CPR, First Aid, and AED: Basics

Abandonment
A type of negligence that occurs if someone who has begun to provide first aid stops, and the injury or illness becomes worse.

Automated External Defibrillator
A device used to shock and fibrillating heart to return it to a regular rhythm.

Airborne transmission
A process where a pathogen existing in an infected person is transmitted into a different person through the air, usually via small fluid droplets the infected person sneezes or coughs out.

Abrasion
A wound in which the top layer of skin is scraped off.

Anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis)
Shock resulting from an extreme allergic reaction typically to an insect sting, a particular food, medication or some other substance.

Arteries
The blood vessel that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to body tissues.

Avulsion
An open wound in which an area of skin or other soft tissue is torn partially from the body.

Bandage
A piece of a material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to the body; it can also be used to restrict a part of the body.

Barrier device
Device such as a protective mask or face shield used to provide a barrier between a victim and first aider when giving rescue breathing to reduce risk of disease transmission.

Bloodborne transmission
A process by which a pathogen existing in an infected person’s blood or other bodily fluid is transmitted into a different person through contact with that body fluid.

Basic Life Support
First aid given to a victim with a life threatening problem of the airway or circulation; refers to rescue breathing, CPR and use of AED

Cardiac arrest
The condition in which the heart stops beating effectively.

Competent
The victim is able to understand what is happening and the implications of their decision to receive or refuse first aid.

Confidentiality
the general principle that one should not give out private information about a victim to anyone except for those caring for the victim.

Closed Wound
The skin is intact and the underlying tissue is not directly exposed to the outside world.

Capillaries
Tiny blood vessel between the arteries and veins where oxygen and nutrients in the blood pass into tissues and carbon dioxide passes into the blood

Clotting
The process in which fibrin and platelets clump together without other blood cells to seal a leak in a blood vessel.

Dermis
The middle layer of skin, damaged in second and third degree burns.

Dressing
A sterile pad or compress applied to a wound to promote healing and/or prevent further harm.

Duty to Act
Legal obligation to provide first aid as trained – obligated by one’s job requirements or role as child’s parent or guardian.

Epipen
A commercial emergency epinephrine auto-injector used for anaphylactic reactions

Epinephrine
Emergency medication to temporarily control anaphylactic shock.

Epidermis
The outer layer of skin damaged in first degree burns.

Electrodes
The pads of an automated external defibrillator (AED) which attach to the main unit with cables and deliver the shock to a victim’s chest when indicated.

Expressed Consent
consent explicitly given by the victim

First Aid
The immediate help given to a victim of injury/illness until medical help arrives

Fibrillation
An abnormal heart rhythm, common after a heart attack, in which muscles of the heart are quivering instead of beating rhythmically.

Good Samaritan laws
State laws designed to protect people from law suits – who give first aid in emergencies

Head tilt-chin lift
After beginning CPR with 30 chest compressions open the victims airway to give 2 rescue breaths – to do this tilt the had back and lift the chin – this moves the tongue away from the opening into the throat to allow air to pass through the airway.

Implied Consent
consent for an unresponsive victim or child without parent or guardian.

Infection
An invasion of the body by a pathogen that may potentially cause disease.

Initial Assessment
Quick first check of the victim for life threatening problems, involving a check for responsiveness and breathing.

Laceration
A cut in the skin that may penetrate and also damage underlying tissue.

Negligence
A breach of duty, when one has a duty to act that results in injury or damage to a victim.

Open Wound
An injury in which the skin is torn or cut open, often leading to bleeding.

Palmer surface method
The palm of the hand of the victim is equal to 1% of the total body surface area

Personal protective equipment (PPE)
Any equipment used to protect against contact with blood or other bodily fluids, including gloves, barrier and other dev

Pacemaker
A small electronic device implanted under the skin in some patients with heart disease that helps the heart maintain a regular rhythm.

Platelets
structures in blood that assist in clotting at the site of an injured blood vessel to prevent bleeding.

Platelet Plug
Platelets sticking together at the site of an injury in a blood vessel which may reduce or stop minor bleeding.

