off road

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Install Tire Chains
1) Spread out one of the tire chains
2) Drive the vehicle over the tire chain
3) hook the inside fastener to the chain assembly
4) hook the end fastener to the chain assembly
5) repeat steps 1 through 4 for the other wheel
6) Move the vehicle forward a few feet and re tighten each chain assembly
7) Periodically check the tire chains

hook the inside fastener to the chain assembly
Maneuver the tire chain assembly until the cross-link sections are evenly spaced around the tire. hook the inside fastener to the chain assembly. tighten the chain assembly as much as possible

Hook the end fastener to the chain assembly
Hook the end fastener to the chain assembly on the outside of the tire, and secure it with a locking retainer to tighten the chain assembly. Ensure as many cross-link sections as possible lie between the sidewall tread lugs on both sides of the tire.

Move the vehicle forward a few feet and retighten each chain assembly
to remove any slack from where the tire was resting on the chain. secure the loose chain links to the chain assembly with a wire or other field expedient method.

Periodically check the tire chains
After driving the vehicle one or two miles, stop and re tighten the tire chains. periodically check the tire chains during operations to ensure the tire chain have not slipped

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Remove Tire Chains
Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Remove Tire Chains
1) Detach the locking retainer and unhook the end fastener.
2) Unhook the inside fastener and remove the chain assembly.
3) Drive the vehicle off the chain.
4) Repeat steps 1 through 3 to remove all remaining chains.
5) Stow the tire chains.

Caution:
Remove the tire chains from the tires as soon as possible after leaving areas requiring their use. Prolonged use of tire chains may damage the drivetrain.

Detach the locking retainer and unhook the end fastener.
Detach the locking retainer and unhook the end fastener.
First, detach the locking retainer from the end fastener, and unhook the end fastener from the chain assembly.

Unhook the inside fastener and remove the chain assembly.
Unhook the inside fastener and remove the chain assembly.
Next, unhook the inside fastener from the chain assembly, and remove the chain assembly from the tire

Which of the following statements about tire chains is correct?
Prolonged use of tire chains may damage the drivetrain.

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Operating in Extreme Heat
Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Operating in Extreme Heat
As a HMMWV operator, you need to know how to operate your vehicle in extreme heat, that is, when the ambient temperature is 95 degrees F or higher.

Extreme heat decreases engine efficiency.

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Before Operating in Extreme Heat
In addition to performing normal Before Operations PMCS, when operating in extreme heat, complete the following:

-Check the radiator fins.
-Check the batteries.

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Check the Radiator Fins
Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Check the Radiator Fins
Check the area in front of the oil cooler and radiator. Remove anything that could reduce airflow through the oil cooler and radiator fins, such as dirt or foreign objects.

Report any damaged or bent fins to unit maintenance

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Check the Batteries
Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Check the Batteries
In extreme heat conditions, the electrolyte in wet cell batteries will evaporate more quickly than normal, so it is important that you check these batteries more frequently.

If the electrolyte level is below the split ring in a battery cell, add distilled water as needed.

If your vehicle uses gel-type batteries, the electrolyte level check is not applicable.

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Operation in Extreme Heat
While operating a vehicle in extreme heat:

Monitor dashboard gauges frequently.

Take action if there are indications of overheating

CAUTION:
Avoid continuous vehicle operation at high speeds. Avoid long hard pulls on steep grades with the transfer case shift lever in the low (L) range position. Damage to the transfer case will result.

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Dashboard Gauges
Check the coolant temperature gauge and the oil pressure gauge frequently. The following are indications that the engine is overheating:

-The engine coolant temperature is more than 250 degrees F for the ECV (230 degrees F for the M1123).
-The overheat lamp is lit.
-The engine oil pressure drops below approximately 30 psi under normal driving conditions.
-The engine oil pressure drops below approximately 6 psi with the engine at idle.
-The engine oil pressure drops below approximately 15 psi with the engine under load.

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Overheating Procedures
If you notice indications of engine overheating:

Park the vehicle and allow the engine to idle.

Observe the coolant temperature gauge for steady cooling.
If the engine coolant temperature continues to increase or does not lower, shut off the engine.

CAUTION
Stop the engine if the coolant temperature gauge suddenly increases beyond approximately 250 degrees F (ECV) / 230 degrees F (M1123). Failure to comply will result in damage to the engine.

Notify unit maintenance to check the differential, transfer case, and transmission fluids for oil breakdown caused by overheating

Which of the following are symptoms of an overheating ECV engine?
Coolant temperature is above 250 degrees F.
The overheat lamp is lit.
Oil pressure drops below 30 psi during normal driving conditions.

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Operating in Rainy or Humid Conditions
If the vehicle is inactive for long periods during rainy or humid conditions, metal components can rust rapidly. Fungus may develop in the fuel tanks as well as on soft tops, seats, and other components.

Frequent inspections, cleaning, and lubrication are necessary to maintain the operational readiness of vehicles.

During prolonged rainy or humid conditions:

-Be careful to not spin the wheels when placing the vehicle in motion. In slippery conditions, it may be necessary to place the transfer case in the high lock (H/L) range to avoid spinning the wheels. Refer to the technical manual for additional techniques that are used when operating on unusual terrain.

-Drain the fuel filter more frequently. During After Operations PMCS, the fuel filter is drained to remove any water that has collected in the fuel. In extremely humid conditions, there can be more condensation than normal in the fuel system, so the fuel filter may need to be drained more frequently.

Why should the fuel filter be drained frequently in conditions of extreme humidity?
High condensation may occur in the fuel system.

Operation in Extreme Weather Conditions
Topic Summary
Vehicles operating in extreme weather conditions require special procedures to keep them running. For proper operation in extreme cold, hot, or humid conditions, you need to be able to perform tasks such as:

-Engine warm-up using the hand throttle
-Operating the vehicular and cargo heaters
-Installing and removing tire chains
-Checking battery electrolyte level
-Monitoring for overheat conditions
-Selecting proper range for slippery conditions
-Draining the fuel filter

Operating in Limited Visibility Conditions
Introduction
Operating in Limited Visibility Conditions
Introduction
Good visibility is a combination of the material condition of the vehicle and weather conditions.

This topic will describe the procedures used when visibility is limited due to the weather.

Operating in Limited Visibility Conditions
Weather
Severe weather such as fog, heavy rain, or snow may reduce visibility to only a few feet. When visibility is limited by the weather remember to:

-Keep the windshield clear.
-Turn on the headlights.
-Slow down.
-Brake early.

Operating in Limited Visibility Conditions
Keep the Windshield Clear
Keeping your windshield clean helps to maximize your clear view when weather conditions are poor.

Clean the windshield daily. Regularly inspect the windshield for cracks or discoloration that could impair visibility.

Operating in Limited Visibility Conditions
Turn on the Headlights
Turn on your lights whenever rain, fog, or snow impairs visibility.

Operating in Limited Visibility Conditions
Slow Down
Operating in Limited Visibility Conditions
Slow Down
Drive at reduced speeds when conditions reduce visibility.

During inclement weather, braking distances may be from two to ten times greater than on dry pavement. Driving at reduced speeds enables you to stop faster and gives you better control of your vehicle when visibility is limited.

Operating in Limited Visibility Conditions
Brake Early
Operating in Limited Visibility Conditions
Brake Early
Pump the brakes early when preparing to stop in limited visibility conditions. This action signals other drivers that you are stopping, giving them more time to act.

Which of the following practices should you employ in conditions of limited visibility?
Keep the windshield clear.

Turn on the headlights.

Slow down.

Brake early.

Operating With Night Vision Goggles
Introduction
Operating With Night Vision Goggles
Introduction
Operations do not stop due to darkness.

Sometimes the unit commander will direct you to conduct operations while using night vision devices.

Night vision goggles (NVGs) amplify ambient light allowing you to see without using a detectable light source. Remember that any detectable light or adverse weather conditions can degrade your ability to see while using NVGs.

