OSHA 30 Hour Study Guide

The OSH Act is also known by what other name?
Public Law 91-596

What occupational groups do not come under OSHA coverage?
Self-employed, immediate members of farming families not employing outside workers, mine workers, certain truckers and transportation workers, atomic energy workers who are covered by other federal agencies, public employees in state and local governments, although some states have their own plans that cover these workers

Name three actions OSHA uses to carry out its mission.
Developing job safety and health standards and enforcing them through worksite inspections; Maintaining a reporting and recordkeeping system to keep track of job-related injuries and illnesses; Providing training programs to increase knowledge about occupational safety and health

Which states have developed public sector state plans?
Connecticut, New Jersey, Illinois, New York

OSHA requires that each employer post certain materials in a prominent location at the workplace. What materials are these?
Job Safety and Health Protection (Workplace Poster OSHA 3165) informing employees of their rights and responsibilities under the OSH Act; Summaries of petitions for variances from standards or recordkeeping procedures; Copies of OSHA citations for violations of standards

If an employer disagrees with the results of the OSHA inspection, he or she may submit a written objection to OSHA, called what?
A contest

Workers’ safety and health responsibilities include what six?
Read OSHA poster; Follow employer’s safety and health rules and wear or use all required PPE; Follow safe work practices for your job, as directed by your employer; Report hazardous conditions to a supervisor or safety committee; Report hazardous conditions to OSHA if employers do not fix them; Cooperation with OSHA inspectors

Employer recordkeeping responsibilities involves not only setting up a reporting system and providing copies of logs upon request, but also posting annual summaries and what else?
Post OSHA citations and abatement verification notices

What types of workplaces are exempt from recordkeeping requirements?
Employers’ with 10 employees or less

Which general industry workers are among the most exposed to lead?
Plumbers, welders, and painters

OSHA also requires that employers pay for most required PPE, except for what types that may be worn off the job?
Except for uniforms, items worn to keep clean, weather-related gear, logging boots, and non-specialty safety toe protective footwear and non-specialty prescription safety eyewear, as long as the employer permits the items to be worn off the job site.

What four categories do OSHA standards fall into?
General Industry, Construction, Maritime, and Agriculture

OSHA issues standards for a wide variety of workplace hazards, including what seven?
Toxic substances, electric hazards, fall hazards, hazardous waste, machine hazards, fire and explosion hazards, dangerous atmospheres

What are the four priority categories of OSHA inspection?
Imminent Danger, Fatality/ Catastrophe, Complaints/ Referrals, Programmed Inspections

What are four major stages of an OSHA inspection and what occurs during each?
1. Presenting Credentials: CSHO finds out who is in charge and presents his or her credentials. An employer can require OSHA get a warrant before an inspection is made.
2. Opening Conference: CSHO finds out if workers are represented, and makes sure representative participates in all phases of the inspection.
a. Explains why OSHA selected the worksite for inspection
b. Obtains information about company, including copy of hazard assessment to see what PPE is necessary
c. Explains purpose of the visit, scope of the inspection, walkaround procedures, worker representation, private worker interviews and the closing conference
d. Determines whether facility falls under any inspection exemption through a voluntary compliance program (if consultation visit)
3. Walkaround: proceed through workplace and violations are observed and documented, may interview workers, monitor worker exposures
4. Closing Conference: violations and estimated times for correction are discussed; informed of rights and responsibilities related to inspection; citations are sent in mail at later date

Citations inform the employer and employees of what four matters?
Regulations and standards the employer allegedly violated; any hazardous working conditions covered by the OSH Act’s General Duty Clause; proposed length of time set for abatement of hazards; any proposed penalties

How are willful, serious, other-than-serious, and repeated violations defined?
Willful Violation: violation employer intentionally and knowingly commits or a violation that employer commits with plan indifference to the law.
Serious Violation: where there is a substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could result and the employer knew, or should have known of the hazard.
Other-Than-Serious Violation: violation that has direct relationship to safety and health, but would probably not cause death or serious physical harm.
Repeated Violation: a violation that is the same or similar to a previous violation.

OSHA considers some jobs and tasks very hazardous, such as what?
Locking out machinery

What are QuickCards?
Small, laminated cards that provide brief, plain language safety and health information for workers

What can a worker request if he or she is currently an employee at a workplace of concern (meaning, where workers are getting sick from an unknown cause or are exposed to an agent or working condition that is not regulated by OSHA), if he or she has obtained the signatures of two other workers?
Can request an HHE through NIOSH => Health Hazard Evaluation of workplaces where hazard is an unknown cause or working condition not regulated by OSHA.

