Situational Analysis – What is it?
Provides overview of emergency so first aider can make best decisions to assist casualty and ensure no further harm to anyone – should only take a few minutes!

Situational Analysis – What do you do?
Analyse situation – observe what has happened, whats the best I can do with the skills I have?
Plan how to deal with situation – prioritise intended actions, dealing with most important issues first, use bystanders to seek medical assistance, minimise danger to yourself/others, clear airways, control bleeding etc.

Situational Analysis – Things to consider
– What has occured?
– Is anyone’s life in immediate danger?
– How can situation be made safer?
– How many people can assist?
– What first aid equipment is available?
– How many people are injured/ill?

Priority Assessment- Triage and Reverse Triage
Process of prioritising patients based on severity of condition, priority to unconscious (reverse in water situations)

Procedures May Include
– Requesting mobile phone from bystanders
– Contact emergency serves
– Directing people to go for help
– Instructing people on 2 person CPR
– Requesting assistance with bandaging, control of bleeding etc
– Observing people who are/maybe in shock

4 B’ s

Send for Help

– Check for dangers to yourself, bystanders or patient
– No further steps should be taken until danger is removed
– Employing mask/barrier device during breathing to reduce infection

– Determine victim’s level of consciousness
– To assist in assessment: COWS
– IF RESPONSE: place in recovery position and seek medical treatment

– Call 000
– Or ask bystander to make a call

– If no response, airway could be blocked
– Simply opening airway could be sufficient
– Can be checked by tilting head back, pistol grip to extend neckline
– Performed with patient lying on back, except drowning – recovery position
– Any foreign material may be cleared by inserting fingers carefully in mouth
– When airway is cleared, rescuer can look for any signs of life

– Check for breathing (5-10 seconds)
– Look, listen and feel
– IF BREATHING: place in recovery position, monitor situation and seek medical assistance
– IF NOT BREATHING: begin CPR immediately

– Provide two rescue breaths
– If sufficient place patient in recovery position until responders arrive
– If not sufficient begin compressions
– CPR cycle: 30-2, 100/minute
– Adults, 1/3, hands, breath
– Children, hands, smaller breath
– Head tilt increases with age
– Two rescuers should alternate every two minutes
– Continue till sign of life/help arrives
– Continuation is impossible because of exhaustion

– Use greatly enhances patients chance of survival, particularly after heart attack
– Apply defib if available and follow voice prompts

STOP regime
For assessment, treatment and management of non-life threatening injuries

– Stop game/match/activity
– Stop injured person from participating/moving

– Ask injured person what happened
– How did it happen?
– What did they feel?
– Where does it hurt?
– Does it hurt anywhere else?
– Have you injured this part before?

When talking to athlete:
– Observe if in unusual position or distressed
– Are they lying in unusual position/posture?
– Compare to opposite side/limb
– Swelling?
– Deformity?
– Tenderness when touched?
– Does it hurt to move?

SEVERE (head, facial, spinal…)
– Get professional help, don’t move athlete
– Keep onlookers away
– Comfort athlete till help arrives
LESS SEVERE (sprains, strains, muscle bruises)
– RICER regime
MINOR INJURIES (bumps and bruises)
– Words of encouragement
– Monitor any injuries


Crisis Management – CPR
When danger has removed, in recovery position and airways checked for obstruction, still a chance breathing will not commence.

Bleeding – What?
– Loss of blood from any of vessels?
– Observing wound can determine vessel damaged, i.e. arteries spurt, vein is dark and not forceful, capillary oozes

Bleeding – Management
– Apply direct pressure by holding pad/dressing firmly to site
– Lay casualty down and elevate injury
– Rest injured area
– Do not give anything via mouth (aspirin), can thin blood and increase bleeding
– Seek medical advice

(Used in bleeding situations)
– Pressure
– Elevation
– Rest

Shock – What?
– Condition where body restricts blood supply to extremities to ensure oxygen supply to vital organs
– Life threatening
– Causes include loss of fluid, loss of blood, accidents

Shock – Signs and Symptoms
– Paleness and cold
– Clammy skin
– Weak, rapid pulse
– Rapid, shallow breathing
– Nausea

Shock – Management
– Reassure patient
– Seek medical advice
– If no evidence of fractures, raise legs above level of their heart
– Dress any wounds or burns
– Loosen any restrictive clothing
– Rest, reassure, ring, rug up