You need to be aware of the practices that will ensure mission success while operating a vehicle while using NVGs.

Operating With Night Vision Goggles
Vehicle Preparation
Operating With Night Vision Goggles
Vehicle Preparation
When using night vision goggles, you must properly prepare the vehicle for driving with NVGs.

Keep the windshield clean and free of scratches. Clean the windshield before each mission.

Turn off interior lights. Any detectable light source in the vehicle’s cab may affect your ability to see with NVGs.

Turn off or tape over exterior lights.

Operating With Night Vision Goggles
NVG Weather Considerations
Operating With Night Vision Goggles
NVG Weather Considerations
Rain, haze, fog, snow, and smoke greatly reduce the effectiveness of NVGs.

When operating in a convoy and NVG visibility is reduced, the convoy commander will decide whether the mission can be completed safely while using the goggles. When directed, adjust your driving speed, remove the goggles, turn on your headlights, or switch to blackout drive lights.

Use NVGs only when the convoy or unit commander determines that the situation permits and it is safe to do so.

Operating With Night Vision Goggles
Ground Speed Limitations
Operating With Night Vision Goggles
Ground Speed Limitations
When using NVGs, you must drive at reduced speed. As a general rule, your maximum speed should be no more than it would be when using blackout lighting. Under most conditions, the maximum safe speed will not exceed 25 mph.

Different light levels affect the distance at which you can identify an object. This distance limits the ground speed at which you can safely drive.

The type of terrain and road surface are also factors in determining maximum safe speed when using NVGs. Off-road operation and hilly terrain further reduce the maximum speed.

Which of the following are performed to prepare a vehicle for NVG use?
Clean the windshield

Turn off all interior lighting.

Turn off or tape over all exterior lighting.

General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Introduction
General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Introduction
Off-road operation requires special attention to safe driving practices.

Although many rules and guidelines apply both on-road and off-road, there are a number of situations that are unique to off-road operation.

General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Safety Guidelines
General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Safety Guidelines
Although certain design characteristics of the vehicle (increased vehicle width, higher ground clearance, independent suspension, etc.) provide improved off-road capabilities, driving over off-road terrain remains a challenge.

Because of these challenges, a few safety guidelines become even more important:

Transporting personnel

Adapting to weather and terrain conditions

Avoiding obstacles
Failure to follow these safety guidelines may result in injury or death to personnel and damage to equipment.

Transporting personnel
Keep in mind that rollover protection is available for the crew area only and is not provided in the troop/cargo area. Always use extreme caution when transporting personnel over off-road terrain.

Adapting to weather and terrain conditions
Weather and terrain can reduce your ability to see your environment and control your vehicle. Reduce vehicle speed to adapt to weather and terrain conditions.

Avoiding obstacles
Obstacles appear much more frequently off-road than on-road. Although the HMMWV has a much higher ground clearance than many other vehicles, to prevent damage avoid driving over obstacles such as stumps and boulders

Which of the following are safety guidelines for dealing with off-road terrain?
Avoid driving over obstacles such as stumps and boulders.

Always use extreme caution when transporting personnel.

Reduce vehicle speed to be consistent with weather and terrain conditions.

General Rules and Safety Guidelines
General Rules
General Rules and Safety Guidelines
General Rules
Driving off-road over rough or unusual terrain requires using good driving sense. Experience is the best teacher, but keep these general rules in mind:

Select the proper transmission and transfer case driving ranges.

Keep the engine at a moderate speed.

Keep the wheels from spinning.

Follow the standard sequence for placing a vehicle in motion.
Select each general rule to learn more.

General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Select the Proper Transmission and Transfer Case Driving Ranges
General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Select the Proper Transmission and Transfer Case Driving Ranges
Select the proper transmission and transfer case driving ranges:

-Transmission range selection
-Transfer case range selection

When operating a HMMWV, you must anticipate the need to shift the transfer case lever based on your surroundings.

For example, if you see a steep hill ahead, and expect to need low (L) range to climb the hill, you should select the low (L) transfer case range before you get to the hill, rather than waiting until you have started to climb.

Transmission range selection
PARK: Use this position when the vehicle is stopped and paking brake applied. use this position when a new transfer case range is being selected

REVERSE: Use this position for backing up the vehicle

NEUTRAL Use this position when the vehicle is stopped and parking brake applied. use this position when a new transfer case range is being selected

OVERDRIVE use this position for normal driving or fording

DRIVE use this position when driving on hilly terrain or towing a trailer

SECOND use this position for hill climbing or for engine braking when descending steep hills

FIRST: Use this position for getting the maximum engine braking when descending very steep hills, climbing steep hills, or when driving through deep mud, sand or snow.

Transfer case range selection
HIGH LOCK RANGE: Use this drive range only when continuous wheel slippage is evident. use when operating in mud snow, loose sand, or on ice, and increased control or additional traction is required.

HIGH RANGE: Use this drive range as the standard. use when operating on all primary, secondary, and off-road surfaces where little or no wheel slippage occurs. also use when encountering sharp, continuous turns on high traction surfaces

LOW RANGE: Use this drive range when high ranges do not provide sufficient power for steep hills or sufficient engine braking on down grades. also use when the vehicle is stuck in mud or snow and cannot be freed using the high lock (H/L) range.

General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Transfer Case Range Selection
General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Transfer Case Range Selection
Before shifting the transfer case shift lever, you must stop the vehicle and put the transmission shift lever in neutral (N) or park (P).

Under normal circumstances, you will be able to shift the transfer case with the vehicle stopped and the engine running. However, if the transfer case is hard to shift or you hear a grinding noise, shut off the engine, and then complete the transfer case shift.

General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Keep the Engine at a Moderate Speed
Keep the engine at a moderate speed. The engine works at its best pace in mid-range revolutions per minute (RPM).

When driving at a moderate speed, you can slow down or speed up quickly without changing gears if you get into a tight spot.

General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Keep the Wheels From Spinning
Try to keep the wheels from spinning.

If the wheels start to spin, there are two ways to regain control:

-Ease off the accelerator pedal until the wheels regain traction.
-Use brake and throttle modulation.

If the above steps are not successful, shift the transfer case to either the high lock (H/L) or low (L) position.

General Rules and Safety Guidelines
Follow the Standard Sequence for Placing a Vehicle in Motion
When operating in unusual conditions, follow the standard sequence for placing a vehicle in motion.

Perform Before Operations PMCS carefully to ensure your vehicle is in good working order before starting out.

Observe basic safe driving practices. This is as important off-road as it is on-road.

Pay particular attention to terrain and weather conditions. A paved road surface can be slippery in rainy or snowy conditions. But off-road, such conditions can be even more hazardous. Following safe driving practices is a critical factor in completing your mission.

When selecting a different transfer case range, you must stop the vehicle and put the transmission shift lever in which of the following positions?
Either neutral (N) or park (P)

Which of the following are general rules to keep in mind when operating a vehicle off-road?
Follow the standard sequence for placing a vehicle in motion.

Keep the engine at a moderate speed.

Keep the wheels from spinning.

Procedures for Hills and Slopes
Introduction
Off-road operations demand a higher level of skill from the operators of military vehicles. Specific procedures are used to deal with many of the challenging terrain types encountered during off-road operation.

The procedures for driving in hills and slopes can be very valuable in normal on-road driving. However, they are critically important when operating off-road.

Procedures for Hills and Slopes
Hills and Slopes
As an operator, you should be familiar with the following driving techniques for hills and slopes:

-Climbing a steep hill
-Descending a steep hill
-Moving across a slope
-Relieving drivetrain torque buildup

CAUTION
Failure to shift the transfer case lever to low (L) before ascending a hill may result in damage to the drivetrain.

When climbing a steep hill, do not shift into any lower gear than is necessary to maintain headway.