Puncture
A hole into the skin caused by a sharp penetrating object that may also damage deep tissues.

Pathogens
A micro-organism, such as bacteria and viruses that can cause infectious disease.

Rescue breaths
A BLS technique to get needed oxygen into the lungs of a non-breathing victim.

Recovery Position
position used for breathing unresponsive victims which waiting for help to arrive, the victim is positioned on the side to keep airway open and allow fluids to drain from the mouth; also call the HAINES recovery position (High Arm In Endangered Spine).

Respiratory arrest
The condition in which breathing has completely stopped

Respiratory distress
The condition in which the victim’s breathing is ineffective or difficult

Resuscitation
The alternate term for basic life support skills for a victim in cardiac or respiratory arrest.

Risk Factor
anything that makes it more likely that a person will develop a particular disease.

Rule of Nines
A method of calculating the percentage of body surface area of a burn.

Sign
What you observe

Shock
A life threatening condition that occurs when vital body organs are not receiving enough oxygenated blood; usually resulting from bleeding.

Secondary Assessment
An assessment performed after determining the victim does not have life threatening problems, including obtaining a history and a physical examination.

Scope of Care
Actions one is qualified to perform (such as first aid techniques one learns in first aid course).

Symptom
What the victim is feeling

Standard of Care
refers generally to how first aid should be performed, what others with the same training would do.

Standard Precautions
infectious disease prevention behaviors combing the major features of Universal Precautions.

Sternum
The breastbone

Universal Precautions
set of preventative behaviors used with all victims all the time, always assuming that blood and other bodily fluids may be infected: incudes hand washing using gloves and other PPE and other actions to prevent transmission of bloodborne diseases.

Vascular spasm
A mechanism in which the damaged blood vessel constricts to slow the bleed and allow clotting to occur.

Veins
Blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart from body tissues

Emergencies – How to be prepared
Know what to do
Be ready anytime
Know how to get medical care for the victim

Blood – Common serious blood borne diseases.
AIDS / HIV / Hepatitis B / Hepatitis C

9-1-1 – When you should call…
If the victim has a life threatening condition, unresponsive, condition worsens or becomes life threatening, if moving the victim would do more harm.

9-1-1 – Information to give the dispatcher.
your name
phone number of where you are calling from
your location and location of victim
describe situation and any special circumstances where medical equipment may be needed
explain victims condition (responsiveness) gender/approximate age of victim
what is currently being done.

Transmission of Diseases

Transmission of a pathogen from one person to another can happen – Directly (contact w/the infected person) or Indirectly (contact with contaminated objects, food, drink, droplets in the air, or vectors such as insects).

Bloodborne transmission may happen from contact with an infected persons blood, other bodily fluid or through infectious material allowing the infectious material to enter the body thru mucous membranes or non-intact skin.

Airborne transmission happens when the person may inhale tiny droplets from the air. (indirect)

Vector transmission happens when the person is bitten by an insect (tick or mosquito) carrying the pathogen. (indirect)

Transmission of Diseases – Standard precautions for PREVENTION.
– use personal protective equipment
– use plastic bags for hands if no medical gloves are available
– if possible have victim dress own wounds
– use a barrier device – gloves or dry cloth- to avoid contact with bodily fluids
– Do not touch your eyes, nose or mouth – do not eat drink or smoke while doing first aid
– Be careful to avoid being cut at the scene

Emergencies – Actions to take when you recognize an emergency.
1. check the scene
2. check the victim
3. call 911
4. give first aid (once you’ve checked the victim and know their condition)
5. have victim seek medical attention when appropriate.