Respiratory protection can be obtained through two basic types of respirators; name them and describe their functions?
Air-purifying respirator: removes contaminants by air passing through air-purifying component
Atmosphere-Supplying respirator: provides user with breathable air not from ambient atmosphere (2 other types: Supplied-air respirators use hose called an airline to provide clean air from the air tank & Self-contained breathing apparatus: consists of a hose that is connected to cylinder of compressed air)

What does a personal fall arrest system include?
a body harness worn around torso, overhead anchor which lanyard is connected (anchor must support 5,000 lbs per employee), a lanyard connecting harness to anchor

What three types of ladders can be found at a worksite?
Self-supporting portable ladders, non-self-supporting portable ladders, fixed ladders

How many inches must a guardrail be in height, and how many rails must each one have?
must be 42 inches tall, and have 3 rails

When entering a confined space, aside from blocking piping, checking the atmosphere, and wearing proper PPE, what must a person also do?
make certain they are able to communicate with attendants outside space before entering

List five characteristics of heat stress.
headaches, thirst, nausea, muscle cramps, dizziness and weakness

What disorder besides frostbite is caused by extreme cold?

Employees with frostbite must not move or rub the affected area, but must instead warm it slowly to avoid causing what?
warm slowly to avoid causing irreversible tissue damage

What are the three major elements of the guarding floor and wall openings and holes section?
protection of floor openings; protection of open-sided floors, platforms, and runways; stairway railings and guards

Provide standard railing with a standard toeboard on the open sides wherever what three conditions are true?
persons may pass, there is moving equipment, there are tools or materials that could fall to the lower level

Improper aisle widths coupled with poor housekeeping and vehicle traffic can cause what three complications?
cause injury to employees, cause damage to equipment and material, and limit egress in emergencies

Floor hole
opening in floor, platform or pavement that measures less than 12 inches, but more than 1 inch, and through which materials – but not people- may fall.

Floor opening
opening in floor, platform,or pavement measuring 12 inches or more in its least dimension through which persons may fall

Standard railing
consist of top, mid, and bottom rail; height from the upper surface is one-half as high as the top rail (or 21 inches)

Standard toeboard
blocks opening along base/floor of stairs or other walking or working surfaces where materials or body parts might otherwise inadvertently fall through. Should be 4 inches high, with not more than 1/4 in. clearance above the floor.

Wall opening
an opening in a wall or partitions that is at least 30 inches high and 18 inches wide through which persons may fall

When inspecting the conditions of stairways in a workplace, you should inspect what in particular?
Handrails and stair rails; treads; other factors (risers, housekeeping, width, absence of oil or liquids, etc.)

A non self-supporting portable ladder adjustable in length may not exceed how many feet?
may not exceed 30 ft. in length

contents/materials that can burn rapidly, or explosions or poisonous fumes that can escalate the severity of a fire

The refuge area is a fire- and smoke-protected space within a building along an exit route. The refuge area must have a fire-resistance rating of at least how much?
fire-resistance rating of at least one hour

What type of door should be used in order to connect any room to an exit route?
a single-hinged door

When must the Emergency Exit Plan be reviewed with each employee?
when plan is developed, when employee’s responsibility is changed under the action plan; when the plan is changed in any significant way

What seven elements must be included in the Fire Protection Plan?
list of major fire hazards; procedures of handling/ storage of all hazardous materials, potential ignition sources and their control; list of the types of equipment/systems used to control the fire with their handling/ storage procedures; procedures to control the accumulation of flammable and combustible waste materials; procedures for the regular maintenance of safeguards installed on heat-producing equipment to prevent accidental ignition of combustible materials; job titles/ names of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent or control sources of ignition or fires; job titles/ names of employees responsible for control of fuel source hazards

Typical elements and components of a “fixed extinguishing system” must include what eight?
1. discharge nozzles, 2. piping, 3. control panel, 4. agent storage containers, 5. hazard warning sign, 6. fire detector, 7. manual discharge station (pull station), 8. warning alarm

What two specific workplace hazards does carbon dioxide share with halon?
exposure to high concentrations may create oxygen-deficient atmosphere & direct contact with vaporizing liquid during discharge can cause frostbite burns on skin

What additional workplace hazards does halon pose?
inhalation can cause damage to CNS: dizziness, tingling in extremities, unconsciousness; increased sensitivity to heart adrenaline, irregular heartbeats, heart attack; at temp. above 900F create toxic gas

Oxygen deficient atmosphere
atmosphere containing less than 19.5% oxygen by volume