Neck and Spinal Injury – Signs and Symptoms
– Pain at or below site of injury
– Loss of movement
– Lack of movement below site
– Tingling in hands or feet

Neck and Spinal Injury – Management
– Reassure them and loosen any tight clothing
– Do not move them
– Support head and apply a cervical collar if available
– Seek medical attention and monitor casualty closely

– Treat them if they have a spinal and employ DRSABCD
– Apply brace to neck if possible, minimise any neck movement

Moving Casualty
– Casualty should not be moved unless absolutely essential
– Preferred method is by ambulance
– Unnecessary movement may further complicate injury and hinder rehabilitation

– Work with patient and tell them what is intended, seek their help during movement
– Ensure fractures are immobilsed and other injuries properly treated
– If lifting is needed, use leg muscles and keep back straight
– Hold patient firmly and communicate with them to be aware of any problems
– Minimise movement of neck and spinal cord

Medical Referral – Patient needs to be sent to hospital if…
– CPR was required
– Patient was unconscious at any stage
– Conditions such as heart attack or spinal were suspected

Care of Unconscious Casualty Includes…
– Rolling them to recovery position when breathing returns
– Supporting neck to ensure it remains extended, allows passageway of air to lungs
– If outdoors, protect from weather
– Keeping them warm
– Not giving them food or drink, particularly if surgery is required

Cuts and Lacerations – Types
– Abrasions: scraped skin caused by fall on hard surface
– Open Wound: incisions or lacerations
– Penetrating Wounds: deep wound from an object (e.g bullet)

Cuts and Lacerations – Signs and Symptoms
– Bleeding
– Pain
– Swelling
– Exposure of tissue and muscles
– Loss of sensation due to possible nerve damage
– Shock

Cuts and Lacerations -Management
– Control bleeding
– Apply direct pressure by holding pad or dressing firmly to site
– Lay casualty down and elevate injury
– Rest injured area
– Clean wound
– Do not give anything via mouth (i.e. aspirin) as it thins blood and increases bleeding
– Seek medical advice
– Cover with sterile and non-adhesive dressing
– Reassure patient and monitor for shock

Fractures – Types
COMPLETE – bone is broken into 2+ parts
INCOMPLETE – bone bends and splinters on one side but does not break right through (greenstick)
COMMINUTED – bone is broken into many pieces/shattered
CLOSED – broken bone does not pierce skin
OPEN – broken bone protrudes skin
COMPLICATED – bone damages major nerve, organ or blood vessel

Fractures – What and Causes
Break to any part of bone
DIRECT FORCE – force directly hits bone
INDIRECT FORCE – using arm to break fall and breaking collar bone

Fractures – Signs and Symptoms
– Pain at/around site
– Patient holding injured limb
– Deformity
– Swelling
– Limited movement/loss of function
– Breaking noise
– Bleeding (open and complicated fractures)
– Protrusion of bone through skin

Fractures – Management
– Control any bleeding
– Encourage patient not to move
– Gently immoblise fracture
– Ensure bandages do not cut off circulation
– Monitor for shock

Dislocations – What
– Extreme force placed on ligament around joint and causes ends of two connected bones to separate
– Extremely painful and can result in damage to surrounding ligaments, tissues, nerves and blood vessels

Dislocations – Signs and Symptoms
– Pain at/around injured area
– Swelling
– Difficulty using or moving joining normally
– Deformation of dislocated area
– Loss of power
– Warm, bruising or redness in area

Dislocations – Management
– Do not attempt to put dislocation back into place
– Rest and support injured part
– Apply ice packs
– Monitor for signs of loss of circulation in limb below joint
– Seek medical attention
– Monitor for shock
– If in doubt, monitor as fracture

Head Injuries and Concussions – What
– Trauma to head
– Superficial head injured may bleed profusely due to scalp being rich with blood vessels but tend not be and dangerous
– Internal head injuries may lead to death or permanent brain damage and require urgent medical attention

Concussion – What
– Temporary loss or altered state of consciousness, usually following a blow to the head
– Should be treated seriously as possibility of internal damage
– Sometimes may appear to recover quickly, should be monitored carefully for some time after

