APUSH Ch. 24-26

In response to President Franklin Roosevelt’s first days in office, the American people
A. believed the depression was largely over.
B. felt a mixture of relief and hope.
C. concluded the economy was not as bad off as they once had believed.
D. felt the Hoover administration must be held accountable for the economic crisis.
E. began to believe they had made a mistake in voting for Roosevelt.
B. felt a mixture of relief and hope.

In 1933, two days after he took office, President Franklin Roosevelt
A. took the country off the gold standard.
B. ended prohibition.
C. sent the National Industrial Recovery Act to Congress.
D. presented to Congress a relief plan for the unemployed.
E. closed all banks.
E. closed all banks.

The Economy Act of 1933
A. proposed to balance the federal budget and cut government workers’ salaries.
B. ordered all federal agencies to cut their workforce by ten percent.
C. gave immediate pensions to retired war veterans.
D. provided an infusion of cash into the economy.
E. gave the government authority to curb irresponsible speculation by banks.
A. proposed to balance the federal budget and cut government workers’ salaries.

The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 established
A. the Federal Reserve Board in Washington.
B. the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
C. the Securities and Exchange Commission.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
B. the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

In 1933, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
A. offered financial protection for stock investors.
B. gave the government authority to transfer the funds of failing banks to strong banks.
C. protected the assets of small bank depositors.
D. protected banks from failing.
E. prevented banks from speculating irresponsibly.
C. protected the assets of small bank depositors.

To oversee activities in the stock market, in 1934, Congress established the
A. Securities and Exchange Commission.
B. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
C. Federal Reserve Board.
D. Glass-Steagall Act.
E. Federal Emergency Relief Association.
A. Securities and Exchange Commission.

The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933
A. sought to raise crop prices by paying farmers not to plant.
B. set minimum prices for retailers purchasing farm products.
C. provided farmers with free seed and fertilizer.
D. offered financial incentives to farmers who improved their production yields.
E. created government warehouses where farmers could store their crops and use them as collateral.
A. sought to raise crop prices by paying farmers not to plant.

The Agricultural Adjustment Act
A. favored small farm operations over large ones.
B. fostered further instability in the agricultural economy.
C. protected tenant farmers.
D. failed to improve farm prices.
E. was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
E. was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

The New Deal program which created utility cooperatives for rural Americans was the
A. Resettlement Administration.
B. Farm Security Administration.
C. Rural Electrification Administration.
D. Civilian Conservation Corps.
E. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act.
C. Rural Electrification Administration.

The National Recovery Administration of 1933 did all of the following EXCEPT
A. establish a minimum wage for labor.
B. make child industrial labor illegal.
C. set a standard for the maximum hours one could work in a week.
D. increase competition between companies.
E. set floors under prices.
D. increase competition between companies.

During the first year of the National Recovery Act
A. industry saw prices rise.
B. industrial production declined.
C. large producers consistently dominated the code-writing process.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

The Tennessee Valley Authority of 1933
A. saw private farmers and business leaders dominate its planning process.
B. was the most controversial program of the early New Deal.
C. was one of the costliest failures of the Roosevelt administration.
D. was headed by former electricity magnate Samuel Insull.
E. was an experiment in regional planning by the federal government.
E. was an experiment in regional planning by the federal government.

All of the following occurred as a result of the Tennessee Valley Authority EXCEPT
A. flooding was almost entirely eliminated in the affected region.
B. the cost of power from private companies declined.
C. poverty in the region was significantly reduced.
D. water transportation was improved.
E. electricity was provided to thousands of new users.
C. poverty in the region was significantly reduced.

During its first year, the Civil Works Administration
A. put four million people to work.
B. provided relief funds but not relief work.
C. planned for major building projects such as dams, airports, and power plants.
D. made little progress in helping the jobless.
E. was soon replaced by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.
A. put four million people to work.

The Civilian Conservation Corps
A. was racially integrated.
B. put the unemployed to work on rural and wilderness areas.
C. included women.
D. mostly employed the jobless rural poor.
E. passed Congress despite Roosevelt’s ambivalence about the project.
B. put the unemployed to work on rural and wilderness areas.

In 1934, strong criticism of the New Deal came from
A. the political far right.
B. the political far left.
C. dissident populists such as Huey Long.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

In 1934, the American Liberty League was formed
A. to help win public support for the more controversial New Deal programs.
B. by western business leaders who felt ignored by the New Deal.
C. to unite southerners who opposed the New Deal’s support of unions.
D. by a coalition of radical and semiradical organizations, including the Socialist Party.
E. by wealthy conservatives who strongly opposed the New Deal.
E. by wealthy conservatives who strongly opposed the New Deal.

