NBDE Part 1 – Anatomy

_____ forms the floor of middle cranial fossa
Petrous temporal bone

Petrous temporal bone seperates which cranial fossas?
Middle and Posterior

Middle meningeal A. is located in which cranial fossa?

Middle meningeal A. exits the skull through which foramen?
Foramen Spinosum

Which nasal bone is its own bone?
Inferior nasal concha

Greater wing of Sphenoid is in which cranial fossa?

What are the 3 foramen located in the greater wing of Sphenoid?
Foramen Rotundum, Ovale, Spinosum

Which artery is the major blood supply to the orbit and eye?
Ophthalmic A.

Ophthalmic A. is a branch of which artery?
Internal Carotid A.

Ophthalmic A. enters the orbit with _____ Nerve, through the _____ canal.
Optic N, Optic canal

The Schniderian Membrane lines which sinus?

Olfactory N. (CN I) projects to the ____ ____ cortex.
primary olfactory

Where is Kiesselbach’s Plexus located?
on the anterior portion of nasal septum

What is the Kiesselbach’s Plexus?
the anastamosis of 5 arteries:
– Sphenopalatine
– Greater palatine of maxillary A.
– Superior labial of facial A.
– Anterior ethmoid A. of internal carotid A.
– Lateral nasal branches of facial A.

A surgical approach to the pituitary gland is through which sinus?

The middle meatus contains openings for which sinuses?
Frontal sinus, anterior and middle ethmoid sinus, maxillary sinus

Cartilage of the external nose is composed of what type of cartilage?

Mandibular canal traverses the mandibular body and opens anteriorly at the ____ foramen.

The lingula is a tongue shaped projection located above the ____ foramen.

What attaches to the lingula?
Sphenomandibular ligament

What is meningitis?
Inflammation of the meninges

An epidural hematoma involves which artery?
Middle meningeal A.

A subarachnoid hematoma involves which vein?
a bridging V.

A subarachnoid hemorrahage is due to?
a ruptured aneurysm – EX: anterior communicating A.

When performing a lumbar punture, what are the structures that get pierced from the outside in?
Skin – subcutaneous tissue – supraspinous ligament – interspinous ligament – ligamentum flavum – epidural space – subdural space – subarachnoid space

Drainage of the head and brain is via which vein?
Internal jugular V.

The superior petrosal sinus connects which two sinuses?
Cavernous sinus and sigmoid sinus

Internal jugular V. is formed by which 2 sinuses?
Inferior petrosal sinus and sigmoid sinus

Which nerve is most likely affected from a laterally expanding pituitary tumor? Why?
Abducens N., because it is medially located within the cavernous sinus

Abducens N. innervates?
lateral rectus

The anterior facial V. is connected to the pterygoid plexus via which vein?
Deep facial V.

Choroid plexus and ventricular system function to regulate?
Intracranial pressure

_____ cells can produce CSF

Hydrocephalus is due to?
build up of CSF

Noncommunicating hydrocephalus is due to an obstruction in?
the ventricular system

Communicating hydrocephalus is due to an obstruction in?
the subarachnoid space

The blood-brain barrier is absent in what 4 areas?
hypothalamus, pineal gland, area of 4th ventricle and areas near 3rd ventricle

What are the 3 components that make up the blood-brain barrier?
Blood-CSF barrier, Vascular-endothelial barrier, Arachnoid barrier

Vertebral arteries are branches of what artery?
Subclavian A.

Does the internal carotid artery have branches in the neck?

Ophthalmic A. is a branch of the internal carotid A. and gives off the ____ ____ ____ – which supplies the nasal cavity.
Anterior ethmoidal branch

____ ____ artery is the largest branch of the internal carotid artery. Is it a part of the circle of willis?
Middle cerebral, no

_____ arteries are branches of the middle cerebral A. and often involved in strokes. Why?
Leticulostriate, b/c they are thin walled and can easily rupture

Where is the tongue derived from?
the first 4 pharyngeal arches

The tongue is innervated by the associated nerves of those arches. What are the nerves associated with Arches 1-4?
Arch 1 – CN V – Trigeminal
Arch 2 – CN VII – Facial
Arch 3 – CN IX – Glossopharyngeal
Arch 4 – CN X – Vagus

All tastebuds are vascular, except?

All tongue muscles are innervated by CN XII (hypoglossal), except?

What muscles attach to the genial tubercles?
Genioglossus and Geniohyoid

The tongue’s arterial supply is via?
Lingual A.

Veins of the tongue drain into?
Internal jugular V.

Lingual artery lies (medial/lateral) to the hyoglossus?

Lingual nerve and vein lie (medial/lateral) to the hyoglossus?

Submandibular duct lies (medial/lateral) to the hyoglossu?

Hypoglossal N. lies (medial/lateral) to the hyoglossus?

Are the palatal salivary glands mostly mucous or serous?
mostly mucous

The soft palate attaches to the tongue by the ____ ____ and to the pharynx by the ____ ____
Glossopalatine (palatoglossal) arches, palatopharyngeal arches

Most muscles of the soft palate attach to?
the palatal aponeurosis

What are the 2 muscles that prevent food from entering into nasopharynx?
Tensor veli palatine, Levator veli palatine

What are the nerves that make up the Pharyngeal Plexus?
CN IX – Glossopharyngeal
CN X – Vagus
CN XI – Accessory

What is the function of the Pharyngeal Plexus?
to provide innervation to pharyngeal constrictors – palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus, circopharyngeus

_____ muscle is the only muscle of the pharynx supplied by CN IX (glossopharyngeal)

Where can food get stuck while swallowing?
Vallecula/pyriform recess

What is the pathway of tears, beginning at the lacrimal gland?
Lacrimal puncta – lacrimal canals (superior/inferior) – lacrimal sac – nasolacrimal duct – inferior meatus, which is located beneath the inferior nasal concha

Postganglionic nerves from the ___ ganglion exit via the ___ ___ ___ and join the ___ nerves to supply the lacrimal gland.
Pterygopalatine, inferior orbital fissure, lacrimal (of V-1)

Lingual A. and Facial A. are both branches of?
external carotid artery

Describe the lymphatic drainage of the 3 major salivary glands.
Parotid Gland: parotid nodes – superior deep cervical lymph nodes
Submandibular/Sublingual Gland: submandibular and deep cervical nodes

Which salivary gland emits the highest volume of salivary fluid per day?
Submandibular gland

Which salivary gland produces the 2nd highest volume of salivary fluid per day?
Parotid gland

What are the 2 glands to secrete serous only saliva?
Parotid and von Ebner glands

Left lateral pterygoid muscle moves the mandible to the (right/left).

Injury to the left lateral pterygoid muscles causes the jaw to deviate to the (left/right).
Left – the injured side

A subcondylar fracture will cause the mandible do deviate to the (injured/non-injured) side.

What are the muscles of mastication? Innervation?
Masseter, temporalis, medial/lateral pterygoids, CN V: V-3

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Psychologists ____ agree on a definition of intelligence. do not To regard an abstract concept as a concrete entity is to commit the error known as ____. By doing this, we are viewing intelligence as something a person has, rather …

A 45-year-old woman is being examined as a candidate for cosmetic breast surgery. The surgeon notes that both of her breasts sag considerably. Which structure has most likely become stretched to result in this condition? Suspensory (Coopers) ligaments The suspensory …

Which of the following examinations is a major component of routine monitoring of chronic, open angle glaucoma? A Pupillary response B Corneal reflex testing C Visual field testing D Accommodation E Visual acuity Visual Field Testing Tonometry, gonioscopy, monitoring of …

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