EMERGENCY scenes – 8 types of dangerous emergency scenes you should not enter.
Fire / Downed wires / Unsafe buildings or structures / Deep water or Ice / Risk of explosion /Spilled gasoline or chemicals, fumes / Roadside danger or high speed traffic / Wreckage

Responsiveness – Checking for…
– is person speaking coughing crying or moving?
– movement and signal responses
– normal breathing – Ask if OK?
– AVPU Scale – Alert, Verbal Stimuli, Pain Stimuli, Unresponsive to all stimuli

Emergency – Signs of stress that may occur after
Irritability when interacting with others
difficulty sleeping
problems concentrating
general anxiety
depression
physical symptoms

AIRWAY – Steps to check for open airway and breathing.
– check the chest
– tap the person on the shoulder and shout Are You Ok?
– put victim in recovery position (to open airway) after checking to make sure there are no other injuries

RECOVERY Position – Benefits for an unresponsive victim.
When a victim is put on their side and it keeps the airway open, allows fluids to drain from the mouth so the victim does not choke on blood, vomit or other fluids and prevents the victim from inhaling stomach contents if they vomit.

Assessment – SAMPLE – what it stands for – questions you should ask.
S – Signs & Symptoms (what you observe and how does the victim feel)
A – Allergies (ask about allergies to foods, medicines, insect bites or other substances – look for medical ID bracelet)
M – Medications (Ask about prescribed or over the counter medications (incl. vitamins & herbal remedies))
P – Previous Problems (Ask has this happened before or other illness – look for medical id bracelet))
L – Last time they had food or drink
E – Events leading up to the situation

RECOVERY POSITION (HAINES Method)

(pg 59 textbook)

How to move a victim into the recovery position (HAINES)
1. Extend victims arm that is farthest away above their head
2. Position other arm above head
3. Bend the victims nearer leg at the knee
4. Put your forearm under victims shoulder with your hand around back of neck for support
5. Carefully roll victim away from you – pushing victims flexed knee and lifting with your forearm while hand stabilizes head and neck. Victims head is now supported on the raised arm
6. While continuing to support head and neck, position the victims hand palm-down w/fingers under the armpit of the raised arm, w/forearm flat on surface at 90 degree to the body.
7. Bend both legs so the victim’s position is stabilized
8. With victim now in position, check the airway and open the mouth to allow drainage

Assessment – How to perform a physical examination of a responsive victim w/o a life threatening problem:
1. Being careful not to move the victim’s head or neck, check the head
2. Check the neck area for medical alert bracelet, deformity or swelling and pain. Do not move neck
3. Check skin appearance, temperature and moisture
4. Check chest. Ask victim to breathe deeply
5. Check abdomen
6. Check pelvis and hips
7. Check upper extremities. Look for medical alert bracelet
8. Check lower extremities

Assessment – What DOTS stand for and when you use it.
D – deformaties
O – open injuries
T – tenderness (pain)
S – swelling
Used during the secondary assessment.

CPR is needed?
If a victims heart has stopped beating normally.

7 cardiovascular risk factors that can be changed.
Smoking, High cholesterol, High blood pressure, Physical, Inactivity, Obesity or Overweight, Uncontrolled diabetes,
Stress

4 cardiovascular risk factors that cannot be changed?
Increased Age / Heredity / Race/ Gender

CPR and AED age requirements for an adult.

The differences result from anatomical and physiological differences in the human body at different ages.

Adult = all except for AED means at or past puberty – For AED only adult means older than 8.

CPR and AED age requirements for a child.

The differences result from anatomical and physiological differences in the human body at different ages.

Child age = for CPR and choking care is 1 year and up to adolescence or puberty – for AED only age 1 to 8

CPR and AED age requirements for an infant.

The differences result from anatomical and physiological differences in the human body at different ages.

Infant age = up to one year

AED – Basic steps of how to use an AED.
a. Position victim away from water and metal. Place unit by the victims shoulder and turn it on.
b. Expose the victim’s chest and quickly dry or shave the pad placement area if necessary.
c. Apply pads to the victim’s chest as shown on pads. If needed, plug the cables into the unit. Use adult pads for victim 8 or older. For an infant or child younger than 8, use the unit with pediatric pads if available, applied as directed by the unit; if pediatric pads are unavailable, use adult pads.
d. Stand clear during rhythm analysis.
e. Follow prompts from the AED unit to do one of three things: 1) press the “shock” button 2) stay clear while the AED automatically delivers a shock or 3) do not shock but immediately give CPR with the pads remaining in place starting with chest compressions.
f. Follow the AED’s prompts to analyze the rhythm again after 5 cycles of CPR (about 2 minutes).
g. Continue steps 5 and 6 until the victim wakes up or more advanced help arrives and takes over.
h. If the victim begins breathing normally but is unresponsive, put the victim in the recovery position (with pads remaining in place) and continue to monitor breathing and pulse.