In 1934, Dr. Francis Townsend attracted widespread national support for a plan that
A. offered medical insurance for the poor and elderly.
B. was strongly supported by Congress.
C. helped pave the way for the Social Security system.
D. guaranteed all able-bodied Americans over age twenty-one a full-time job.
E. provided below-cost health care to children and pregnant women.
C. helped pave the way for the Social Security system.

Much of Father Charles Coughlin’s outspoken criticism of the Roosevelt administration revolved around the issue of
A. the right of labor to organize in unions.
B. giving public relief jobs to women with children.
C. the repeal of prohibition.
D. changing the banking and currency system.
E. taxing excess corporate profits and surplus riches.
D. changing the banking and currency system.

In 1935, Senator Huey Long
A. advocated a “flat tax” plan.
B. had a strong record of progressive accomplishments.
C. according to opinion polls, had as much popular support as Franklin Roosevelt.
D. declared he would seek the Democratic nomination for president in 1936.
E. advocated a $200 monthly pension for all Americans over the age of sixty.
B. had a strong record of progressive accomplishments.

The “Second New Deal” was launched in response to
A. the growth of popular protests across the nation.
B. the persistence of the Great Depression.
C. the coming presidential election of 1936.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

All of the following programs were part of the “Second New Deal” EXCEPT
A. the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.
B. the Wagner Act.
C. the Holding Company Act.
D. the Social Security Act.
E. the National Labor Relations Act.
A. the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.

During the “Second New Deal,” President Franklin Roosevelt
A. moved away from altering the income tax.
B. called for greater civil rights for American minority groups.
C. introduced government-funded unemployment checks.
D. rejected legislative attempts by Senator Robert Wagner to strengthen labor.
E. became more willing to attack corporate interests openly.
E. became more willing to attack corporate interests openly.

The National Labor Relations Act of 1935
A. ended the labor practice of a “closed shop.”
B. gave the government the authority to force employers to accept labor unions.
C. enforced the labor practice of an “open shop.”
D. resulted in the Supreme Court’s striking down of the Wagner Act.
E. invalidated Section 7(a) of the National Industrial Recovery Act.
B. gave the government the authority to force employers to accept labor unions.

In the 1930s, industrial unionism was
A. considerably strengthened by New Deal legislation.
B. supported by the American Federation of Labor.
C. opposed by labor leaders such as John L. Lewis.
D. generally hostile to blacks and women.
E. losing support among unskilled laborers.
A. considerably strengthened by New Deal legislation.

In the 1930s, the industrial union movement
A. was most interested in attracting skilled laborers.
B. decided it was better to organize by companies than by entire industries.
C. grew more militant and powerful.
D. saw many of its leaders take top executive jobs in major companies.
E. became the dominant force in the American Federation of Labor.
C. grew more militant and powerful.

In the 1930s, the Congress of Industrial Organization
A. grew out of a dispute within the American Federation of Labor.
B. was less militant than the American Federation of Labor.
C. would not accept women or blacks as members.
D. confined its organizing to the steel and coal industries.
E. refused to get involved in organizing the automobile industry.
A. grew out of a dispute within the American Federation of Labor.

During the 1930s, the sit-down strike
A. was first used in the steel industry.
B. was a new and controversial labor tactic.
C. was upheld by the courts and state governments.
D. was eventually broken by the Michigan National Guard.
E. All the answers are correct.
B. was a new and controversial labor tactic.

During the 1937 sit-down strike of General Motors, the federal government
A. actively sided with the strikers.
B. actively sided with the company.
C. assumed control of the plant.
D. negotiated a settlement through federal arbitration.
E. refused to intervene in the dispute.
E. refused to intervene in the dispute.

In 1937, in regards to the organizing of industrial labor,
A. small steel companies more quickly unionized than did large steel companies.
B. the effort to organize the steel industry proved easier than in the auto industry.
C. the “Memorial Day Massacre” saw striking U.S. Steel employees killed by police.
D. the great majority of strikes were settled in favor of the unions.
E. a key strike against Republic Steel of Chicago succeeded in winning union recognition.
D. the great majority of strikes were settled in favor of the unions.

