o
curved

spondyl/o
vertebrae

synovi/o, synov/o
synovial membrane

-um
noun ending

acetabulum
also known as hip socket, the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint

allogenic
originating within another

ankylosing spondylitis
a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae

arthrodesis
surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a joint

arthrolysis
surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint

arthroscopy
visual examination of the internal structure of a joint

autologous
originating within an individual

chondroma
slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells

chondromalacia
abnormal softening of cartilage

comminuted fracture
one in which the bone is splintered or crushed

compression fracture
occurs when the bone is pressed together on itself

costochondritis
an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum

craniostenosis
malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures

crepitation
the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together

dual x-ray absorptiometry
low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density

fibrous dysplasia
a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue

hallux valgus
also known as bunion, abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

hemarthrosis
blood within a joint

hemopoietic
pertaining to the formation of blood cells

internal fixation
fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune disorder that affects children 16 and under with symptoms like stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, etc.

kyphosis
abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side

laminectomy
surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra

lordosis
abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine

lumbago
pain of the lumbar region of the spine

malleolus
rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle

manubrium
bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum

metacarpals
five bones that form the palms of the hand

metatarsals
the part of the foot to which the toes are attached

open fracture
one in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin

orthopedic surgeon
physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles

orthotic
mechanical appliance like a leg brace that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function

osteitis
inflammation of bone

osteoarthritis
wear-and-tear arthritis, most commonly associated with aging, characterized by the wearing away of the articular cartilage within the joints

osteochondroma
benign bony projection covered with cartilage

osteoclasis
the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity

osteomalacia
abnormal softening of bones in adults

osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone

osteonecrosis
the death of bone tissue due to a lack of insufficient blood supply

osteopenia
thinner than average bone density in a young person

osteoporosis
marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging

osteoporotic hip fracture
usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur spontaneously or because of a fall

osteorrhaphy
surgical suturing of bones

Paget’s disease
bone disease of unknown cause; characterized by excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation

pathologic fracture
occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain

percutaneous vertebroplasty
performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures

periostitis
inflammation of the periosteum

podiatrist
specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot

prosthesis
a substitute for a diseased or missing body part

rheumatoid arthritis
chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked

rickets
deficiency disease occurring in children; characterized by defective bone growth

scoliosis
abnormal lateral(sideways) curvature of the spine

spina bifida
congenital defect when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it, occurs during early pregnancy

spiral fracture
fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart

spondylolisthesis
the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it

spondylosis
a degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function

subluxation
the partial displacement of a bone from its joint

synovectomy
surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint

vertebrae
the bony structure units of the spinal column

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