Head Injuries and Concussions – Signs and Symptoms
– Unconsciousness
– Varying levels of consciousness
– Drowsiness, confusion or vagueness
– Slurred speech
– Agitation or irritability
– Wounds to head, face and neck
– Vomiting/nausea
– Bleeding/fluid discharge from ears, nose of mouth
– Difference in size/shape of pupils
– Blurred vision
– Loss of memory
– Abnormal responses to commands or touch
– Unable to coordinate movement of limbs
– Seizures

Head Injuries and Concussions – Management
– Support head and neck
– UNCONSCIOUS – place in recovery position
– CONSCIOUS – place in comfortable decision with head and shoulders slightly raised
– Control bleeding (do not apply pressure if skull fracture is suspected)
– Fluid from ears cover with sterile pad and lie patient on injured side so fluid can drain out
– Reassure patient
– Monitor for signs of life and shock
– Ensure medical assistance is on its way

Eye Injuries – What
– Eyes are a delicate part of body and easily damaged
– Minor irritations: dirt, eyelashes or small foreign objects in eye
– More serious: Penetrating eye injuries and burns
– Cause damage to cornea which may affect site
– Corneal injuries are prone to infection
– Risk of infection when treating eye injuries can be reduced by wearing gloves/using sterile dressings

Eye Injuries – Signs and Symptoms
– Irritation of eye
– Dry, gritty or scratchy feeling of eye
– Pain/redness in eye
– Patient cannot open/close eye
– Watering of the eye
– Twitching/spasms of muscles aroun eye
– Discharge/blood from eye
– Injuries to eyelids or surrounding facial tissue
– Sensitivity to light

Eye Injuries – Management
– Calm and reassure patient
– Support patients head
– Encourage patient to not rub/move eyes
– Flush eye with clean, cool flowing water for 20+ minutes
– Cover eye with sterile pad
– Do not attempt to remove any large or embedded object, pad around eye
– Seek medical attention

Nasal Injuries – What
– Quite common (little structural support and occupies very prominent place on face)
– Most typical is blockage (young children) which causes pain, discomfort or difficulty breathing
– Bleeding/broken noses should be treated as head injury due to nose being close to other structures, search for facial damage

Nasal Injuries – Signs and Symptoms
– Bleeding
– Pain in/around nose
– Swelling
– Bruising
– Instability of nose bones
– Deformity
– Facial lacerations

Nasal Injuries – Management
– Tell patient to breathe through mouth and not to sniff/blow nose
– Sit up with head tilted slightly forward
– Pinch soft part of nose together between fingers and hold for 10 minutes (not with broken nose)
– Apply ice packs to neck and forehead
– Seek medical assistance for broken nose or if bleeding does not stop

Burn Injuries – What
– Common injuries cause by wide array of substances and external forces (e.g. chemicals, water, weather)
– SEVERITY depends on its extent, part of body burnt, burns depth and age of patient)
– Burn larger than 20c piece, generally requires medical attention
– Severe burns can result in shock, infection, breathing difficulties and swelling which can cut circulation

Burn Injuries – Types
– Damage to top layer of skin (e.g sunburn)
– Burn site will be red and painful

– Damage to 1st & 2nd layers of skin + underlying tissue
– Burn site is very painful and will be red, blistered, peeling and swollen
– May be clear/yellow fluid leaking from site

– Damage to 1st & 2nd layers of skin + underlying tissues, muscle, bone and organs
– Burn site is white/charred and may be exposed fatty tissue, muscle or bone
– Nerve endings are generally destroyed, tends to be little or no pain except at surrounding areas

Burns – Management Aims
– Stop burning process
– Cool burn
– Provide relief
– Cover burn to reduce infection

Burns – Management (DO’s)
– Instruct person to stop, cover, drop and roll if flames are present
– Remove person from source of burn
– Immediately cool burn under running water for 20+ minutes
– Remove jewellery or other constructive items from burn area if possible
– Cover burnt area with non-stick dressing or plastic wrap
– Reassure and monitor for shock

Burns – Mangement (DON’T’s)
– Apply lotion or creams
– Butter on burn
– Ice on burn
– Break any blisters
– Remove any stuck clothing
– Give alcohol

Teeth Injuries – What
– Relatively common in children + athletes
– Injuries should be referred to dentist ASAP to save teeth
– Prevented by use of properly fitted mouth guard
– Alert to possible head injuries as a result of blow to mouth