The Social Security Act of 1935
A. initially only offered a pension for retired workers.
B. did not begin making payments to participants for years.
C. covered all full-time working American citizens.
D. was opposed by President Franklin Roosevelt as being too costly.
E. originally included a program for universal health care.
B. did not begin making payments to participants for years.

The Works Progress Administration of 1935
A. gave federal relief money to those deemed “unemployable.”
B. displayed very little flexibility or imagination.
C. provided mostly “make-work” jobs to the unemployed.
D. was under the direction of Secretary of Labor Francis Perkins.
E. was much larger than previous programs of its kind.
E. was much larger than previous programs of its kind.

The Works Progress Administration provided federal assistance to
A. artists and sculptors.
B. actors and directors.
C. writers and musicians.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

In the 1930s, the New Deal generally gave
A. work relief to both men and women.
B. cash assistance to both men and women.
C. work relief to women and cash assistance to men.
D. work relief to men and cash assistance to women.
E. both work relief and cash assistance to men and women.
D. work relief to men and cash assistance to women.

The election of 1936
A. saw Franklin Roosevelt opposed by the Republican, William Lemke.
B. was considered “too close to call” by opinion polls in the weeks prior to the vote.
C. produced a new and enduring coalition of voters for the Democratic Party.
D. saw third-party challengers play a major role in the outcome.
E. saw the Republican challenger pick up considerable gains in the formerly “Solid South.”
C. produced a new and enduring coalition of voters for the Democratic Party.

All of the following groups were part of the New Deal political coalition EXCEPT
A. big business owners.
B. the working class.
C. urban blacks.
D. western and southern farmers.
E. liberals and progressives.
A. big business owners.

In 1937, President Franklin Roosevelt’s call to expand the Supreme Court came from
A. complaints by several justices that they were being overworked.
B. a desire not to have to choose between two different popular candidates for Chief Justice.
C. a Democratic plan to gain the party permanent control of the federal government.
D. his opinion that the Court needed to review a larger number of cases.
E. his desire to change the ideological balance of the Court.
E. his desire to change the ideological balance of the Court.

President Franklin Roosevelt’s proposal to expand the Supreme Court
A. had little effect on future rulings by the Court.
B. did little political damage to his administration.
C. drew significant support from conservatives.
D. was eventually defeated in Congress.
E. gained Roosevelt the support of southern Democrats.
D. was eventually defeated in Congress.

In 1937, President Franklin Roosevelt decided
A. that there should be a sharp increase in New Deal spending.
B. the federal government would never be able to end the depression.
C. the federal work programs would have to be continued indefinitely.
D. that he should try to balance the federal budget.
E. that Social Security should be expanded to include agricultural and domestic laborers.
D. that he should try to balance the federal budget.

During the recession of 1937,
A. Congressional Republicans took most of the blame.
B. the economy was as bad as during the worst period of the Hoover administration.
C. industrial production faltered but employment remained steady.
D. it became apparent that New Deal programs made little impact on economic conditions.
E. Roosevelt tried to mitigate the damage by reducing spending.
B. the economy was as bad as during the worst period of the Hoover administration.

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
A. signified the start of a new round of New Deal legislation.
B. sought to eliminate hiring discrimination based on race, but not gender.
C. did not include a provision regarding working hours.
D. established a national minimum wage.
E. created an enforcement mechanism to protect unions’ right to organize.
D. established a national minimum wage.

By the end of 1938,
A. the nation had largely emerged from the Depression.
B. President Roosevelt began what became known as the “Third New Deal.”
C. Congress had come to accept the need for further reforms.
D. the American public had come to strongly oppose the New Deal.
E. the New Deal had largely come to an end.
E. the New Deal had largely come to an end.

Under the New Deal, African Americans
A. were generally treated equally with other races.
B. received no significant appointments in the Roosevelt White House.
C. received more sympathy than under most previous administrations.
D. were able to challenge many patterns of race discrimination effectively.
E. found the government hostile to black aspirations.
C. received more sympathy than under most previous administrations.

The most influential advocate for African Americans in the Roosevelt administration was
A. Frances Perkins.
B. Harold Ickes.
C. Harry Hopkins.
D. Eleanor Roosevelt.
E. Mary McLeod Bethune.
D. Eleanor Roosevelt.

African Americans employed by New Deal relief programs
A. were paid the same wages as whites doing the same jobs.
B. were among the first to be released when funds ran out.
C. saw existing patterns of discrimination dismantled.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
B. were among the first to be released when funds ran out.