Attempt to maintain a constant engine speed. Over-revving the engine will cause the wheels to slip, and traction will be lost.

Procedures for Hills and Slopes
Climbing a Steep Hill (Continued)
If the wheels start to slip, walk the vehicle the last few remaining feet of a hill by swinging the front wheels sharply left and right if the situation permits. This action will provide a fresh bite into the surface and will usually result in enough traction to complete the climb.

Procedures for Hills and Slopes
Descending a Steep Hill
You can proceed safely down a steep hill by completing the following steps.

1) Stop the vehicle.
2) Place the transmission in neutral (N).
3) Shift the transfer case to low (L).
4) Place the transmission in second (2) or first (1) gear.
5) Drive the vehicle slowly down the hill with all four wheels turning against the engine compression.

CAUTION
Failure to shift the transfer case lever to L before descending a hill may result in damage to the drivetrain.

When the engine is used for engine braking while descending steep hills, avoid sharp, continuous turns. Failure to avoid sharp, continuous turns while operating the transfer case in low range may cause damage to the drivetrain.

Procedures for Hills and Slopes
Moving Across a Slope
Procedures for Hills and Slopes
Moving Across a Slope
To avoid a roll-over when moving across a slope:

-Choose the smallest angle possible – that is, the closest to straight up or down the hill.
-Keep moving to minimize time on the more dangerous areas of the slope.
-Avoid turning quickly to minimize the impact of centrifugal force on the vehicle’s center of gravity.

CAUTION
Do not travel diagonally across a hill unless it is absolutely necessary. Traveling sideways across a slope increases the risk of rollover

Procedures for Hills and Slopes
Relieving Drivetrain Torque Buildup
Procedures for Hills and Slopes
Relieving Drivetrain Torque Buildup
When leaving a low-traction surface such as a steep hill and moving onto a high-traction surface (for example, a paved road), drivetrain torque buildup may make it difficult to shift out of a locked range.

After shifting the transfer case from a locked range (H/L or L) to high (H) range, back up the vehicle approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) before proceeding to prevent or relieve driveline torque buildup.

CAUTION
Do not operate with transfer case shift lever in H/L (high/lock) or L (low) range on high traction surfaces where little or no wheel slippage is evident. Damage to drivetrain may occur.

In what situation would you drive your HMMWV slowly with all four wheels turning against the engine compression?
When descending a steep hill

Which of the following would be appropriate steps when climbing a steep hill in a HMMWV?
Place the transmission in a lower gear

Shift the transfer case to high lock (H/L) or low (L).

Procedures for Muddy Areas
Introduction
When operating in muddy terrain or driving through mud, there are certain actions you should take during each phase of the operation:

Before operation

During operation

After operation

Procedures for Muddy Areas
Before Operation
Because operating in mud is likely to cause continuous wheel slippage, it is important to choose the correct transfer case range and transmission gear selection before starting to drive through a muddy area.

Place the transfer-case high lock (H/L).

Place the transmission in overdrive .
Familiarize yourself with the techniques that can be used when operating in unusual terrain. Refer to the Operator’s Manual for information.

Procedures for Muddy Areas
During Operation
Skidding and sudden loss of steering control are potential problems when operating in mud.

If your vehicle begins to skid, immediately turn the steering wheel in the direction of the skid.

If one of the wheels begins spinning due to loss of traction, use brake and throttle modulation as needed to regain traction.

Procedures for Muddy Areas
After Operation
After operating in mud, you should complete the following steps:

1) Wash the exterior, engine compartment, brake, and drivetrain components with low-pressure water.
2) Remove mud from the air cleaner dump valve.
3) Remove mud from the converter housing drain hole.
4) Remove mud from the battery box drain holes.
5) Ensure unit maintenance lubricates and services the vehicle.

To prevent the parking brake linkage from binding after operating in mud, apply lithium grease in accordance with the Operator’s Manual.

CAUTION
Do not allow water to enter the air intake cap or the air cleaner assembly! Damage to the engine may occur.

Because operating in mud is likely to cause continuous wheel slippage, in which positions should the transfer case lever and transmission lever be placed before operating in mud?
The transfer case should be in the high lock (H/L) range and the transmission should be in overdrive .

While operating a HMMWV in a muddy area you have become mired in mud. Which of the following transmission and transfer case selections would you use to extract your vehicle?
Place the transmission in first (1) gear.

Place the transfer case in low (L).

Procedures for Dusty or Sandy Areas
Introduction
Vehicles operating in dusty or sandy areas require frequent servicing of their air filter and cooling system. When operating in such adverse conditions, there are a number of actions you should take during each phase of the operation:

-Before operation
-During operation
-After operation

Procedures for Dusty or Sandy Areas
Before Operation
When preparing to operate in sand, perform the following actions:

-Adjust tire pressure to 20 psi in the front tires and 30 psi in the rear to increase traction
-Place the transfer case in H/L and the transmission in overdrive Overdrive Symbol.
-Limit your maximum speed to 30 mph.

Procedures for Dusty or Sandy Areas
During Operation
While operating the vehicle in a dusty or sandy area, perform the following:

-Frequently check the air restriction gauge. If the indicator shows red, park the vehicle, stop the engine, and service the air cleaner.

-Accelerate slowly so that the wheels do not spin and dig into the sand.

-If engine overheating occurs:

>Park the vehicle and allow it to idle.

>Observe the coolant temperature gauge for steady cooling.

>If coolant temperature gauge continues to increase or does not lower, perform troubleshooting procedures to correct the problem.

Caution
Stop the engine if the coolant temperature gauge increases beyond approximately 250 degrees F (230 degrees for M1123) and/or the overheat lamp illuminates. Failure to comply will result in damage to the engine.

Use a wrecker or second vehicle equipped with a winch to recover vehicles mired in deep sand. Do not attempt to “rock” vehicles out of deep sand with quick transmission shift changes. Damage to the transmission will occur.

Procedures for Dusty or Sandy Areas
After Operation
At the end of daily operation in a dusty or sandy area, perform these procedures:

Remove all sand from the vehicle’s accelerator linkage and the brake components.

Park the vehicle in shade whenever possible to protect the tires, soft tops, paint, wood, and seals from the sun, dust, and sand.
Ensure that unit maintenance lubricates and services the vehicle as soon as possible after completing operations
NOTE:
If shade is not available, cover the vehicle with a tarpaulin. If the entire vehicle cannot be covered, use the tarpaulin to protect the windows and hood from entry of sand or dust.

Which of the following actions are taken when operating in dusty, sandy areas?
Frequently check the air restriction gauge.
Accelerate slowly so that the wheels do not spin and dig into the sand.

In preparing to operate your armored ECV in sand, you adjust tire pressures to provide better traction. What are the recommended tire pressures?
Front – 20 psi, Rear 30 psi

Your tires have been inflated properly for the sandy terrain. You now need to set up the transmission for the best performance in this terrain. What positions should the transfer case and transmission shift levers be set to?
HL and over drive

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Introduction
A ford is a place in a stream or river that is shallow enough for safe crossing by military vehicles.

All HMMWVs have a 30-inch shallow water ford capability. To safely ford water deeper than 30 inches requires a deep water fording kit. This kit includes extensions to raise the air intake and exhaust to a level that is above a 60-inch water depth.

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Shallow Water Fording
HMMWVs have a 30 in (76 cm) shallow water fording capability without the use of a deep water fording kit. However, this capability applies only to fords with a hard bottom.

Shallow water fording procedures are divided into three phases:

Before operation

During operation

After operation

CAUTION

Never attempt shallow water fording unless the water depth is known to be 30 in (76 cm) or less and the bottom is known to be hard.

Do not exceed 5 mph (8 kph) during the fording operation.

If these guidelines are not followed, damage to the vehicle may result.

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Shallow Water Fording – Before Operation
To prepare for shallow water fording, peform the following:

Ensure the oil dipstick, transmission dipstick, oil filler cap, and fuel tank cap are secure.

