Gastro Pathology

What is peristalsis?
a series of wave-like muscle contractions that moves food to different processing stations in the digestive tract.

Functional obstruction of the distal esophagus with proximal dilation, caused by incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter
Achalasia

An abnormal connection between two hollow spaces
Fistula

Lack of development of the esophageal lumen resulting in a blind pouch
Atresia

What is mastication?
Chewing

What is deglutition?
Swallowing

Whats villi?
Finger-like projections

What is GERD?
Gastro esophageal reflux disease

What is the incomplete formation of the esophagus?
Atresia

What is inflammation of the stomach?
Gastritis

opaque to X-rays or similar radiation
Radiopaque

Transparent to X-rays
Radioluscent

An abnormal communication between the trachea and esophagus?
Fistula – tracheoesophageal fistula

Caused by severe reflux, normal lining of the esophagus is destroyed and strictures may form?
Barretts esophagus

Outpouching near the posterior portion of the esophagus, may be seen on an esophagram
Zinkers

What has a rat tail appearance?
Achalasia

Patients may get this during an egd (esophogastric duodenalgram)?
Perforation

Milky white substance produced in the stomach?
Chyme

IBS stands for?
Irritable bowel syndrome

Described as bowel twisting upon itself, may have a bird beak appearance
Volvulus

AKA apple core lesion or napkin ring lesion
Annular carcinoma

The disease of having diverticulum
Diverticulosis

Inflammation of the diverticulum
Diverticulitis

Outpouching of the colon
Diverticulum

A disease caused by chronic inflammation of the gallbladder and leads to calcification
Porcelain gallbladder

Disease of having gallstones
Cholelithiasis

Inflamed gallbladder
Cholecystitis

As a healthcare worker you should preventative action to decrease the chances of getting this disease:
Hepatitis B

This disease can be classified as acute or chronic
Pancreatitis

This pathology can be caused by trauma to the upper left quadrant
Ruptured spleen

Radiographic appearance is the beads of rosary
Esophageal Varices

Out-pouching appearance above the diaphragm
Hiatal hernia

Often described as a mobile hard olive
Pyloric stenosis

What is regional enteritis?
Crohns of the small bowel

Most patients who undergo abdominal surgery can have this pathology when recovering.
Adynamic ileus

A fecolith can cause this
Appendicitis

This pathology refers to a multitude of conditions in which there is a defective absorption of carbohydrates
Malabsorption syndrome

What portion of the small bowel is most often affected by crohns
Terminal ileum

What is the 3rd leading cause of death in the us?
Colon cancer

Varicose veins of the rectum?
Hemorrhoids

2 types of gallstones?
Cholesterol and pigment

5 f’s for gallstones?
female
fat
forty
fair skinned
family history

rare condition that occurs when ischemia and cystic duct obstruction allows for growth of gas forming organisms in the gall bladder
emphysematous cholecystitis

what causes cirrhosis?
Drinking, drugs, fatty liver, biliary cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, excessive iron pigment

What is ascites?
Fluid accumulation in the abdomen

What is the most common symptom of cirrhosis?
Ascites

Most common cause of acute pancreatitis?
Alcohol

This carcinoma is the primary liver cell cancer, it is most common in those with cirrhosis
Hepatocellular carcinoma

This cancer has a poor outcome, with modality of choice ultrasound and ct scan
Pancreatic

Free air in the peritoneal cavity
Pneumoperitoneum

Where is the most common site of pancreatic cancer
Head of the pancreas

Can a KUB show splenomagaly?
Yes

fluid maint calc Calculate Fluid Maintenance: (0-10 kg= 4cc/kg/h)+( 11-20kg=2cc/kg/hr)+(>20kg=1cc/kg/hr) [Lecture] diverticula Sigmoid colon of people of Western Europe and United States with lower-fiber diet 1. True diverticula: through all layers of wall; uncommon, in cecum and ascending colon 2. …

Ulcers that do not heal with unna boot in CVI results in use of split thickness skin grafts +/- ligation of adjacent perforation veins Pericardial friction rub sounds = (3) ECG changes in acute pericarditis = (4) 1. Scratching between …

Crohn’s disease: risk factors (8) Jewish descent Urban dwelling 15-40 or 50-80y/o Family history Smoking Diet high in refined sugar NSAIDs OCPs Crohn’s: signs and symptoms (8) Diarrhea, weight loss, fever, crampy abdominal pain, GI bleeding (usually occult), perianal disease …

What are the lethal six injuries to of thoracic trauma? 1) Airway obstruction 2) Tension pneumothorax 3) open pneumothorax 4) Massive hemothorax 5) flail chest 6) cardiac tamponade Characteristics of airway obstruction? Laryngeal trauma; foreign body aspiration; stridor; expanding neck …

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