New Deal policy toward American Indians
A. continued past government policies.
B. favored Indian assimilation into the larger white culture.
C. was grounded in a commitment to cultural relativism.
D. encouraged Indians to own land as individuals, rather than collectively.
E. led to a considerable decrease in tribal lands.
C. was grounded in a commitment to cultural relativism.

John Collier is to be associated with New Deal
A. Indian policies.
B. programs for African Americans.
C. health programs for children.
D. initiatives for the working class.
E. administration of public works.
A. Indian policies.

Frances Perkins, the first female cabinet member in American history, was secretary of
A. commerce.
B. agriculture.
C. labor.
D. health and human services.
E. education.
C. labor.

All of the following statements regarding the New Deal and women are true EXCEPT
A. the New Deal sanctioned sexually discriminatory wage rates.
B. New Deal relief agencies offered relatively little employment for women.
C. women were encouraged to leave the workplace to help men get jobs.
D. many occupations dominated by women were excluded from Social Security.
E. in general, women were major critics of the New Deal.
E. in general, women were major critics of the New Deal.

In the American West, New Deal programs
A. were limited and had a minimal impact on life.
B. focused on the few large cities.
C. led to a change in existing racial relations.
D. disproportionately benefited the region in funding.
E. drew considerable opposition for their environmentalism.
D. disproportionately benefited the region in funding.

One of the major effects the New Deal had on the United States was
A. it fostered stronger and more varied interest groups.
B. it created a unified, government-controlled economy.
C. it created a harmonious, ordered economy.
D. it created laws that provided equal economic opportunity for all American workers.
E. It ended the Depression.
A. it fostered stronger and more varied interest groups.

One long-term consequence of the New Deal was
A. the government effectively redistributed the wealth among the American people.
B. it demonstrated that sufficient government spending could resolve economic emergencies.
C. the national government assumed a responsibility for the basic welfare of the people.
D. the influence of the government on the economy became greater than that of private businesses.
E. the government substantially transformed the distribution of power within American capitalism.
C. the national government assumed a responsibility for the basic welfare of the people.

The secretary of state of the Harding administration was
A. Charles Evans Hughes.
B. Charles Dawes.
C. Henry Cabot Lodge.
D. Henry Stimson.
E. Cordell Hull.
A. Charles Evans Hughes.

During the Harding administration, the United States
A. eventually joined the League of Nations.
B. threatened to blockade Japan if it did not stop its military aggression.
C. largely retired from international diplomacy.
D. significantly reduced the size of its navy.
E. forgave the international debts of the former European allies.
D. significantly reduced the size of its navy.

The Washington Conference of 1921
A. attempted to prevent a global naval arms race.
B. saw the Harding administration refuse to participate in it.
C. sought to expand the global markets of the United States.
D. ended as a diplomatic failure for the United States.
E. attempted to create a world court.
A. attempted to prevent a global naval arms race.

The Five-Power Pact of 1922 dealt with
A. restructuring Germany’s war debt.
B. the League of Nations.
C. the civil war in Russia.
D. Japanese aggression toward China.
E. armament limitations.
E. armament limitations.

All of the following nations were signatories to the Five-Power Pact of 1922 EXCEPT
A. Britain.
B. Russia.
C. France.
D. Italy.
E. Japan.
B. Russia.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928
A. was an alliance between France and the United States against Germany.
B. was to be enforced with multinational trade embargoes.
C. was signed with wide international acclaim.
D. stated that an attack on one nation was an attack on all nations.
E. was an alliance between France and the United States against Japan.
C. was signed with wide international acclaim.

The Dawes Plan of 1924
A. called for the United States to lend money to Germany to meet its reparation payments.
B. was designed to help England and France make their reparation payments to the United States.
C. called for Britain and France to reduce the amount of German reparation payments.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

In his foreign policy for Latin America, President Herbert Hoover
A. repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
B. repeatedly ordered troops into various Central American nations.
C. canceled Latin American war debts owed to the United States.
D. closely followed the policies of the two previous administrations.
E. declared America would henceforth only recognize democratically-elected regimes.
A. repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

As part of his foreign policy, President Herbert Hoover moved to withdraw American troops from Haiti and
A. Mexico.
B. Cuba.
C. Venezuela.
D. Colombia.
E. Nicaragua.
E. Nicaragua.

In 1929, a fascist-led government was in power in
A. Germany.
B. Spain.
C. Italy.
D. Japan.
E. France.
C. Italy.