CPR procedure for an adult.
1. Determine victim is unresponsive and not breathing normally. Have someone call 911 or call yourself if alone, and get an AED.
2. Expose the chest. Put your hand on the lower half of the breastbone in the middle of the chest for chest compressions. Put your second hand on top of the fist and interlock fingers.
3. Give 30 chest compressions hard and fast at least 2 inches deep at a rate of 100 beats per minute. Count aloud for a steady fast rate: “One, Two, Three…” Then give 2 breaths.
4. Open the airway and give 2 rescue breaths, each lasting 1 second, to cause a visible chest rise. (If the fist breath does not go in, reposition victims head and try again; if the second breath does not go in, give choking care.)
5. Continue cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths.
6. Continue CPR until: the victim wakes up, an AED is brought to the scene and ready to use or Personnel with more training arrive and take over.
7. A) If the victim starts breathing normally but is unresponsive, put the victim in recovery position and monitor breathing. B) When an AED arrives, start the AED sequence.

AED – When and why AED should be used.
AED should be used as soon as it is ready when a victim is in cardiac arrest to restore a normal rhythm to the heart.

Choking – To rescue yourself if you are choking and are alone.
Chair thrusts can be done by a person who is alone and choking. Lean over a chair and push abdomen into the chair. You can also try using your own hands and thrusting inward and upward

Choking PREVENTIONS – children.
Teach children to eat slowly
cut up foods into small pieces
feed infants only soft food that doesn’t require chewing
set children in a high chair
teach them to be still when eating
do not give peanuts, grapes, hotdogs to small children.

Choking PREVENTION – adults.
Sufficiently chew food
eat slowly
pay attention while eating
cut food smaller.

Bleeding – The body’s 3 mechanisms to control bleeding
Vascular Spasm, Platelets, Clotting

Bleeding – External bleeding (3 Types) FROM:
INJURED ARTERIES: bleeding is more likely with deep injuries and is generally more serious. The blood is bright red and may spurt from the wound; blood loss can be very rapid and needs to be controlled immediately.
INJURED VEINS: bleeding is generally slower and steady but can still be serious. The blood is darker read and flows steadily rather than spurting and is usually easier to control.
CAPILLARIES: bleeding oozes from shallow cuts or scrapes and often stops soon by itself. The wound still needs attention to prevent infection.

Bleeding control mechanism: Vascular Spasm
With an injured small vessel, the vascular spasm constriction maybe sufficient to stop the bleeding, but with a larger vessel bleeding usually still occurs.

Bleeding control mechanism: Platelets
In the blood platelets stick to each other and to the walls of the injured vessel to form a platelet plug, which may reduce or stop minor bleeding.

Bleeding control mechanism: Clotting
CLOTTING: (coagulation) is the process in which fibrin produced from blood proteins clumps together with platelets and other blood cells in a fibrin web to seal the leak in the vessel.

Bleeding – External bleeding – MINOR.
For MINOR bleeding that stops by itself, clean and dress the wound. Should stop by itself or with light pressure on the dressing, such as pressure provided by an adhesive bandage around a cut finger.

Bleeding – VESSEL DAMAGE – how to control SERIOUS damage.
With SERIOUS VESSEL DAMAGE pressure may have to be maintained for some time before closing is successful. Releasing pressure on the wound to soon would allow the normal blood pressure to break through the dam made of platelets, fibrin and other cells, this is also why you should add more dressings rather than removing the first dressings, removing them would release pressure and remove blood that is clotting.
Direct pressure should not be put on certain wounds, such as skull fractures or objects impaled in the wound because the pressure may cause additional damage. In such cases pressure is applied around the wound or object.