Secure all loose objects on the vehicle.

Ensure the battery caps are tight.

Place the transfer case shift lever in H (high range).
If shallow water fording in salt water with the M1123, you must follow the procedure outlined in the manual for disconnecting the slave receptacle.
Note:
Ensuring the battery caps are tight is not necessary for the newer gel-type batteries since these batteries have no caps.

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Shallow Water Fording - During Operation
Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Shallow Water Fording – During Operation
When shallow water fording, you should:

Enter the water slowly.

Maintain a consistent vehicle speed of 5 mph (8 kph).

Exit the water in an area with a gentle slope.

CAUTION
Decrease speed when entering the water to avoid splashing water into the air intake. If water enters the air intake, the engine may stop and refuse to start. If this occurs, do not continue starting efforts or you may damage the engine.

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Shallow Water Fording – After Operation
After operating in shallow water, ensure that your vehicle is serviced by unit maintenance personnel as soon as possible.

After fording, do not rely on the vehicle’s wet service brakes. Keep applying the brakes until the brakes dry out and any uneven braking ceases. Failure to do so may cause damage to the vehicle or injury or death to personnel.

CAUTION
Do not rely on service brakes after fording until the brakes dry out.

Keep applying the brakes until uneven braking ceases.

Failure to do so may cause damage to the vehicle and injury or death to personnel.

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Shallow Water Fording – In Salt Water
After shallow water fording in salt water, wash and wipe off all salt deposits as soon as possible. If you were operating an M1123 in salt water, there are additional steps to perform to inspect and reconnect the slave receptacle.

Refer to the Operator’s Manual for specific instructions.

Assuming the fording site has a confirmed hard bottom, what is the shallow water fording capability of HMMWV without a deep water fording kit installed?
30 in

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Deep Water Fording
The deep water fording kit allows HMMWVs to ford water up to 60 in (152 cm). However, this capability applies only to fords with a hard bottom.

Deep water fording procedures include:

Before operation

During operation

After operation

CAUTION
Never attempt deep water fording unless the water depth is known to be 60 in (152 cm) or less and the bottom is known to be hard.

Do not exceed 5 mph (8 kph) during the fording operation.

If these guidelines are not followed, damage to the vehicle may result.

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Deep Water Fording – Before Operation: Steps 1 – 5
Before deep water fording, you must complete several steps to prepare the vehicle for fording.

The first five steps are:

1) Ensure the oil dipstick, transmission dipstick, oil filler cap, and fuel tank cap are secure. Verify the rubber cap on the bottom of the air cleaner body is in place and secure.
2) Secure all loose objects on the vehicle.
3) Ensure the battery caps are all present and tight.
4) Place the transfer case shift lever in the high lock (H/L) position. This range provides increased traction for deep water fording.
5) Turn off all nonessential electrical loads, including the lights, fan, and heater/defroster.

NOTE
Ensuring the battery caps are tight is not necessary for the newer gel-type batteries since these batteries have no caps.

Ensure the oil dipstick, transmission dipstick, oil filler cap, and fuel tank cap are secure. Verify the rubber cap on the bottom of the air cleaner body is in place and secure.
Ensure the oil dipstick, transmission dipstick, oil filler cap, and fuel tank cap are secure. Verify the rubber cap on the bottom of the air cleaner body is in place and secure.

Secure all loose objects on the vehicle.
Secure all loose objects on the vehicle.

Ensure the battery caps are all present and tight.
Ensure the battery caps are all present and tight.

Turn off all nonessential electrical loads, including the lights, fan, and heater/defroster.
Turn off all nonessential electrical loads, including the lights, fan, and heater/defroster.

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Deep Water Fording – During Operation
When deep water fording, you must follow certain safety guidelines. These guidelines are the same as the shallow water fording guidelines:

Enter the water slowly.

Maintain a constant vehicle speed of 5 mph (8 kph).

Exit the water in an area with a gentle slope

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Deep Water Fording - After Operation
Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Deep Water Fording – After Operation
Upon exiting the water:

Place the fording switch in the VENT position.

Release the hand throttle.

Stop the vehicle.

Place the transmission in neutral (N) or park (P).

Place the transfer case in the desired range.

If you have difficulty shifting the transfer case, relieve drivetrain torque build-up by backing your vehicle 5 ft before proceeding.
After operating in deep water, ensure your vehicle is serviced by maintenance personnel as soon as possible.

CAUTION
After fording, manually disengage the hand throttle. The hand throttle does not automatically disengage when the service brake is applied, resulting in possible hazardous and unsafe operation. Injury to personnel or damage to equipment may result.

After fording, do not rely on the vehicle’s wet service brakes. Keep applying the brakes until the brakes dry out and any uneven braking ceases. Failure to do so may cause damage to the vehicle or injury or death to personnel.

Procedures for Shallow and Deep Fords
Deep Water Fording – In Salt Water
After fording, manually disengage the hand throttle. The hand throttle does not automatically disengage when the service brake is applied, resulting in possible hazardous and unsafe operation. Injury to personnel or damage to equipment may result.

After fording, do not rely on the vehicle’s wet service brakes. Keep applying the brakes until the brakes dry out and any uneven braking ceases. Failure to do so may cause damage to the vehicle or injury or death to personnel.

Assuming the fording site has a confirmed hard bottom and the HMMWV has deep water fording kit installed, what is the maximum water depth the HMMWV can cross
60 in

You have just exited the water after crossing a deep ford in your HMMWV.

Which of the following are actions you should take after deep water fording?

Release the hand throttle.
Place the fording switch in the VENT position.

Flat Towing
Terms
Flat Towing
Terms
Flat towing can be used to tow a similar vehicle for short distances without requiring a wrecker.

The term “flat” towing refers to the disabled vehicle having all four of its wheels on the ground while being towed.

The towing vehicle is sometimes referred to as the “recovery” vehicle.

When flat towing a disabled vehicle using a HMMWV, both vehicles must be of similar weight. For example, an unarmored HMMWV should not be used to tow a heavier armored vehicle.

Flat Towing
Towing Equipment
When using your HMMWV to flat tow another vehicle, a towbar is attached between the two vehicles. The towbar is fastened to the front of the disabled vehicle and the towing pintle of the recovery vehicle.

TOWING PINTLE
SHACKLE BRACKETS
TOW BAR AND SAFETY CHAIN

Flat Towing
Towing Pintle
Flat Towing
Towing Pintle
The towing pintle is attached to the rear bumper of the HMMWV.

The towing pintle provides the connection point for attaching a towbar to the recovery vehicle.

Flat Towing
Shackle Brackets
Flat Towing
Shackle Brackets
The towbar attaches to the shackle brackets on the front bumper of the vehicle being towed.

Flat Towing
Towbar and Safety Chains
Flat Towing
Towbar and Safety Chains
The towbar connects the disabled vehicle and the recovery vehicle.

A clevis attaches each towbar leg to a shackle bracket on the front of the disabled vehicle to adapt the towbar to the bracket.

The lunette at the other end of the towbar goes on the towing pintle of the recovery vehicle.

Safety chains are connected between the vehicles in case the towbar comes loose or fails while the vehicle is being towed.

CAUTION
Failure to use a towbar and safety chain when towing a vehicle may cause damage to the equipment.

Clevis
A metal fitting with a single hole used to connect a rod or chain to a shackle by means of a clevis pin. The clevis pin permits the joint a single axis of rotation. A towbar has a clevis at the end of each leg so that the towbar can be easily attached to the shackle brackets on the disabled vehicle. This permits the towbar to adjust to the vertical motion of the disabled vehicle.

Lunette
A ring at the end of the towbar that fits over a vehicle’s towing pintle and secures the towbar to the tow vehicle.