Which of the following statements about the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany is FALSE?
A. His rise was partially precipitated by ruinous inflation.
B. Hitler displayed a pathological anti-Semitism and a passionate militarism.
C. Hitler believed in the genetic superiority of the Aryan people.
D. Hitler argued in favor of extending German territory for the purpose of lebensraum.
E. Upon coming to power in 1933, Hitler called his new government “the Weimar Republic.”
E. Upon coming to power in 1933, Hitler called his new government “the Weimar Republic.”

The Mukden Incident of 1931
A. occurred when Chinese soldiers likely blew up a Japanese railroad in southern Manchuria.
B. occurred when Russian soldiers likely blew up a Japanese railroad in southern Manchuria.
C. occurred when Japanese soldiers likely blew up a Japanese railroad in southern Manchuria.
D. led Chiang Kai-Shek to expand his government’s power in Manchuria.
E. served as a pretext for a Russian invasion of northern Manchuria.
C. occurred when Japanese soldiers likely blew up a Japanese railroad in southern Manchuria.

In 1932, the Hoover administration, in response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria,
A. issued warnings to the Japanese government.
B. imposed economic sanctions against Japan.
C. sent financial aid to Chiang Kai-Shek’s government in China.
D. sent Americans to Manchuria to train Chinese pilots.
E. called for Japanese recognition of the Open Door policy.
A. issued warnings to the Japanese government.

In 1941, which of the following nations continued to repay war debts to the United States?
A. Great Britian
B. France
C. Germany
D. Italy
E. Finland
E. Finland

President Franklin Roosevelt’s sharpest foreign policy break with Herbert Hoover concerned
A. Latin America.
B. Europe.
C. Asia.
D. Russia.
E. Mexico.
B. Europe.

In what became known as the 1933 “bombshell message,” Franklin Roosevelt declared that
A. all foreign war debts would be forgiven.
B. America would no longer recognize fascist governments.
C. the Monroe Doctrine was now null and void.
D. further Japanese aggression against China would be met with force.
E. America would reject any international agreement on currency stabilization.
E. America would reject any international agreement on currency stabilization.

In the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt carried out international policies which
A. kept the United States on the gold standard.
B. preserved the circular loan system of the Dawes Plan.
C. established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.
D. allowed American banks to make loans to nations in default to the United States.
E. further soured relations with Latin America.
C. established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.

In 1934, the Soviet Union complained that the United States had little interest in stopping the expansion of
A. Germany.
B. Italy.
C. China.
D. Japan.
E. Great Britain.
D. Japan.

President Franklin Roosevelt’s “Good Neighbor Policy”
A. expanded initiatives begun under Herbert Hoover.
B. was designed to keep the peace in western Europe.
C. limited the land purchases by U.S. companies in neighboring countries.
D. was abandoned by the United States at the start of World War II.
E. gave nations allied against fascism preferential loan rates.
A. expanded initiatives begun under Herbert Hoover.

During the 1920s and 1930s, interest in pursuing an isolationist foreign policy
A. led the United States to give up its membership in the World Court.
B. reflected the sentiments of a majority of the American public.
C. led the U.S. Senate to assert that no single nation was a threat to world peace.
D. was strongly supported by President Franklin Roosevelt.
E. declined after the investigations chaired by Senator Gerald Nye of North Dakota.
B. reflected the sentiments of a majority of the American public.

The Neutrality Act of 1935
A. sought to protect America’s international trade agreements.
B. prevented Americans from traveling on ships of warring nations.
C. did not prevent the United States from intervening when Italy invaded Ethiopia.
D. was passed by Congress with recent acts of Nazi aggression in mind.
E. included a mandatory arms embargo of both sides during any military conflict.
E. included a mandatory arms embargo of both sides during any military conflict.

The Neutrality Act of 1937
A. stripped the president of many of his powers as commander-in-chief.
B. allowed warring nations to purchase goods in the United States if they paid cash.
C. loosened the trade policy for England, while tightening it for Germany and Japan.
D. banned the sale of all goods from the United States to any nation at war.
E. exempted Asian nations from the provisions of the 1935 Neutrality Act.
B. allowed warring nations to purchase goods in the United States if they paid cash.

In 1937, President Franklin Roosevelt’s “quarantine” speech
A. saw the president call for further isolation from the nation’s enemies.
B. warned Japan it faced a U.S. embargo if it continued to be aggressive.
C. saw Roosevelt challenge England and France to limit the aggression of Germany.
D. received a decidedly hostile response by the American people.
E. was given in response to the Japanese sinking of the Panay.
D. received a decidedly hostile response by the American people.