Bleeding – External bleeding – SERIOUS.
For more SERIOUS bleeding, first aid needed immediately to stop bleeding. Pressing directly on the wound with a sterile dressing and your gloved hand (improvise w/any impermeable substance as a barrier to prevent contact if no gloves available) w/sufficient pressure in most cases controls bleeding by squeezing shut the bleeding vessel at the point where its damaged and stops the blood from flowing out. When the blood stops flowing the natural body processes involved in clotting have a chance to function more effectively because platelets and fibrin are not “washed out” of the damaged area by the flow of blood. This is why sometimes pressure is needed only for a short time – the body’s nature processes control the bleeding once they have an opportunity to work.

Shock – Common types/causes of shock.
-Hypovolemic shock: when blood volume drops
-Cardiogenic shock: any condition such as heart attack causes heart function to be reduced to point blood is not circulating sufficiently.
-Neuogenic shock: nervous system problem allows vessels to dilate to point volume is not sufficient to fill blood vessels to pump to vital organs
-Anaphylactic shock: resulting from an extreme allergic reaction (also called anaphylaxis)

BANDAGING – 3 types of injuries you could use a pressure bandage for.
– To maintain pressure in a wound IN AN EXTREMITY
– ANKLE – KNEE – ARM

Bleeding – Internal – signs and symptoms:
Abdomen is tender, swollen, bruised or hard
Blood vomited or coughed up or present in urine or stool (bloody, black or tarry)
Cool, clammy skin; may be pale, bluish or ashen in color
thirst, possible confusion or lightheadedness

Bleeding – Blood loss (SEVERE) – what happens inside the body.
The brain, heart and other organs need oxygen continuously – reduction in blood flow can cause shock.

Anaphylaxis – Allergens (common) associated.
Pollen, certain drugs (penicillins and sulfa), certain foods (peanuts, shellfish, eggs), insect stings and bites (bees or wasps)

SHOCK – First Aid (regular, not anaphylaxis).
a. Check for responsiveness, normal breathing and severe bleeding and care first for life-threatening injuries.
b. Call 911 and be ready to give basic life support if needed.
c. Position a responsive victim with trauma on their back using a blanket or coat as a pad. If there is no evidence of trauma, raise the legs such that the feet are 6-12 inches above the ground. OR Put a breathing, unresponsive victim (if no suspected spinal injury) in the recovery position.
d. Loosen any tight clothing.
e. Be alert for the possibility of vomiting; if vomiting occurs, turn the victim’s head to drain the mouth.
f. Maintain the victim’s normal body temperature. If necessary, maintain the victim’s body heat with a blanket or coat over the victim.
…Stay with the victim and offer reassurance and comfort. Keep bystanders from crowding around the victim.

Anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis) – First Aid
– Call 911
– follow guidelines for the SAMPLE history
-help victim into a position for easiest breathing
– offer reassurance
– be prepared to give basic life support if needed
– if victim becomes unresponsive put them in recovery position
– ask about emergency epipen
– have victim administer epipen or assist them

Wounds – How to Clean.
a. wash your hands and put on gloves if available
b. gently wash shallow wounds and abrasions with large amounts of warm or room temperature water with or without soap to remove dirt.
c. Irrigate a deep wound under large amounts of running water to remove foreign matter.
d. Don not use alcohol, hydrogen peroxide or iodine on the wound.
e. pat the area dry
f. Apply antibiotic ointment only to an abrasion or superficial wound, and only if the victim is not allergic to the antibiotic.
g. cover the wound with a sterile dressing and bandage (or adhesive bandage with nonstick pad)

Wounds – When to seek medical attention for a wound.
– bleeding is not easily controlled
– deep large wound
– significant wounds on face
– signs of infection
– bite from animal or human
– unsure of tetnus vaccine
– wounds that require stitches or you are unsure of

Wounds – Infected wound – signs and symptoms.
Red/swollen/warm/pain/fever/pus/red streak or trails near the wound

Nosebleed – First Aid.
– Have the victim sit and tilt head slightly forward with mouth open. Carefully remove any object you see protruding from the nose, but do not probe inside the nose.
– Have the victim pinch the nostrils together, just below the bridge of the nose, for 10 minutes. Ask victim to breathe through the mouth and not speak, swallow, cough or sniff.
– if victim is gasping or choking on blood in the throat, call 911
– place a cold compress on the bridge of the nose
– After 10 minutes, release the pressure slowly. Pinch the nostrils again for another 10 minutes if bleeding continues.
– Place a cold compress on the bridge of the nose
– Seek medical attention if: bleeding continues after 2 attempts to control it / you suspect the nose is broken / thee is a foreign object in the nose / the victim has high blood pressure. Have the person rest for a few hours and void rubbing or blowing the nose.

