APUSH Ch. 31-33

Reasons for entering WWI
Unrestricted submarine warfare, Zimmerman note, the Bolshevik Revolution, and to make the world safe for democracy

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters

Zimmerman Note
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.

The Bolshevik Revolution
Led by the radical Lenin, the Bolsheviks took control of the Russian Revolution and Russia was under “Communist” rule.

Espionage Act
Imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty.

Sedition Act
made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government

Great Migration
Movement of millions of African Americans to the north in search of work and fair treatment.

War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries. Headed by Bernard Baruch

Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people’s minds for war, both in America and abroad.

Food Administration
This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.

National War Labor Board
During WWII it mediated disputes between management and laborers to prevent strikes Chaired by William Taft.

George Creel
Headed the Committee on Public Information, for promoting the war effort in WWI

Herbert Hoover
He was the head of the Food Administration who also led a charity drive to feed Belgians. He ensured the success of the Food Administration and created a surplus of food through volunteer actions.

Bernard Baruch
Head of the War Industries Board, which attempted to impose some order on the U.S. war production

William Howard Taft
Head of National War Labor Board

Fourteen Points
Mainly to abolish secret treaties, for freedom of the seas, removal of economic barriers, reduction of armament, adjustment of colonial claims, self determination, and the League of Nations.

Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland.

League of Nations
An international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations.

Irreconcilables
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations

Reservationists
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made – led by Henry Cabot Lodge

18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

19th Amendment
gave women the right to vote

Immigration Act of 1924
Also known as the Johnson-Reed Act. Federal law limiting the number of immigrants that could be admitted from any country to 2% of the amount of people from that country who were already living in the U.S. as of the census of 1890.

Emergency Quota Act of 1921
1921 legislation that limited immigration to 3% of the people of their nationality living in the US in 1910.

Red Scare
Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas

Palmer Raids
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organizations.

Ku Klux Klan
Spawned by the postwar reaction. Anti-foreign, Catholic, black, Jewish, pacifist, Communist, internationalist, evolutionist, bootlegger, gambling, adultery and birth control. Pro Anglo-Saxon, “native” American, and Protestant. Spread mainly in the Midwest and Bible Belt South.

Volstead Act
Specified that no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act.

gangsters
Violent organized crime members who took over the job of supplying alcohol to speakeasies.

John Scopes
Tennessee high school teacher who violated a state law by teaching evolution.

Installment Plan
A payment plan that allows customers to make payments at set intervals over a period of time until the total debt is paid

Frederick W. Taylor
an engineer, an inventor, and a tennis player. He sought to eliminate wasted motion. Famous for scientific-management especially time-management studies. Father of scientific management.

Henry Ford
American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.

Jazz music
Founded in New Orleans. Spread with the Great Migration.

The Jazz Singer
First “talkie” movie.

Hemingway
The sun also rises

Fitzgerald
The Great Gatsby; This Side of Paradise

Lewis
Main Street; Babbitt

Faulkner
Soldier’s Pay; The Sound and the Fury; As I Lay Dying

Buying stock “on margin”
Paying only part of the cost of the stock and borrowing the rest from investors.

Clarence Darrow
Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools.

William Jennings Bryan
Joined the prosecution of Scopes

J. Edgar Hoover
The director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation who investigated and harassed alleged radicals.

Margaret Sanger
she organized a birth-control movement which openly championed the use of contraceptives in the 1920’s.

Andrew Mellon
Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy and higher tariffs

Adkins v. Children’s Hospital
Supreme Court case that invalidated Muller v. Oregon, declaring that since women now had the vote, they were equal to men and undeserving of special protection

isolationism
a national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs

Kellogg-Briand Pact
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another

Dawes Plan
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S.

Teapot Dome scandal
Scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money

McNary-Haugen Bill
it sought to keep agricultural prices high by having the government buy surpluses to sell abroad, vetoed twice by Coolidge

Hawley-Smoot Tariff
charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation

Bob La Follette
targeted railroad industry, taxed railroad property. Governor of Wisconsin (will of people). He introduced reforms to give voters a more direct voice in government.

Rugged Individualism
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Herbert Hoover.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression.

Bonus Expeditionary Force
thousands of WWI veterans, who insisted on immediate payment of their bonus certificates, they marched on Washington in 1932.

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