Flat Towing
Operator's Manual

Procedures for connecting the towbar and flat towing a vehicle are found in the vehicle's operator's manual.
Flat Towing
Operator’s Manual

Procedures for connecting the towbar and flat towing a vehicle are found in the vehicle’s operator’s manual.

Flat Towing
Towbar Installation
To connect the vehicles for flat towing, install the towbar between the vehicles.

Flat Towing
Disabled Vehicle Preparation
1) IF NECESSARY, REMOVE THE PROPELLER SHAFT
2) place the transmission and transfer case in neutral (N)
3) Turn on the hazard warining lights
4) Release the parinking brakes

CAUTION
Failure to remove the propeller shafts, when operating over the speed or distance limits, may result in damage to the transmission or transfer case

Attach the towbar to the disabled vehicle.
Attach the towbar clevises to the disabled vehicle’s shackle brackets. Secure each clevis with a 3/4-in rod and pin assembly.

Open the pintle of the recovery vehicle.
Remove the pintle pin and open the pintle hook of the recovery vehicle

Attach the towbar to the recovery vehicle.
Place the towbar lunette on the opened pintle. Close the pintle and reinsert the pintle pin.

Attach the safety chain.
Install a safety chain between the vehicles. Attach one end of the chain to the chassis behind the disabled vehicle’s front bumper. Connect the other end to the chassis behind the rear bumper of the recovery vehicle. Leave enough slack so that the chain dips to approximately 1 ft above the ground.

Inspect the towbar installation.
Install a safety chain between the vehicles. Attach one end of the chain to the chassis behind the disabled vehicle’s front bumper. Connect the other end to the chassis behind the rear bumper of the recovery vehicle. Leave enough slack so that the chain dips to approximately 1 ft above the ground.

Inspect the towbar installation.
Inspect the towbar installation. Verify the towing pintle is secure with the pin in place, the towbar is properly attached to the front bumper of the disabled vehicle, and that the safety chain is in place.

If necessary, remove the propeller shafts.
Have unit maintenance remove the front and rear propeller shafts of the disabled vehicle if towing speed or distance will exceed limits.

Place transmission and transfer case in neutral (N).
Put the disabled vehicle’s transmission and transfer case in neutral (N).

Turn on the hazard warning lights.
Turn on the hazard warning lights on both vehicles.

Release the parking brake.
Release the parking brake on the disabled vehicle.

Which device attaches to the chassis behind the disabled vehicle’s front bumper?
Safety chain

Which image shows the transmission and transfer case shift lever positions for a vehicle being towed?
N AND N

Flat Towing
Topic Summary
A HMMWV can provide flat towing for a disabled HMMWV of similar size and weight. Flat towing means the disabled vehicle has all four wheels on the ground.

To flat tow, a towbar is connected to the front bumper of the disabled vehicle and towing pintle of the recovery vehicle.

Then, the disabled vehicle is prepared for towing. For distances over 50 mi, or speeds over 30 mph, propeller shafts must first be removed. Remember to follow appropriate safety precautions when flat towing.

Recovery
Introduction
During field operations vehicles can often become stuck. You may need to recover your own or another vehicle.

To reduce the need for dedicated recovery vehicles, many HMMWVs are equipped with a bumper-mounted winch that can be used for self-recovery and to recover other HMMWVs of similar-size and weight.

Winch operations are similar whether performing a self-recovery, a similar-vehicle recovery, or any other operation within the capacity of the installed winch. Remember, not all recovery operations are within the capacity of your vehicle’s winch.

Recovery
Winch
Recovery
Winch
A winch may be installed on your HMMWV as optional equipment. There are two types of winch:

Electric

Hydraulic
Any of the Marine Corps HMMWV variants may have a hydraulic winch, while the electrical winch is only applicable to M1114 and M1123 vehicles.

Electric winch
Electric winch
The electric winch is powered by the vehicle’s electrical system.

For maximum pulling power, operate the winch with the vehicle running and other electrical equipment off. The winch can be operated on battery power alone (engine not running) for short periods, but this will quickly drain the batteries, and power will be limited.

The maximum load capacity of the electric winch is 9000 lb.

Hydraulic Winch
Hydraulic Winch
The hydraulic winch is powered by hydraulics from the vehicle’s power steering system. The engine must be running to operate the winch.

To achieve maximum pulling power, refrain from moving the steering wheel or pressing the brake pedal during winch operation.

The maximum load capacity of the hydraulic winch is 10,500 lb

Recovery
Maximum Winch Load Capacity
Maximum load capacity varies with the number of layers of cable wound on the drum. The more layers on the drum, the lower the maximum load capacity. The load capacity increases as each layer is unwound.

Maximum capacity is reached when one layer of cable remains on the drum.

The Winch Data table shows the load capacities for the electric and hydraulic winches with different layers of cable remaining on the drum.

Electric winch

Hydraulic winch

Electric winch capacities
Electric winch capacities

Hydraulic Winch Capacities
Hydraulic Winch Capacities

Recovery
Items Used With the Winch
Recovery
Items Used With the Winch
Vehicles with a winch installed may have these additional items to use with the winch:

Hook assembly – Usually attached to the end of the winch cable to connect the load

Tree saver strap – Prevents the winch cable from damaging a tree or similar object used as an anchor

Tackle block – Features a pulley for the winch cable to provide additional leverage during recovery

Shackle –

Recovery
Hydraulic Winch Controls
Recovery
Hydraulic Winch Controls
Levers control the operating mode of the winch drum.

After setting the control levers, the operator uses a remote, hand-held controller to control the winch when pulling a load.

The drum winds and unwinds the cable through fairlead rollers.

Parts
Upper leve
lower lever (not visible)
fairlead Roller
cable
Drum
Hand controller

Recovery
Upper Lever
The hydraulic winch upper lever is located on top of the winch. During winch operation, the lever is in either the FREE or the LOW position.

The upper lever is used in combination with the lower lever to wind the cable in low gear, lock the drum, or allow the drum to turn freely for paying out the cable.

The hydraulic winch lower lever is located on the side of the winch just below the upper lever. During winch operation, the lever is in either the FREE or the HIGH position. 

 

The lower lever is used in combination with the upper lever to wind the cable in high gear, lock the drum, or allow the drum to turn freely for paying out the cable
The hydraulic winch lower lever is located on the side of the winch just below the upper lever. During winch operation, the lever is in either the FREE or the HIGH position.

The lower lever is used in combination with the upper lever to wind the cable in high gear, lock the drum, or allow the drum to turn freely for paying out the cable

Recovery
Fairlead Rollers
Recovery
Fairlead Rollers
The fairlead rollers guide the winch cable into and out of the drum and keep the cable from rubbing on the bumper surface.

Recovery
Cable
Recovery
Cable
The winch cable wraps around the drum. The winch hook is attached to the cable through an eye at the end of the cable. A thimble is installed in the eye to prevent the cable from shearing or breaking.

When using the winch, inspect the cable to make sure the thimble and hook are in place.

Recovery
Drum
The hydraulic winch drum is a circular drum used to wind or unwind the cable.

When using the winch, always keep at least five wraps of cable on the drum. If a load is applied with less than five wraps of cable on the winch, the cable may come loose on the drum.

Recovery
Modes of Operation
Recovery
Modes of Operation
The hydraulic winch has four modes of operation. The operating mode is determined by the positions of the two clutch levers:

FREESPOOL

WINCH LOCKED UP

Lock LOW gear

Lock HIGH gear

CAUTION
Do not power out winch cable for more than 10 ft. Use FREE SPOOL for paying out long lengths of cable. Failure to comply may cause damage to the winch.

FREESPOOL
FREESPOOL
Flip both the upper and lower levers to the FREE position to engage the FREESPOOL mode, which allows the drum to turn freely.

This mode is used to manually unwind the winch cable to a desired length when connecting to a load

WINCH LOCKED UP
WINCH LOCKED UP
Flip the upper lever to LOW and the lower lever to HIGH to engage the WINCH LOCKED UP mode, which prevents the drum from turning.