Distinguish between the three subclasses of Class I liquids.
IA: Flashpt. below 73F (22.8C) and Bp below 100F (37.8C)
IB: Flashpt. below 73F and Bp at or above 100F
IC: Flashpt. at or above 73F and below 100F

Distinguish between the two classes of combustible liquids. Which of these two classes is further subdivided?
Class II: flashpt. at or above 100F and below 140F (60C)
Class III: flashpt. at or above 140F; further divided into two subclasses

Contrast the subdivisions of this further subdivided combustible.
IIIA: flashpt. at or above 140 and below 200F
IIIB: flashpt. at or above 200F

What must you do if you discover a fire in your workplace?
activate emergency action plan, activate fire alarms in building, shutdown equipment and appliances in immediate area of fire if possible, evacuate work area immediately, try to isolate the fire area, use portable fire extinguishers if trained, help others to evacuate if safe, provide complete details of incident to police, account team members by reporting anyone missing, do not enter building until instructed to do so, observe any other procedures contained in facility’s EAP

What information is mandatory for the label of every chemical container?
Contents of container, name & address of manufacturer & way to contact them, health & physical hazards, recommended PPE

It is the responsibility of employers to develop and implement a written safety and health program for their employees associated with hazardous waste operations. The program must be designed to do what?
The program must be designed to: identify, evaluate, and control safety and health hazards, and for emergency response of employees when they are performing a hazardous waste operation.

It is the employer’s responsibility to provide medical examinations and consultations to each employee. How often must these be conducted?
before an assignment; at least every 12 mo. unless physician believe longer/ more frequent interval appropriate (not greater than biennially); at termination/ reassignment to area where employee would not be covered if has not had an examination within the last six months; if employee develops signs of exposure, is injured, or exposed above PEL or published exposure levels in emergency situation.

To whom should a safety and health program be made available?
Must be available for inspection by employees, their representatives, and OSHA personnel.

What does the hazard communication program cover?
Covers both physical and health hazards.

Name four examples of IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) hazards.
confined space entry, potentially explosive or flammable situations, visible vapor clouds, areas where biological indicators such as dead animals or vegetation are located

Unlabeled drums and containers must be assumed to contain what?
must be assumed to contain hazardous substances

What eleven points must be included in the emergency response plan?
pre-emergency planning; personal roles, lines of authority, training and communication; emergency recognition and prevention; safe distances and places of refuge; site security and control; evacuation routes and procedures; decontamination procedures not covered by the site’s safety and health plan; emergency medical treatment and first aid; emergency alerting and response procedures; critique of response and follow-up; PPE and emergency equipment

The employer shall provide training to each employee using PPE. Each employee shall be trained in at least what six areas?
when and why PPE necessary; what PPE is required for certain jobs; how to put on, take off, adjust and wear PPE; limitations of PPE; care, maintenance, disposal of PPE; how damaged, worn out or defective PPE can be replaced

When PPE is required to protect employees, it must be provided by the employer at no cost to employees, except for specific items, such as what four?
safety-toe footwear, prescription safety eyewear, everyday clothing and weather-related gear, logging boots

According to this study, approximately how many injured workers were wearing some form of eye protection when the accident occurred but not the correct eye protection for the job being done?
40% of injured workers

The BLS found that almost how many of the accidents studied results from flying or falling objects or sparks striking the eye?

If employees accidentally get something into their eyes, they must go directly to the eyewash station and flush their eyes with water for how long?
15 minutes

In general, what are six safe work practices employees should use?
attend all required training sessions; wear PPE as required; clean & maintain PPE as required; inform supervisor of need to repair or replace PPE; follow all warnings and precautions; listen and follow directions

What are four basic methods of controlling breathing hazards and what do they include?
substitution: replacing hazardous material for a non-hazardous one or less hazardous one
Engineering control: enclosing process so contaminants do not get into workplace, improving ventilation and changing equipment or processes
Administrative controls: restricting access to contaminated areas, limiting total time workers are exposed & housekeeping procedures
PPE: personal protective equipment

What four basic questions must be answered in choosing proper respirator?
What type of contaminant is present?
what is the form of the contaminant?
how toxic is the contaminant?
What is the concentration of the contaminant?