EYE First Aid – Dirt in the eye
Do not let victim rub the eye / see if can blink which will wash it out with the victims tears.
– If not – gently pull the upper eyelid out and down over the lower eyelid. This allows the lower lashes to catch a particle caught under the upper eyelid.
– If the particle remains, gently flush the eye with water from a medicine dropper or water glass. Have the victim tilt the head so that the affected eye is lower than the other; this prevents water from flowing into the unaffected eye. Flush from the corner nearer the nose. Ask the victim to hold the eyelids open with their fingers, if needed, and to look in all directions and blink during the flushing.
– if the particle remains and is visible, carefully try to brush it out gently with a wet, sterile dressing. Lift the upper eyelid and swab its underside if you see the particle.
– If the particle remains or the victim has any vision problems or pain, cover the eye with a sterile dressing and seek medical attention. Also cover the uninjured eye to prevent movement of the injured one.

BURNS – Second-degree
Partial thickness burns – damage to the DERMIS (middle layer of skin) which contains nerves or blood vessels or the deep layer of subcutaneous tissue through which larger blood vessels and nerves pass. These burns leave a high risk of infection, cause fluid loss, and shock. The skin is red, may look mottled and is very painful

Smoke inhalation – First Aid
Get victim to fresh air or fresh air to the victim. A victim who can be safely moved should be assisted outdoors or to an area of fresh air. If they cannot be moved outdoors get them to an area of fresh air or if they cannot be moved ventilate the area as much as possible.
Call 911 immediately even if the victim is not experiencing signs and symptoms because signs may not be showing yet.
Position the victim for easiest breathing while waiting for 911.
Keep victim calm – If they become unresponsive place them in the recovery position.

BURNS – First-degree
Superficial (minor) burns – like a sunburn may damage only the EPIDEMIS skins outer layer.

BURNS – Third-degree
Full thickness burns – penetrates all the way through the skin w/damage all the way through the subcutaneous layer and may burn muscle or other fat tissue beneath as well as organs. The skin is charred or blackened or may look white and leathery. These burns are medical emergencies. There can also be respiratory issues from inhaled smoke.

BURNS – First degree – First Aid
The first goal as with all burns is to stop the burning by removing the heat source and cooling the area with cold running water. DO NOT use ICE. Make sure the water stays cold. Remove any jewelry or restrictive clothing. Protect the area from contact with objects that may rub or press on the area. Do not put ointment or other oily or greasy substances on the burn. Although aloe vera gel may provide some comfort.

BURNS – Third degree – First Aid
It is important to act immediately to stop the burning and cool the area. A very large area (Over 20% surface should not be immersed in water as the risk of hypothermia) Stop burning immediately and protect the burn covering it with a loose dry nonstick dressing. Do not apply any ointments or greasy substances.

BURNS – Second degree – First Aid
A small 2nd degree burn may be treated at home. However any bigger than your palm should be seen for medical attention immediately. If larger than 10$ of an area call 911. Stop the burning immediately under cold running water. Remove any jewelry or restrictive clothing. Keep the area covered with a loose, dry nonstick dressing.

HEART – description of the electrical system
the heart pumps blood to the lungs to pic up oxygen and then pumps oxygenated blood t all parts of the body. The heart has 4 chambers – left atrium, right atrium, left and right ventricles. The ventricles (lower chambers of the heart) do most of the pumping. The hearts electrical system keeps the 4 chambers of the heart synchronized and working together. The sinoatrial and atrioventricular (AV) nodes help organize and control the rhythmic electrical impulses that keep the heart beating properly.