Teeth Injuries – Signs and Symptoms
– Bleeding
– Lacerated mouth
– Broken teeth
– Empty tooth socket/s
– Swelling/bruising around mouth and jaw

Teeth Injuries – Management
– Ensure clear airway is maintained (teeth down throat)
– Treat any bleeding
– Find and save knocked out teeth
– Gently clean any dirt from tooth, using patients own saliva, milk or sterile saline solution
– Replace tooth in socket and ask patient to hold in place if possible
– If not possible, wrap in clean plastic and store in milk or sterile saline solution
– Take tooth and patient immediately to dentist

Electrocution – What
– Life threatening (can cause heart to stop and/or severe burns)
– Safety of first aider is important in electrocutions
– First aider should avoid risk of shock to themselves
– Better to wait for emergency services if safety not guarenteed

Electrocution – Signs and symptoms
– No signs of life
– Burns on skin, commonly on hands and feet
– Power lines, electrical cables or equipment near victim

Electrocution – Management
– Check for danger and ensure any power source is disconnected before approaching casualty
– Remove from electrical supply without directly touching them
– Cool any burns under cool, running water
– Cover burns with non-adhesive sterile dressings
– Monitor for signs of life and shock
– Call for urgent medical attention

Chest Injuries – What and Causes
– Chest contains essential organs of heart, lungs and major blood vessels
– While protected by surrounding bone structures, organs are vulnerable
– Can be from simple to damage that affects breathing and circulation
– CAUSES – blows, falls, crushing, stabbing, shooting

Chest Injuries – Types
– Fractured Ribs
– Flail chest (floating ribs)
– Penetrating chest wounds
– Lung collapse

Chest Injuries – Signs and Symptoms
– Pain (worse when breathing/coughing for fractured ribs)
– Tenderness at injured site
– Difficult/painful breathing
– Rapid, weak pulse
– Shallow, rapid breathing
– Possible unconsciousness
– Blue around lips, nails and earlobes
– Difficulty Speaking

Chest Injuries – Further Signs and Symptoms of …
– Fractured ribs
– Collapsed lung
– Penetrating wound
– Flail chest
– Holding injured area
– Blood-stained and frothy spit

– restricted movement of chest wall

– sound of sucking air when inhaling
– blood stained bubbles around wound

– part of chest does not move w/ normal breathing

Chest Injuries – Management
(focus on seeking medical attention and keeping patient comfortable)
– make patient comfortable by placing in half-sitting position leaning to injured side
– reassure and calm patient
– lie patient in recovery position with injured side down
– monitor signs of life

Chest Injuries – Further Management
– Fractured Ribs
– Penetrating Chest Wound
– Flail Chest
– apply padding gently to injured side
– bandage patients arm to their side
– if comfortable, immobilise patients arm in sling

– cover wound to stop air going in chest with plastic or similar and seal with tape on sides and top (not on bottom)

– place padding over injured sit with firm bandage

Abdominal Injuries – What
– Abdomen houses a number of important body organs
– No protective bone structure around abdomen, organs easily injured
– Complication are extensive internal bleeding and infection

Abdominal Injuries – Signs and Symptoms
– Pain
– Bruising, swelling or tenderness around wound
– Unnatural paleness
– Cold , clammy skin
– Nausea or vomiting
– External bleeding
– Blood in urine and/or bleeding from anus or genitals
– Protrusion of abdominal organs through wound
– Shock
– Possible unconsciousness

Abdominal Injuries – Management
– Ensure casualty is comfortable
– Lay casualty on back with knees slightly raised and supported
– Loosen any restrictive clothing
– Cover any protruding organs with sterile dressing or similar and secure with bandage if available
– Ensure medical assistance is on it way

Heart Attack – What
– Occurs when lack of oxygen to heart
– Usually caused by blockage in an artery
– Lack of oxygen causes damage to heart muscle and if not rectified may cause heart to stop beating
– Life threatening and immediate action should be taken

Heart Attack – Signs and Symptoms
– Complaining of ‘indigestion’ that does not go away
– Discomfort/pain in chest, may be described as tightness, heaviness or squeezing
– Pain may spread to neck, shoulders, back and arms
– Shortness of breath
– Nausea or vomiting
– Sweating
– Dizziness/light-headedness
– Anxiety and/or confusion
– Cardiac arrest with no warning signs
– Collapse and unconsciousness