This mode is used to retrieve a load by moving the vehicle instead of winding the winch cable. The WINCH LOCKED UP mode is also used to secure the winch after operations.

Lock LOW gear
Lock LOW gear
Flip the upper lever to LOW and the lower lever to FREE to engage the Lock LOW gear mode, which engages the drum to the winch’s low gear.

This mode is used to power the winch cable in or out slowly.

When unwinding winch cable, do not power out more than 10 ft.

Lock HIGH gear
Lock HIGH gear
Flip the upper lever to FREE and the lower lever to HIGH to engage the Lock HIGH gear mode, which engages the drum to the winch’s high gear.

This mode is used only when it is necessary to power the winch cable in or out rapidly.

When unwinding winch cable, do not power out more than 10 ft.

Recovery
Preparing for Winch Operation
Winch preparations will vary depending on the type of recovery.

Similar-vehicle recovery operations use the recovery vehicle’s winch. When conducting the recovery of a similar vehicle, park the recovery vehicle so that it directly faces the vehicle to be winched.

Self-recovery operations using an anchor vehicle use the disabled vehicle’s winch. If conducting a self-recovery, locate an anchor point or park an anchor vehicle facing the trapped vehicle’s winch.

Additional preparations for recovery and anchor vehicles include:

Shifting the transmission and transfer case to neutral (N)
Applying the parking brake
Chocking the wheels
Starting the engine
Preparations for the disabled vehicle include:

Shifting the transmission and transfer case to neutral (N)
Releasing the parking brake

Recovery
Unwinding the Winch Cable
Use the following sequence to unwind the winch cable.
1) place the winch in FREESPOOL mode
2) Pull the cable and connect the winch hook.
WARNING
When fully extending the hydraulic winch cable, ensure that five wraps of the cable remain on the drum at all times. Failure to do so may cause damage to equipment or injury or death to personnel.

Wear leather gloves when handling the winch cable, but do not slide gloved hands across the winch cable. Injury can result.

Recovery
Pulling the Load
1) Connect the remote control
2) Place the winch in lock LOW gear mode
3) Retrieve the vehicle
4) Remove the winch hook
CAUTION
Direct all personnel to stand clear of winch cable during winch operation. A snapped winch cable may cause injury or death.

Recovery
Winding Up and Securing the Winch Cable
1) WIND THE WINCH CABLE UNDER LOAD
2) WIND THE REMAINING CABLE MANUALLY
3) DISCCONNECT AND STOW THE REMOTE CONTROL
4) PLACE THE WINCH IN WINCH LOCKED UP MODE
5) CAP THE CONTROLLER PLUG

CAUTION
The winch cable must be wound onto the drum under a load of at least 500 lb (227 kg), or the outer cable wraps will draw into the inner wraps and damage the winch cable.

Why is it important to have a load of at least 500 lb on the winch cable when winding it?
To provide the proper tension.

To prevent cable damage.

To prevent the outer cable wraps from drawing into the inner wraps.

Recovery
Troubleshooting Winch Malfunctions
Malfunctions of winch components can be detrimental to the operational capabilities of an ECV.

Troubleshooting malfunctions is slightly different for the two types of winch that may be installed on an ECV:

Electric winch

Hydraulic winch

Recovery
Troubleshooting the Electric Winch
The electric winch is powered by the vehicle’s electrical system. In normal use, the engine should be running so the electrical load is not placed on the battery alone.

In an emergency, the electric winch can be powered by the battery without the vehicle engine running, but this mode of operation will quickly drain the battery.

There are two overload protections that will stop the winch to prevent equipment damage:
Thermal cutoff

Current limiter

Thermal cutoff
Thermal cutoff
If the motor temperature increases to the point that the motor is overheated, a thermal cutoff switch will automatically shut off the winch. If this occurs, you must wait until the motor has had time to cool (at least 2 minutes) before attempting to resume winch operation. If the winch is not operable after waiting 5 minutes, notify unit maintenance.

Current limiter
Current limiter
If the winch is overloaded during winching operations, a current limiter in the winch will stop the winch. If the winch stops repeatedly, but resumes operation in about 5 seconds, this indicates an overload condition.

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Introduction
Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Introduction
The Frag 5 armored door is designed to provide additional protection from small arms fire as well as fragmentation from improvised explosive devices.

Each heavily armored door weighs several hundred pounds. It is also fitted with combat locks to prevent someone from outside the vehicle opening the door to get at the crew.

The same protection against outside danger can trap you inside if your vehicle is damaged or the crew is incapacitated due to enemy action or a vehicle accident. In such emergencies, there are procedures to open or remove the door to rescue the crew inside the vehicle.

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Operator's Manual
Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Operator’s Manual
The vehicle Operator’s Manual Chapter 2 Section III provides instructions for the emergency removal of the Frag 5 door

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Disengaging the Combat Lock from Inside the Vehicle
Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Disengaging the Combat Lock from Inside the Vehicle
From inside of the vehicle, use the combat lock lever to secure and release the combat lock.

If a combat lock cannot be released normally, use the onboard emergency rescue wrench to disengage the combat lock mechanism. Turn the square lugs toward the front of the vehicle.

On the M1114, you can use the interior door handle if the emergency rescue wrench is not readily available.

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
M1114 Interior Door Handle
The M1114’s interior door handle is removable so that it can be used to disengage the combat lock.

To release the combat locks using the door handle:

Remove the lanyard pin and pull the interior door handle off of the door assembly.

Slide the interior door handle onto the square combat lock lug and turn it toward the front of the vehicle. Release both lower and upper locks.

Reinstall the interior door handle and attempt to open the door.

Remove the lanyard pin and pull the interior door handle off of the door assembly.
Remove the lanyard pin and pull the interior door handle off of the door assembly.

Slide the interior door handle onto the square combat lock lug and turn it toward the front of the vehicle. Release both lower and upper locks.
Slide the interior door handle onto the square combat lock lug and turn it toward the front of the vehicle. Release both lower and upper locks.

Reinstall the interior door handle and attempt to open the door.
Reinstall the interior door handle and attempt to open the door.

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Disengaging the Combat Lock from Outside the Vehicle
Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Disengaging the Combat Lock from Outside the Vehicle
In the situations where the crew is injured or unable to free themselves, rescue personnel can disengage the combat locks through access holes on the exterior of the door:

1. Remove combat lock access plate using the emergency rescue wrench.
2. Use the wrench to turn the combat lock lug toward the front of the vehicle approximately 1/4 turn until an audible click is heard or the lug can no longer be turned.
3. Attempt to open the door using the door handle.

Use the emergency rescue wrench to remove the two bolts and washers, and then remove the combat lock access plate from the door.
Use the emergency rescue wrench to remove the two bolts and washers, and then remove the combat lock access plate from the door.
CAUTION
Door assemblies are extremely heavy. Take extra care when opening the door assembly to avoid injury or death to personnel.

If you are inside of a damaged M1114 vehicle and the combat lock cannot be released normally, what tools can you use to disengage the combat lock mechanism in order to open the door?
Emergency rescue wrench
Interior door handle

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Forceful Door Removal
Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Forceful Door Removal
If you are unable to unlock a damaged door using the emergency rescue wrench, you can forcefully remove the door in order to reach the injured or incapacitated crew inside the vehicle.

Forceful removal includes pulling the door open by attaching a chain to a large crew extraction bracket (D-ring) on the door and pulling it open with another vehicle.

To prepare for forceful door removal:

Secure the damaged vehicle to prevent any unwanted movement during the extraction.

Use an armored tow vehicle with a minimum tow rating of at least 18,000 lb.

Position the tow vehicle perpendicular to the damaged vehicle.

Use a strap, chain, or cable with a working load rating of at least 18,000 lb and a minimum length of 10 ft.