In 1937, after Japanese pilots sank the U.S. gunboat Panay in China, President Roosevelt
A. called for an immediate military build-up in the United States.
B. entered into an economic alliance with China.
C. accepted Japan’s claim that the bombing had been an accident.
D. retaliated by bombing Japanese supply depots in China.
E. delivered the “quarantine” speech.
C. accepted Japan’s claim that the bombing had been an accident.

In 1938, the Anschluss
A. proclaimed a union between Germany and Austria.
B. caused an uproar in the United States.
C. was created at the Munich conference.
D. led France to put its military on alert.
E. came to be identified with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
A. proclaimed a union between Germany and Austria.

The Munich conference of 1938 was precipitated by a crisis over
A. Austria.
B. Poland.
C. Hungary.
D. Belgium.
E. Czechoslovakia.
E. Czechoslovakia.

The Munich agreement of 1938
A. was the result of negotiations involving the League of Nations.
B. put most of Poland under German control.
C. ended further German aggression until World War II began.
D. was supported by President Franklin Roosevelt.
E. was signed by Joseph Stalin despite misgivings of German intent.
D. was supported by President Franklin Roosevelt.

Germany began World War II in Europe days after
A. Germany’s occupation of additional areas of Czechoslovakia.
B. a nonaggression pact was signed between Germany and Russia.
C. France promised Poland it would provide military support if attacked.
D. Germany and Austria were unified.
E. Hitler’s violation of the Munich agreement.
B. a nonaggression pact was signed between Germany and Russia

Following the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, President Franklin Roosevelt
A. declared that the United States would remain neutral.
B. declared the United States would be the “arsenal of democracy.”
C. sent American military advisers to England.
D. ordered a “preparedness” campaign much like Woodrow Wilson had in 1916.
E. was unsure whether a majority of Americans supported Germany.
A. declared that the United States would remain neutral.

In the spring of 1940, the Germans launched a massive invasion known as the blitzkrieg, meaning
A. “thunder war.”
B. “storm cloud.”
C. “rolling thunder.”
D. “lightning war.”
E. “lightning cloud.”
D. “lightning war.”

By the mid-1940s, Germany had defeated
A. Norway.
B. Denmark.
C. France.
D. the Netherlands.
E. All the answers are correct.
E. All the answers are correct.

The American ambassador to London who insisted in 1940 that the British plight was already hopeless was
A. Neville Chamberlain.
B. Joseph Kennedy.
C. Gerald Nye.
D. Burton Wheeler.
E. Wendell Willkie.
B. Joseph Kennedy.

In 1940, President Franklin Roosevelt’s decision to give fifty American destroyers to England
A. was cancelled by Congress.
B. circumvented the cash-and-carry provision of the Neutrality Acts.
C. was in response to requests by the U.S. Ambassador to London.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
B. circumvented the cash-and-carry provision of the Neutrality Acts.

In July 1940, opinion polls showed the clear majority of the American public
A. believed Germany posed a direct threat to the United States.
B. were strongly against any involvement by the United States in the war.
C. thought the United States should immediately declare war on Germany.
D. believed it would be a waste to aid England as that nation would soon fall to Germany.
E. believed Japan was a greater threat to the United States than the war in Europe.
A. believed Germany posed a direct threat to the United States.

The Burke-Wadsworth Act of 1940
A. reaffirmed the desires of isolationists to stay out of the war.
B. approved sending U.S. weapons to England.
C. approved the first peacetime draft in American history.
D. saw the United States end all trade with any nation allied with Nazi Germany.
E. repealed the 1935 and 1937 Neutrality Acts.
C. approved the first peacetime draft in American history.

The America First Committee
A. was a powerful lobby against U.S. involvement in the war.
B. was opposed by both major political parties.
C. called for increased U.S. assistance to England without any actual intervention.
D. was made up largely of Democrats who favored diplomacy to end the war.
E. tried and failed to enlist the support of Charles Lindbergh.
A. was a powerful lobby against U.S. involvement in the war.

In the election of 1940, Franklin Roosevelt
A. selected Harry Truman as his new vice president running mate.
B. won an unprecedented, but closely contested, third term.
C. removed Henry Wallace from the ticket at the request of conservatives.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.

In 1940, the “lend-lease” plan
A. allowed the U.S. to loan weapons to England to be returned when the war was over.
B. saw England agree to allow jobless Americans to enlist in the British military.
C. saw England allow the construction of American military bases on British territory.
D. saw the U.S. lend funds to the Allies so they could lease war supplies from the U.S.
E. was extremely controversial and barely passed the Senate.
A. allowed the U.S. to loan weapons to England to be returned when the war was over.