To properly inspect a respirator before using it, what six things should one look for?
chips/ cracks in faceplate; cracks/holes in breathing tube/ airlines; worn or frayed straps; worn/ damaged fittings; bent or corroded buckles; dirty or improper seated valves

Repetitive motion problems often appear as a numb or tingling
sensation accompanied by what else?
accompanied by pain and loss of gripping power

What are the instructions for the removal of contaminated gloves?
1. pull one glove near wrist towards fingertips until glove folds over
2. grab fold and pull towards fingertips, turning glove inside-out
3. pull on fold until glove almost off
4. continue to hold removed glove and completely remove hand from glove
5.slide finger under remaining glove, slide finger towards fingertips until half finger under glove
6. turn finger 180 degrees and pull glove outward and toward fingertips; first glove encased in second glove; second glove inside-out
7. grab gloves and pull second hand free from glove

Oxygen enriched atmosphere
atmosphere containing more than 23.5% oxygen by volume

What order of testing a confined space follows the OSHA standard?
1. Oxygen content
2. Flammable gases and vapors
3. potential toxic air contaminants

An atmosphere that contains less than how much oxygen is considered oxygen deficient?
less than 19.5% oxygen

At what level of oxygen content would one tire quickly and not think clearly?
16% oxygen

According to OSHA, an atmosphere is classified as oxygen-enriched if it contains an oxygen concentration greater than how much?
concentration greater than 23.5%

What three components cause the atmosphere to become flammable?
fuel and oxygen, proper proportion, source of ignition

When are confined space employers required to provide
additional training?
job duties change, some changes have been made in permit space program, permit-required space presents new hazards, employee’s job performance demonstrates inadequacies in knowledge or use of prescribed procedures

Attendants are responsible for those workers in confined spaces. What
are five of their duties?
1) know hazards that may be faced
2) know behavioral effects of exposure to hazards
3) maintain accurate count of entrants and ensure permit identifies personnel present in space
4) remain outside permit space at all times
5) maintain effective communication with entrants to monitor status

Name four duties of entry
1) canceling permit if unacceptable conditions arise during entry
2) make sure all entry-permit requirements are satisfied
3) making sure rescue services are available and can be summoned when required
4) ensure terms of permit are followed and entry conditions are maintained

Who is responsible for performing
non-entry rescues?
the attendant

Who is responsible for conducting pre-planning meetings with all employees who may be involved in permit-required confined space entries?
Entry Supervisor

What other energy sources aside from electricity pose potential hazards?
thermal, chemical, pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical and gravity are energy sources that can pose a potential hazard

Energy Isolation devices include what types?
manually operated electrical circuit breaker, disconnect switch, manually operated switch by which conductors of circuit can be disconnected from under ground supply conductors and no pole can be operated independently; live valve; block

What protective materials and hardware must be provided by employer for isolating, securing, or blocking machines from energy sources?
locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners

What sequence of actions must occur in the temporary removal of the lockout/ tagout devices?
1. machine cleared of tools and materials
2. employees removed from machine or equipment area
3. all lockout/ tagout devices removed
4. authorized employee proceed to energize and test machine
5. after testing, all systems deenergized and energy control measures reapplied to continue maintenance

What procedures must be followed that will offer group employees the same protection that is provided to individual employees?
1) implementation of a personal lockout/tagout device
2) primary responsibility for set number of employees working under protection of group lockout/tagout device must be vested in single authorized employee
3) single authorized employee must determine exposure status of individual group members
4) if more than one crew, dept. or group involved, single authorized employees must be designated to coordinate affected workforces and ensure continuity of protection
5) each authorized employee must affix a personal lockout/tagout device to machine when work begins and remove it when works is completed

Authorized employees shall receive training in the recognition of what three areas?
applicable hazardous energy sources; type and magnitude of energy available in workplace; methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control

Retraining shall be provided for all authorized and affected employees whenever there is a change in what?
job assignments; machines or process that presents new hazard; energy control procedures

What is the intent of the requirement for the employer to conduct periodic inspections?
to ensure employees training is an accomplishment and is being up to date

What triggers the retraining requirements for employees?
when deviations from or inadequacies in employee’s knowledge or use of the energy control programs

To prevent injury from oversized loads, workers should seek to help in what situations?

When picking up items with at powered industrial truck, workers must do what?

The restraining device or barrier must be removed immediately from service if any of which defects are noticed?
cracks at welds; cracked or broken components; bent or sprung components caused by mishandling, tire explosion or rim wheel separation; pitting of components due to corrosion; structural damage

Tires must be completely deflated before demounting by removing valve core, particularly in the event of what two instances?
1) tire has been driven at 80% or less of its recommended pressure
2) obvious or suspected damage to tire or wheel components

Some powered industrial trucks are designed, constructed and assembled for use in atmospheres containing flammable vapors and dust. These include powered industrial trucks equipped with what?

Employers must also conduct an evaluation as well as refresher training if one of what five conditions applies?

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