Heart Attack – Management
– Have casualty stop what they’re doing and rest
– Call 000 do not drive yourself to hopsital in case of cardiac arrest
– Reassure patient and rug them up
– place in sitting position with head and shoulders upright
– help take any angina medication
– give one aspirin tablet to thin blood
– place in recovery position
– monitor for signs of life

Stroke – What
– Lack of oxygen to brain
– Due to blockage or rupture of one of blood vessels
– Blood flow to brain cut off, no longer get oxygen it needs and brain cells in area die causing permanent damage
– Life threatening but many people fully recover

Stroke – FAST
Facial – check face, droopy mouth?
Arm – can they lift both arms?
Speech – slurred? can they understand?
Time – time is critical, call 000

Stroke – Signs and Symptoms
– Weakness, numbness or paralysis in face, legs or arms
– Difficulty speaking/understanding
– Dizziness or loss of balance
– Unexpected fall
– Blurred/decreased vision loss of vision
– Difficulty swallowing
– Severe and abrupt headache
– Drowsiness

Stoke – Management
– Call 000
– Reassure and rug up patient=

– support head and shoulders on pillows
– loosen any tight clothing
– ensure airway is clear

– place in recovery position
– monitor for signs of life

Diabetes – What
– Body must convert glucose into energy, insulin, pancreas
– sufferers have insulin which is no longer produced or produced in adequate amounts to function
– Glucose (sugar) builds up in blood and cells do not receive energy needed
– If treated and managed correctly, most experience no adverse effects
– All forms require healthy eating and physical activity regime as part of management

Diabetes – Types
Body does not produce insulin at all so regular insulin injections are required
Pancreas does not make enough insulin or insulin produced is not doing job properly, most common form.
Developed during pregnancy as pregnant women need more insulin, disappears after baby is born
Blood glucose too low, most common
Blood glucose too high

Hypoglycemia – Causes
Missing meals
– Eating too many carb rich foods
– Overly strenuous exercise
– Alcohol

Hyperglycemia – Causes
– Sickness
– Infections
– Too many carbohydrate rich foods
– Not enough insulin

Hypoglycemia – Signs and Symptoms
– Weakness, dizziness, light headedness
– Headache
– Shaking
– Sweating
– Lack of concentration
– Rapid pulse and racing heart beat
– Tingling or numbness around lips and fingers
– Hunger
– Confusion or aggression
– Unconsciousness

Hyperglycemia – Signs and Symptoms
– Excessive thirst
– Frequent urination
– Tiredness
– Blurred vision
– Hot, dry, skin
– Rapid pulse
– Smell of acetone in breath (extreme)
– Unconsciousness

Hypoglycemia – Management
– give quick acting/easily consumable carb (e.g. sweet drink (not diet), honey or jelly beans
– follow this with more long acting carb (e.g. fruit)
– monitor person if they feel unwell, repeat first step and seek medical advice

– Call 000
Give nothing by mouth

Hyperglycemia – Management
– allow to self-administer insulin/diabetic medication
– seek medical attention if required
– encourage patient to drink sugar free drinks

– Call 000
– Give nothing by mouth

Epilepsy – What
– Disorder of normal brain function
– Takes form in seizures
– Occurs when brains nerve cells misfire and generates sudden uncontrolled burst of electrical activity in brain
– Can result in brain injury, infection, tumors, degenerative conditions and family history
– Can be frightening but most will stop on own accord
– Once reoriented, no adverse effects
– People with condition will control seizures with medication

Epilepsy – Signs and Symptoms
– Sudden cry
– Person may fall to ground and lie rigid for few seconds
– Jerky, spasmodic muscular movements
– Frothing at mouth
– Loss of control of bladder/bowel

Epilepsy – Management – During Seizure
– Note time seizure began
– DON’T restrain person
– DON’T try to put anything in their mouth
– Protect from injury or danger eg. move tables and chairs away
– Protect head

Epilepsy – Management – After Seizure
– Place in recovery position
– Reassure patient
– Manage any injuries sustained during
– Allow patient to sleep while monitoring signs of life

Epilepsy – Seek Medical Aid if
– Seizure lasts 5+ minutes
– Person is injured
– Person is pregnant
– First seizure