By September 1941,
A. Germany had agreed with Japan to fight against the United States.
B. the United States extended lend-lease privileges to the Soviet Union.
C. President Roosevelt made a secret agreement to send American troops to England.
D. Germany claimed it had no interest in engaging America in war.
E. the German navy had begun to sink American destroyers, including the Reuben James.
B. the United States extended lend-lease privileges to the Soviet Union.

The German sinking of the American ship Reuben James
A. triggered an American naval campaign against Germany.
B. led Congress to approve the arming of American merchant ships.
C. led Congress to approve American ships sailing into belligerent ports.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

In 1941, the Atlantic Charter
A. was signed in Washington D.C.
B. was completed by senior military officials in the United States and England.
C. saw President Roosevelt agree to an eventual invasion of Europe to drive out the Nazis.
D. saw the United States and England claim to share common principles.
E. gave American merchants ships the authority to fire on German submarines.
D. saw the United States and England claim to share common principles.

The Tripartite Pact was a defensive alliance between
A. the United States, England, and Russia.
B. the United States, England, and France.
C. Japan, Germany, and Italy.
D. Japan, Germany, and Austria.
E. England, France, and Italy.
C. Japan, Germany, and Italy.

In 1941, prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,
A. Japanese troops attacked the Philippines.
B. the Japanese developed a new, unbreakable communication code.
C. Japan tried to repair relations with the United States in order to restore their flow of supplies.
D. President Franklin Roosevelt ordered Japan’s diplomats to leave Washington.
E. President Franklin Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets in the United States.
E. President Franklin Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets in the United States.

Which of the following statements regarding the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is FALSE?
A. The State department assumed the Japanese would never attack American interests.
B. The American aircraft carriers escaped the attack.
C. Few American authorities believed Japan was capable of an attack on Pearl Harbor.
D. The Japanese suffered light losses in the attack.
E. More than 2,400 American soldiers and sailors died in the attack.
A. The State department assumed the Japanese would never attack American interests.

In 1941, Germany’s declaration of war against the United States
A. occurred after the United States declared war on it.
B. came the same day that Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.
C. did not occur until two months after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
D. occurred before the United States declared war on it.
E. was never reciprocated by Congress.
D. occurred before the United States declared war on it.

In World War II, the main American strategy to fight Japan was to
A. mount two offensive campaigns to attack the Japanese from two directions.
B. concentrate U.S. forces into one large offensive moving west from the Marshall Islands.
C. quickly recapture the Midway Islands from the Japanese.
D. establish a strong defensive position in the Solomon Islands to lure in the Japanese.
E. encourage the Japanese navy to overextend itself past the Gilbert Islands, then attack from
A. mount two offensive campaigns to attack the Japanese from two directions.

In World War II, one of the primary American commanders in the Pacific was
A. Dwight Eisenhower.
B. Omar Bradley.
C. Chester Nimitz.
D. George Marshall.
E. George Patton.
C. Chester Nimitz.

The Battle of the Coral Sea in 1942
A. saw the Americans take the offensive for the first time.
B. saw the United States forced to withdraw its naval forces.
C. marked the major turning point of the war in the Pacific.
D. saw the Japanese lose most of its aircraft carriers.
E. marked the first important victory by the United States against Japan.
E. marked the first important victory by the United States against Japan.

The Battle of Midway in 1942
A. saw the United States suffer great losses.
B. was a stunning defeat for the Japanese navy.
C. lasted four days.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

After 1943, the United States advanced on Japan primarily with the aid of forces from
A. England and France.
B. the Soviet Union and China.
C. the Dutch and the Soviet Union.
D. England and the Soviet Union.
E. Australia and New Zealand.
E. Australia and New Zealand.

During World War II, the United States Army chief of staff was
A. Douglas MacArthur.
B. George Marshall.
C. Omar Bradley.
D. Dwight Eisenhower.
E. George Patton.
B. George Marshall.

In 1943, the country that pressed for an immediate Allied invasion of France against Germany was
A. the Soviet Union.
B. China.
C. Great Britain.
D. the United States.
E. Canada.
A. the Soviet Union.

In 1942-1943, the British and American war effort against the Nazis concentrated on
A. freeing France from German control.
B. supporting the Russians.
C. fighting in North Africa.
D. protecting England.
E. stopping the Holocaust.
C. fighting in North Africa.