BURNS – factors should you consider when assessing a burn – deciding to call 911 or seek medical care.
Size of the burned area:
First Degree: over more than 50% of the body
Second Degree: over more than 10% of the body in an adult (5% in a child or older adult)
Third Degree: Larger than a 50 cent piece.
Location of the burn:
Second or Third Degree: require immediate medical care on the face, genitals, hands or feet

BURNS – Chemical burns – First Aid
Remove the substance from the skin immediately.
Check material data sheets for the care of a burn caused by the specific chemical.
Dry Chemical: brush it off with a gloved hand cloth, piece of cardboard or paper, spare article of clothing or wear gloves if possible.
Flush the area with water as soon as possible.
Remove any clothing or jewelry from the burned area.
Liquid: start flushing with water immediately. For any chemical move the victim to fresh air.

BASIC LIFE SUPPORT – Components

(pg 102 textbook)

1. Check for responsiveness and normal breathing
2. If unresponsive, have someone call for help
3. If unresponsive and not breathing normally, give CPR, starting with chest compressions.
3a. Chest compressions – at a rate of at least 100 per minute.
3b. Ratio of compressions to breaths – cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths.
4. Give 2 breaths
4a. If breaths do not go in, reposition head and try again.
4b. If breaths still do not go in, continue with chest compressions. Check mouth for an object each time breaths are given – remove if seen.
5. Use AED as soon as available. (child use pediatric when available)
6. If victim recovers normal breathing, put in recovery position. (Infant: hold and monitor / Child & Adult: lay on side in HAINES Recovery Position and monitor breathing)

Cardiac Chain of Survival

(pg 81 & 82 textbook)

1. Call 911
2. Early CPR
3. Rapid Defibrillation
4. Effective Advanced Life Support
5. Integrated Post Cardiac Arrest Care

Basic Life Support – Victims responsiveness scale (AVPU)
(AVPU)
A = ALERT
V = Verbal Stimuli (not clearly oriented to time and place but responds when spoken to)
P = Responds to PAINFUL stimuli (does not respond when spoken to but moves or responds to paid as when pinched
between the neck and shoulder
U = Unresponsive to all stimuli – victims eyes are closed w/no movement or other response

Assessment – Steps to assess a victim
— Initial Assessment`
— Secondary Assessment“
— Monitor for Changes

**(must follow specific order as noted in the information)**

Assessment – Initial `

***Do not move victim to perform INITIAL assessment (EXCEPT): 1) Patient faces immediate danger if not moved: Fire, explosives or danger present or likely / patient cannot be protected from other hazards / Not able to gain access to other patients / Cannot make scene safe

Initial: check for immediate life threatening conditions, responsiveness, normal breathing and severe bleeding***
If a life threatening condition is found during initial assessment DO NOT PROCEED to the Secondary —
Instead – care for the life threatening problem

Assessment – Secondary “

Then… Monitor victim for changes

Secondary: get the victims history (find out what happened and what may have contributed to the emergency) / perform a physical examination of the responsive victim – injuries – signs of sudden illness / if victim is unresponsive ask folks around the scene – consider age etc

FIRST AID – Obligation – You are obligated to give first aid when:
– a person who is alone needs help
– victim is seriously injured
– you already have begun voluntarily giving first aid

FIRST AID – Negligence –
as a result of your actions…these conditions MUST be met to be accused of Negligenc:
a. You had a duty to act
b. You breached that duty (by NOT acting – or acting incorrectly)
c. Your actions or inactions caused injury of damages

FIRST AID – What First Aiders Need to Understand
– Legal issues relate to first aid
– Do not move victim unnecessarily
– Act only as you were trained
– Call for professional help
– Get victims consent before giving first aid
– Keep giving care until help arrives

FIRST AID – 4 Primary Goals
– Keep victim alive until they receive medical care
– Prevent condition from getting worse
– Help promote early recovery from the injury or illness
– Ensure victim receives appropriate medical care
– Reassuring the victim and providing comfort until medical care is provided

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