WARNING
All personnel not participating in emergency door removal must stand clear of the door assembly during removal. Failure to comply may result in injury or death to personnel or damage to equipment.
NOTE:
You may have a usable strap or chain as a part of your vehicle’s Basic Issue Items (BII).

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Safety Precautions
Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Safety Precautions
Only trained personnel exercising appropriate caution should use the crew extraction bracket (D-ring).

Failure to comply with the following safety precautions may result in injury or death to personnel:

Clear the area of all bystanders to prevent injuries from any potential hardware that may come from the vehicle during door removal.

Door opening will result in hardware from the blast locks becoming secondary projectiles in the crew compartment. Since flying debris may injure the crew, you must assess the condition of the crew and need for emergency removal.

Rescue personnel, including the gunner, should remain inside the rescue vehicle during actual removal of the door.

The gunner hatch on the rescue vehicle should be closed and secured.

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Forceful Door Removal Methods
The decision to forcefully remove an armored door must be based on the extent of damage to the vehicle, the condition of the trapped crew, and the urgency of the situation. Emergency door removal can send metal fragments flying within the vehicle that could further injure the crew.

There are two methods of forceful removal of an armored door from a damaged vehicle:

Quick pull door release

Slow pull door release

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Quick Pull Door Release
To forcefully remove the armored door from a vehicle using the quick pull door release method, complete the following steps:

1. Secure a tow strap, cable, or chain to the D-ring on the door of the damaged vehicle using a shackle or pinch mount. Leave some slack in the chain or strap.

Use a chain or cable with a working load rating of at least 18,000 lb and a minimum length of 10 ft.

2. Accelerate the tow vehicle and pull until the door is parallel with the tow strap and the door handle breaks off.

Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Slow Pull Door Release
Emergency Frag 5 Door Removal
Slow Pull Door Release
To forcefully remove the armored door from a vehicle using the slow pull door release method:

1. Secure the tow strap, chain, or cable to the D-ring using a shackle or pinch mount.

2. Slowly accelerate the tow vehicle until all slack is removed from the tow strap or chain.

3. Continue accelerating the tow vehicle until the door is released.

NOTE: The slow pull door release method may cause the damaged vehicle to drag.

How should you position the tow vehicle to the damaged vehicle when preparing for an emergency forceful door removal?
Perpendicular to the damaged vehicle

Emergency Assistance Procedures
Operator Responsibilities in an Accident
Emergency Assistance Procedures
Operator Responsibilities in an Accident
As an operator of a government vehicle, if you are involved in an accident, you have several responsibilities at the scene.

If you are not injured, make the following actions your priorities:

Render first aid.

Guard against fire and fuel spills.

Contact the police.

Alert other drivers.

Contact your unit.
Select each action to learn

Emergency Assistance Procedures
Render First Aid
Emergency Assistance Procedures
Render First Aid
If the accident results in injuries, you should:

Render first aid to the injured persons immediately.

Request help from emergency medical services.

Emergency Assistance Procedures
Guard Against Fire and Fuel Spills
Gasoline exposed to the air forms a highly flammable vapor. Although HMMWVs use diesel fuel, most civilian vehicles use gasoline for fuel.

If the accident results in a vehicle fire you cannot extinguish, or a fuel spill, call the fire department immediately.

To prevent a fuel spill from catching fire before help arrives:

Immediately shut off the engines of all nearby vehicles.

Prohibit smoking and open flames within 50 ft of the accident.

Spread sand or dirt over spilled fuel as soon as possible

Emergency Assistance Procedures
Contact the Police
The police have a responsibility to investigate all motor vehicle accidents and can assist with traffic control within their jurisdictions. If an accident results in personnel injury or equipment damage, you are required to contact the proper police authority:

If the accident occurs off base, contact the civilian police.

If the accident occurs on base, contact the military police.

Emergency Assistance Procedures
Alert Other Drivers
After an accident, the vehicles, personnel, and those providing assistance are often in the roadway. To alert other drivers to the accident, set warning devices such as:

Warning triangles

Flares
If military personnel are available, post them to warn other drivers of the accident.
NOTE:
Warning triangles are usually carried on your vehicle as basic issue items. Other drivers or emergency personnel will often have additional items such as flares.

Emergency Assistance Procedures
Contact Your Unit
After stabilizing the accident scene, contact your unit to inform them of the accident.

Your military vehicle is involved in an accident with a civilian vehicle off base. There is no fire, but some amount of fuel has spilled on the roadway. You are not injured, but others are.
Render first aid to the injured

You are involved in an accident with another government vehicle on base. There are no injuries. Although both vehicles have been damaged, and yours cannot be driven, there is no spilled or leaking fuel.
Military/base police

Emergency Assistance Procedures
Topic Summary
This topic covered the military vehicle operator’s responsibilities in a motor vehicle accident and the appropriate responses to different types of accidents. These responses include rendering first aid, guarding against fire, guarding against further accidents and contacting the proper police authorities.

Accident-Identification Card
Purpose
Accident-Identification Card
Purpose
The purpose of the Accident-Identification Card (DD Form 518) is to provide the other parties involved in an accident with the information they require from you.

When completed, the form contains the:

-Correspondence address

-Accident date

-Vehicle information

-Driver’s information

What is the purpose of the Accident-Identification Card (DD Form 518)?
To provide the other party involved in an accident with your information

Accident-Identification Card
Card Distribution
Accident-Identification Card
Card Distribution
If you are in an accident, you must complete an Accident-Identification Card (DD Form 518) for each of the other parties involved in the accident. If the accident involves a parked vehicle and its owner is not present, summon authorities and wait for them to arrive. The Accident-Identification Card can be secured to the windshield to provide contact information for the vehicle’s owner.

Accident-Identification Card
Topic Summary
Accident-Identification Card
Topic Summary
This topic covered the steps for completing an Accident-Identification Card (DD Form 518).

If you are involved in an accident, you will fill out the Accident-Identification Card to provide basic information needed by others involved in the accident.

Although there is a block labeled “SSN” you should not place your SSN on the card given to other drivers

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Introduction
Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Introduction
As the operator of a military vehicle, attention to safety and using safe driving techniques are primary concerns. Unfortunately, accidents can still happen.

If you are involved in an accident, one of your responsibilities is to write down information about the accident by completing the Motor Vehicle Accident Report, SF 91.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Standard Form 91
Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Standard Form 91
If you are involved in an accident, complete the Motor Vehicle Accident Report, also known as Standard Form 91 (SF 91).

Timely and accurate completion of the report will protect both you and the government against false claims or exaggerations by others.

When you are assigned a mission, the dispatcher will give you a blank SF 91 with the trip ticket.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Completing SF 91
The Motor Vehicle Accident Report is a four-page document.

As the vehicle operator, you will complete the first nine sections of the form. The remaining four sections will be completed during the accident investigation.

These sections are identified on the form using Roman numerals (for example, Section I through Section IX).

When you enter information on the form, it is important to print clearly.

If information requested in a block or blocks does not apply to your situation, indicate this by entering “Not Applicable” or “N/A” on the form.

NOTE:
If you are injured or unable to complete the form, then a second party can complete the form.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Scenario
In this topic, we will use a scenario to help illustrate the information you should record if you are involved in an accident.

In this example, your name is Cpl Josh Berry and your military driver’s license number is 09-9703. You are driving an M1151A1, vehicle number 521660.

On February 14, 2010, while driving to the motor pool at Ft Leonard Wood, you are involved in an accident at the intersection of 8th Street and Union Street, located in St. Robert, Missouri. While stopped at a traffic light, your vehicle has been rear-ended by a 2008 Ford Expedition.

You and your passenger, Cpl Kelly Raymond, are wearing seatbelts and neither of you are injured. However, the other driver is injured with facial cuts and a possible broken arm. The rear end of your M1151A1 has minor damage. In addition, a mailbox on the side of the road has been knocked over.

