PADI Rescue Diver steps and processes

Describe the steps for primary first aid for suspected decompression illness
Do a primary assessment, encourage the diver to relax, ask the questions on the PADI accident work slate, give emergency oxygen and be ready to switch to CPR, protect patient for temperature extremes, and arrange for medical evacuation.

What is the primary first aid for a serious near drowning accident?
Rescue breathing, deliver emergency oxygen and CPR if needed, and seek medical care.

Imagine you are rescuing an unresponsive diver at the surface. You find the diver is not breathing. What would you do if you were more than an estimated 5-minutes swim to safety?
Establish buoyancy for you and the diver (fill BC/drop weights), ask someone to call for help if within earshot, remove mask and regulator of the victim, look listen and feel for 10-seconds, start with 2 rescue breaths and administer rescue breathing (1 breath every 5 seconds) for 1-2 minutes. If the diver is responsive continue rescue breathing and tow to safety while starting equipment removal between breaths. If the diver is unresponsive, immediately discontinue rescue breathing and tow to shore as quickly as possible. Get the diver out of water, do a primary assement and if needed start CPR with AED if available.

Imagine you are rescuing an unresponsive diver at the surface. You find the diver is not breathing. What would you do if you were less than an estimated 5-minutes swim to safety?
Establish buoyancy for you and the diver (fill BC/drop weights), ask someone to call for help if within earshot, remove mask and regulator of the victim, look listen and feel for 10-seconds, start with 2 rescue breaths and administer rescue breathing (1 breath every 5 seconds) for 1-2 minutes. Continue rescue breathing and tow to safety while starting equipment removal between breaths.

Describe what to do when bringing an unresponsive diver to the surface from underwater.
Tap the diver to see if ok, if no response – quickly note the state the diver is found in, if the regulator is in – slip hand under armpit of diver and hold the regulator in with that hand, put a little air in BC to establish buoyancy for the diver, use own BC to acend and release air from victim’s if needed to control ascend.

Describe how you would give rescue breaths with a pocket mask
Establish buoyancy for diver/yourself, call for help, remove their mask and your mask, look listen and feel for 10 seconds, place mask over the nose/mouth (pointy side up), place the thumbs on mask and fingers on jaw, give two breaths and secue strap, continue 1 breath every 5 seconds and determine distance to safety for the steps.

Explain how to make contact with a panicked diver at the surface.
Approach but stop short of the diver, ask the diver and splash a little to get attention, evaluate to see if the diver is panicked and be ready to pull away if necessary, ask the diver to inflate their bcd or drop weights, make contact with the diver and establish buoyancy them and yourself, reassure the diver by speaking directly to them and keeping eye contact, explain to them what you are doing, assist and transport the diver to safety using a tow that maintains eye contact when possible, help them remove equipment and exiting the water if necessary.

How do you help a diver with overexertion underwater?
Signal to the diver to stop and rest, signal to take deep slow breaths, confirm diver is ok before proceeding, keep an eye on the diver to make sure they avoid overexertion again.

How do you help a diver with an uncontolled decent?
Signal to the diver to add air to their BCD, add air to the BCD for them, signal for the diver to drop their weights or drop the weights for them.

How do you help a diver with excessive buoyancy?
If at a safe distance from surface – take the diver to the surface for more weight, if close use the quick dump valve, the the bcd air to bcd is uncontrolled/stuck disconnect the inflator hose.

How do you help a diver with cramps underwater?
Signal and point to diver to ask them where the cramp is, help to stretch and massage the muscle, start back up at a slower pace, and prepare for a diver tow.

How do you help a diver with entanglement underwater?
Signal the diver to stop, sometimes a little air to bc helps with buoyancy, diver can back up a little to untangle themselves, assist with detanglement yourself and use a knife if necessary.

How do you help a diver with entrapment underwater?
Before assisting ensure that you have an ample air supply, if not – surface and get air, you can mark the diver with a reel and safety sausage for locating more easily when coming back, if it is an overhead environment and you are not trained seek help from someone who is.

How do you help a diver with passive panic underwater?
Get attention of diver, ask the diver if they are ok, if no response hold the diver’s regulator in place and acend at a normal rate. Be prepared to deal with a switch to panic.

How do you help a panicked diver underwater?
Try to get attention of diver and ask if ok. Be sure to prevent a rapid breath held acent. Keep the mouthpiece in place if possible or free flow mouthpiece if necessary to provide some sort of air while acending. Flare limbs to help slow ascent.

List the steps you should take should you discover a missing diver.
Establish a land manager and ask them to go grab your emergency action plan for instructions (they can take over), ask someone to look for their gear/car to make sure they have not left, ask someone to call for emgency medical care and advise a script is on the emergency action plan, ask lots of questions of buddy/others of where the diver was last seen underwater or what their dive plan was, ask 1-2 people to look for bubbles , determine if there are other qualified divers and ask them to gear up to search, establish a way to recall searchers, search for 30 mins, until the diver is found, or you have reached your maximum dive limits. If the diver is not found in 30 mins – seek professional recovery/rescue help.

What are the AB-CABS?
It is the cycle of care: Airway Open? Breathing Normally? Chest compressions, Airway open, Breathing for Patient, Serious Bleed/Shock.

What is the process for adult CPR
Give responder statement, if unresponsive – Check airway and normal breathing, if not breathing normlly – ask someone to call EMS and bring an AED if available, position patient on back, locate chest compression site and deliver 30 compressions, open airway and deliver two rescue breaths, continue until EMS arrive you can defibrilate or the patient becomes responsive. Ask someone to help if you get tired.

How do you assist a tired diver at surface if can’t swim?
Get attention of diver and ask if ok, tell diver to inflate BC or drop weights, if needs assistance in water – ask someone to spot the diver while you put on mask/fins, enter the water with your eyes on the diver, approach the diver cautiously in case of panic and assist diver to shore.

What is the primary first aid for a serious near drowning accident?
Deliver immediate rescue breathing and CPR if the patient has no heartbeat. Be on alert for vomiting and be prepared to turn patient to keep airway clear. Give breathing patient emergency oxygen and treat for shock. Contact local EMS or get patient to the nearest hospital as soon as possible.

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