Asthma – What & Triggers
– Chronic inflammation and narrowing of airways
– Bronchioles (small air passages) contract and restrict amount of oxygen exchanged within lungs
– Narrowing of airways leaves people with tight chest, breathlessness and wheezing
– Factors: allergies, respiratory infections, exercise, emotions, smoke, change of seasons

Asthma – Signs and Symptoms
– Difficulty breathing
– Coughing and wheezing
– Hands clasped to throat
– Able to speak only a few gasping words
– Pale and sweaty
– Anxious and panicky
– Lips, face, earlobes and finger tips turning blue
– Unconsciousness

Asthma – Management
– Follow asthma management plan if person has one
– Unconscious, DRSABCD
– Follow asthma first aid procedure

Anaphylaxis – What
– Severe and sudden allergic reaction
– Can occur when susceptible person is exposed to an allergen such as food, drugs or insect sting
– Reactions begin within minutes of exposure and can progress rapidly
– Potentially life threatening due to blockage of airways (emergency response)
– Prompt treatment with injecting adrenalin is required to halt progression of allergic reaction and can be life saving

Anaphylaxis – Signs and Symptoms
– Flushing/swelling of face
– Itching and/or swelling of lips, tongue or mouth
– Sense of tightness in throat
– Difficulty breathing/swallowing
– Hives or an itchy rash on body
– Swelling of extremities
– Nausea, cramps or vomiting
– Faint, rapid pulse
– Low blood pressure
– Light headedness, feeling faint, collapse
– Anxiety or distress
– Unconsciousness

Anaphylaxis – Management
– Call 000
– Follow emergency management plan if patient has one
– Administer EpiPen of EpiPen Jnr at once
– CONSCIOUS: help in position which makes breathing easiest
– UNCONSCIOUS: place in recovery position and monitor for signs of life

Poisoning – What
– Poison is any substance which harms body tissues when used in wrong way, by wrong person or in wrong amount
– Can occur through ingestion, absorption, injection or inhalation
– Can move rapidly through bloodstream once in body and if not tested can lead to death
– 24 hour poisons info centre can provide information
– locking up substances, disposing medications appropriately, reading instructions, buying child resistant lids

Poisoning – Signs and Symptoms (differing on type of poison)
– Abdominal pain
– Burns
– Headache
– Nausea/vomiting
– Drowsiness
– Difficulty breathing
– Blurred vision
– Bite of injection marks
– Smell of fumes
– Odors on breath
– Burning pain in mouth, throat and stomach
– Seizures
– Sudden collapses
– Unconsciousness
– Open chemical/medication containers near patient

Poisoning – Management
– Call 000
– Try to establish what poision was
– Call 13 11 26

Further Management of Ingested Poison
– do not induce vomiting
– do not give anything by mouth
– wipe obvious contamination away from mouth and nose

Further Management of Absorbed Poison
– ask person to remove any contaminated clothing
– flood skin with cool running water

Further Management of Inhaled Poison
– move person to fresh air
– open any windows
– loosen tight clothing
– reassure person

Bites and Stings – What
– Australia has wide range of animals which bite and sting
– Most are non lethal and cause pain/discomfort, others lethal
– Allergic reaction to bite/sting can cause complications
– Treatment varies depending on type of animal/insect involved
– All bites and stings require patient to be still, manage pain and endeavor to stop further release of venom

Bites and Stings – Signs and Symptoms (varies according to animal/insect)
– Intense pain at sight
– Burning feeling where bitten
– Local swelling
– Swollen eyelids, lips, neck and face
– Vomiting or nausea
– Sting or creature still left in body
– Bite, scratch or fang marks
– Sweating
– Blurred vision
– Headache
– Muscle weakness
– Drowsiness
– Pain/tightness in chest
– Difficulty breathing
– Unconscioussness

Management of Bites or Stings that cause Red, Hot, Itchy symptoms
(Bees, mosquitos, waps, ants, ticks, nettles, jelly fish, centipedes, scorpions, red back spiders, other spiders)
– Ask patient not to move
– Remove sting, creature of tentacles
– Apply cold or ice packs to site
– Reassure patient
– Monitor for shock/allergic reaction
– Call 000 for red back spiders

Management of Bites or Stings from Spiky, Spiny or Fishy Creatures
(sea urchins, sting rays, stone fish, bullrout, flat head, leather jacket, crown of thrones starfish)
– Lie/sit patient down
– Extract barb if possible
– Apply hot pack to site OR immerse bite area in hot water
– Reassure patient
– Monitor for shock/allergic reactions
– Call 000 especially for stone fish and sting rays