Vehicle record jacket
You are involved in an accident while operating a government vehicle. The data plate with the vehicle’s year of manufacture is damaged in the accident and you are unable to read the information. Where else can you look for this information?

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section II – Other Vehicle Data
Section II is used when another vehicle is also involved in the accident. Information about the other vehicle and the vehicle’s operator is recorded in this section.

If more than one other vehicle is involved, record the same information for each of the other vehicles in Section VIII (if space permits) and then on additional sheets of paper that are then attached to the report.

Any limitations outlined on the driver’s license, including not being authorized to drive a motorcycle, are recorded in Block 14.
If, while filling out an SF 91 after a collision between your HMMWV and a motorcycle, you learn that the motorcycle driver is not properly licensed, in which block would you record that information?

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section III – Killed or Injured
Section III records information about accident victims who are killed or injured. The section is divided into three parts:

Part A records information about the accident victim.

Part B duplicates Part A in case a second person was injured or killed.

Block 47 records information about a pedestrian accident victim

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section IV – Accident Time and Location
Section IV records the when, where, and how details of the accident.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section V – Witness/Passenger
Section V, parts A and B, are used to gather information about witnesses. If there are more than two witnesses, record the additional information in Section VIII or on a separate sheet of paper.

Request that each witness fill out a Standard Form 94 (SF 94), Statement of Witness. Like the SF 91, these forms will be issued to you by the dispatcher prior to departure on a mission.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Standard Form 94, Statement of Witness
Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Standard Form 94, Statement of Witness
You should request that each witness to the accident complete an SF 94, Statement of Witness.

Although civilians are not obligated to fill out this form, it is mandatory for a military member or federal employee witness to complete the SF 94.

Each witness should complete a separate SF 94. Information they should provide on the form includes:

The time and location of the accident

A description of the accident

The extent of any injuries they observed

A description of any damage to property they observed
The form contains a diagram that the witness can use to show the accident scene graphically.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section VI – Property Damage
Section VI provides a place to record information about damage to property, such as a damaged mailbox, fence, or building, resulting from an accident.

Record information about any damaged items and the property owner. Do not include vehicle damage in this section.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section VII – Police Information
Section VII records information about the local police or military police who took control of the accident scene, as well as whether someone was charged with the accident.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section VIII – Extra Details
Section VIII is used as extra space on the form. Use this section to complete information entered in other sections or to record additional information, such as additional witnesses or accident victims.

If you use this area to complete a section, be sure to indicate the related section and item number

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section IX – Federal Driver Certification
Section IX provides an explanation of how the information included in this report can and will be used. By filling in blocks 72a and 72b, you legally certify that you have truthfully provided all information.

When you have completed Section IX, you are finished with the portion of the Motor Vehicle Accident Report that is the responsibility of the vehicle operator.

For how many witnesses can information be recorded when completing the Motor Vehicle Accident Report?
The number is not limited

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section X - Details of the Trip During Which Accident Occurred
Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Section X – Details of the Trip During Which Accident Occurred
Your supervisor will complete Section X. In this section, your supervisor will provide information about your trip assignment at the time of the accident.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Sections XI Through XIII
Sections XI through XIII are located on page 4. The investigating officer, if one is assigned, completes these sections.

After the Motor Vehicle Accident Report is completed, it is filed in the vehicle record jacket and is retained until the accident investigation is closed.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
SF 91 - Practice
Motor Vehicle Accident Report
SF 91 – Practice
In this section, you will practice completing an SF 91 to document an accident. For each section of the form, you will choose the appropriate information to enter into selected fields.

The information needed to complete each section is contained in an expanded segment of this scenario, accessed through a scenario button. The basic scenario is as follows:

Cpl James D. Stewart is driving an M1151 en route to Ft. Leonard Wood on 14 February 2010. There is one passenger in the vehicle, Cpl Tom Green.

While crossing an intersection on a green light, the HMMWV is hit on the passenger side by a Dodge Stealth driven by John Miller. The only damage to the M1151 is a dent and some scratches on the passenger door, but there is significant damage to the Stealth. The Stealth also rolls backward and hits a sidewalk newspaper box.

Neither Cpl Stewart or Cpl Green are injured, but Mr. Miller suffers a broken arm. The accident is witnessed by a pedestrian. Local police respond to the scene of the accident.

As Cpl Stewart, you will fill out the accident report, section by section.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Uncooperative or Confrontational Civilian Drivers
If you are involved in an accident with a civilian vehicle and the driver is confrontational or will not cooperate in providing their information, you should document only the information that is available to you at that time. Obtain additional information later from the police report or the insurance company.

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Submitting Forms
Once it has been completed, submit the Motor Vehicle Accident Report, along with SF 94 and DD 518, to the dispatcher or the motor transport chief at the motor pool.

Once completed, to whom should you turn in the Motor Vehicle Accident Report along with SF 94 and DD 518?
To the motor transport chief at the motor pool

To your dispatcher

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Topic Summary
This topic covered the purpose of the Motor Vehicle Accident Report and provided a detailed explanation of the form’s sections and blocks.

You also learned how to fill out sections I though IX of the Motor Vehicle Accident Report.

You are operating an ECV in ambient temperatures greater than 95 degrees F. What coolant temperature indicates that your HMMWV is overheating?
260 degrees F

You are preparing to operate a vehicle which is covered with ice and snow, what actions should you take in addition to the normal Before Operations PMCS precautions?
Scrape off the ice and snow around the air cleaner intake cap

You are operating a HMMWV in weather with limited visibility, in addition to keeping your windshield clear, what other precaution should you take?
Drive at a reduced speed

You are assigned to drive in a night convoy. The convoy commander has instructed all vehicle operators to don night vision goggles. How should you prepare your vehicle lights for the mission
Turn off interior and exterior lights

What is an important safety consideration when driving the HMMWV off-road?
Reduce speed to adapt to weather and terrain conditions

You are preparing to descend an extremely steep hill. What transfer case and gear selections will enable you to use engine compression to help you brake while descending the hill?
Transmission in first (1) gear, transfer case in low (L)

You are planning to ford a stream. Recon shows the water depth to be 47 inches. What is the proper transfer case selection for deep fording?
High lock (H/L)

When connecting a towbar to flat tow a disabled vehicle, what part of the towbar assembly attaches to brackets on the front of the disabled vehicle?
Clevis

Which component keeps the winch cable from rubbing against the bumper of your vehicle?
Fairlead roller

Which winch mode should you use to pull a mired vehicle out of the mud?
Lock LOW gear mode

You are attempting to open a combat-locked door of a damaged HMMWV to provide medical care to the injured crew. Which tool is used to remove the access plate so you can unlock the combat lock?
Emergency rescue wrench

Your military vehicle is involved in an accident with another vehicle. One of the fuel tanks appears to be leaking slowly, and there is some fuel on the roadway. Which of the following is an appropriate action to take while waiting for emergency response personnel?
Spread sand or dirt on leaked fuel

injuries or leaking fuel. Both vehicles have sustained damage, but are driveable. Which of the following is the first action you should take in this situation?
Contact civilian police and report the accident

While driving a HMMWV, you are involved in an accident on base with a smaller vehicle. Which form do you use to provide the other parties involved in the accident with your information?
Accident-Identification Card, (DD 518)

What should you do if you have a motor vehicle accident that affects a parked vehicle and the person concerned is not present?
Summon the authorities and wait for them to arrive

While transporting Marines off-base, your HMMWV is struck by another vehicle. There are some pedestrians who may have seen the accident. Who should you ask to fill out Standard Form 94, Statement of Witness? Select all that apply.
Civilian witnesses

Federal and military pesonnel who saw the accident

Motor Vehicle Accident Report
Comprehension Check
If, while filling out an SF 91 after a collision between your HMMWV and a motorcycle, you learn that the motorcycle driver is not properly licensed, in which block would you record that information?

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