AG – Chapter 9.1 – PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP – Section 1 – Presidential Powers

Mandate
expressed will of the people

forum
or medium for discussion, for presidential messages used by major newspapers and magazines.

What were the two major reasons the founders of our nation wanted a national government with a strong executive?
First, the Founders knew that one of the main weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation was its lack of an independent executive to carry out the acts of Congress. Second, many of the Founders distrusted direct participation by the people in decision making.

What functions did the founders want the executive branch to carry out?
The founders wanted a strong executive branch to protect liberty private property, and businesses and would hold the legislative branch, which the people could influence, in check.

What powers does Sections 2 and 3 of Article II in the constitution give to the executive office?
As commander in chief of the armed forces the president is mainly responsible for the nation’s security. As head of the executive branch, the president appoints-with Senate consent-heads of executive departments and conducts foreign policy. The president also has judicial powers-to appoint federal court judges to pardon people convicted of federal crimes, and to reduce sentences. Working with the legislature, the president ensures that the laws Congress passes are “faithfully executed.” The president delivers an annual State of the Union message to Congress, proposes legislation, and may call Congress into special session when necessary.

What safeguards against the abuse of presidential power did the Founders build into the Constitution?
Both Congress and the courts have powers that limit the president’s authority.
1. A congressional override of a veto may limit a president’s effectiveness in carrying out a legislative program or in using executive powers.
2. War Powers Act that prevented presidents from committing troops to combat for more than 60 days without congressional approval.
3. Two other important limitations are the Senate’s confirmation power and Congress’s power of the purse.
4. Congress also has the power to impeach a president.
5. The federal courts have a constitutional power to limit a president. The case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the Supreme Court’s right to review legislative actions.

How can Bureaucrats can obstruct presidents’ programs unintentionally?
•failing to provide needed information. •misinterpreting instructions. •neglecting to complete a task properly. ò

Why do presidential powers tend to grow in times of national emergency?
Congress has often granted a president special powers especially during emergencies.

What are the sources of and limits to the powers of the president?
• The Constitution gives Congress powers to limit the president
• The needs of the nation gives the Federal Courts powers to limit the president
• The influence of each president gives the federal bureaucracy powers to limit the president.
• The mandate of the people gives public opinion powers that limit the president.

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