Management of Bites of Stings from Things the Can Kill You
(snake, blue ring octopus, allergic reactions, box jellyfish (vinegar), funnel web spider, cone shell)
– Lie/sit patient down
– Pressure Immobilisation Bandage (PIB)
– Ensure casualty does not move
– Reassure patient
– Monitor for shock/allergic reaction
– Call 000

Exposure to Head and Cold – What
– Body is designed to function effectively at constant temp of 37C
– Body no longer functions properly if environment/activity causes temp to rise/fall signifcantly

Hyperthermia – What and Causes
Heat induced illness caused by
– Excessive physical exertion
– Hot climatic conditions
– High humidity
– Inadequate fluid intake
– Infections
Various levels of heat induced illness
– Heat swelling
– Heat cramps
– Heat exhaustion*
– Heatstroke* – lethal condition (all organs are affected)

Heat Exhaustion – Signs and Symptoms
– Fatigue
– Thirst
– Headache
– Nausea and vomiting
– Diziness and fainting
– Rapid breathing and shortness of breath
– Pale, clammy skin
– Rapid, weak pulse

Heat Exhaustion – Management
– Lie patient down in shade
– Loosen and remove excessive clothing
– Moisten skin with cold cloths/or water
– Cool by fanning
– CONSCIOUS – give fluids to drink
– Seek medical attention if they do not recover fairly rapidly

Heat Stroke – Signs and Symptoms
– Lack of sweating – flushed, dry skin
– Temp 40C+
– Rapid pounding pulse which may weaken
– Headache
– Nausea and vomiting
– Dizziness and possible hallucinations
– Irritability and confusion
– Altered mental state
– Seizures
– Unconscious

Heat Stroke – Management
– Move casualty to cool environment
– Moisten skin
– Fan repeatedly
– Apply wrapped ice packs to neck, groin and armpits
– CONSCIOUS give fluids to drink
– Call 000 for urgent medical attention

Hypothermia – What
– Body experiences overexposure to cold temperates causing core body temp to drop
– Extremities often first affected
– Blood vessels in skin will shut down (vasoconstriction) to prevent core heat escaping
– Further body temp falls, more life threatening

Mild Hypothermia – Signs and Symptoms
– 35C – 34C
– Maximum shivering
– Pale cool skin
– Poor coordination
– Slurred speech
– Usually responsive but slow to react

Moderate Hypothermia – Signs and Symptoms
– 33C-30C
– Most shivering stops
– Muscles become rigid
– Consciousness impaired
– Pulse and respiration slow

Severe Hypothermia – Signs and Symptoms
– 30C >
– Progressive loss of consciousness
– Pupils fixed and dialated
– Heart rhythm likely to change

Hypothermia – Management – DO’S
– Gently move patient to warm, dry area protected from wind, rain, snow and cold
– Lie person down and remove any wet clothing
– Wrap patient in blankets, spare blanket or sleeping bag
– Ensure head is covered to maintain body heat
– CONSCIOUS, give warm fluids
– SHIVERING, rewarming by body-body contact or hot water bottles etc to neck, armpits and groin
– Call 000 and stay with person till help arrives

Hypothermia – Management – DONT’S
– Give alcohol
– Massage/rub affected area/s
– Expose to excessive, direct heat

The nurse receives report on 4 clients. Which client should the nurse see first? 1. Client admitted 12 hours ago with acute asthma exacerbation who needs a dose of IV methylprednisolone [21%] 2. Client admitted 2 days ago with congestive …

Pneumo 1 A 28-year-old man is evaluated for a 6-month history of episodic dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. As a child, he had asthma and allergies, but he has been asymptomatic since his early teenage years. His recent symptoms started after …

Ulcers that do not heal with unna boot in CVI results in use of split thickness skin grafts +/- ligation of adjacent perforation veins Pericardial friction rub sounds = (3) ECG changes in acute pericarditis = (4) 1. Scratching between …

A 30-year-old female presents with a five day history of a sore throat. She denies cough or nasal congestion. She also denies vomiting or diarrhea. On physical exam, her temperature is 101˚F, the pharynx is red with tonsillar exudates, and …

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