In 1942, the North African campaign against the Nazis saw
A. the Americans advance under the command of Omar Bradley.
B. the Americans successfully regroup from a defeat at Kasserine Pass.
C. the Germans suffer a major defeat at Stalingrad.
D. the Americans push Germans out of Egypt.
E. the British lose a key early battle at El Alamein.
B. the Americans successfully regroup from a defeat at Kasserine Pass.

In 1943, at the Casablanca Conference, the Allies decided they would next invade
A. Cyprus.
B. France.
C. Sicily.
D. Corsica.
E. Greece.
C. Sicily.

During World War II, the first Axis country to be defeated was
A. Germany.
B. Spain.
C. Austria.
D. Japan.
E. Italy.
E. Italy.

The Allied decisions that delayed an invasion of France
A. left the Soviet Union deeply embittered.
B. put the Soviet Union in a better position to control eastern Europe.
C. occurred after the Soviet Union had won a significant victory in Stalingrad.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

The United States government acquired definite knowledge of the Holocaust
A. prior to World War II beginning in Europe.
B. before the U.S. had entered the war.
C. during the first years after U.S. involvement.
D. not until the last year of the war.
E. not until after the war was over.
C. during the first years after U.S. involvement.

During World War II, Allied bombers targeted
A. the crematoria at Auschwitz.
B. the railroad lines leading to Auschwitz.
C. the guard towers and Nazi bunkers at Auschwitz.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.

In regards to European Jewish refugees, between 1939 and 1945, the United States
A. refused to accept large numbers of refugees.
B. won an agreement by England to accept several thousand refugees.
C. made many efforts to help refugees escape the Nazis but not to enter the United States.
D. denied the Nazis were targeting Jews for murder.
E. rescinded the provisions of the 1924 National Origins Act dealing with Jewish immigrants.
A. refused to accept large numbers of refugees.

Between 1939 and 1945, the federal budget of the United States
A. halved.
B. doubled.
C. tripled.
D. rose five-fold.
E. rose ten-fold.
E. rose ten-fold.

During World War II, the regional impact of government spending was the greatest in the
A. Northeast.
B. Midwest.
C. South.
D. East.
E. West.
E. West.

During World War II, the labor force of the United States
A. saw fifteen million people leave civilian labor for the armed forces.
B. saw the supply of civilian labor decline by twenty-five percent.
C. was forced to contend with a large labor surplus.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
A. saw fifteen million people leave civilian labor for the armed forces.

During World War II, organized labor in the United States
A. lost membership as wages rose across most industries.
B. frequently used the threats of strikes to obtain higher wages.
C. agreed to freeze union membership and wages until the war was over.
D. won automatic union memberships for new defense plant workers.
E. won a significant victory with the passage of the Smith-Connally Act.
D. won automatic union memberships for new defense plant workers.

Throughout World War II, in organized American labor
A. no major union went on strike.
B. “wildcat” strikes were quite common.
C. unions accepted a freeze on wages until the war ended.
D. many states passed laws expanding the influence of unions.
E. opposition to strikes was led by the influential United Mine Workers.
B. “wildcat” strikes were quite common.

The Smith-Connally Act of 1943
A. was opposed by President Franklin Roosevelt.
B. authorized the president to seize a war factory where workers had gone on strike.
C. passed as a result of actions taken by the United Mine Workers.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

Over the course of World War II, inflation in the United States
A. remained low before 1941.
B. was much less serious a problem than during World War I.
C. was largely uncontrolled by the federal government.
D. was at its highest in the last year of the war.
E. was less a concern during the war than fears of deflation.
B. was much less serious a problem than during World War I.

In 1943, to simplify tax collections, Congress enacted
A. automatic payroll deductions.
B. a short form for paying income taxes.
C. a sales tax.
D. a flat tax.
E. an earned income tax credit.
A. automatic payroll deductions.

During World War II, the War Production Board
A. was maintained under the auspices of the Department of Labor.
B. was directed by Roosevelt ally Leon Henderson.
C. had complete control over military purchases.
D. favored large over small contractors.
E. won the support of small business.
D. favored large over small contractors.

During World War II, the National Defense Research Committee
A. by 1941, had pushed the U.S. into a position of technological superiority over Germany.
B. funded less research than its predecessor had during World War I.
C. was headed by a scientist who was a pioneer in the development of the computer.
D. concentrated its work on developing an atomic bomb.
E. received more private funding than government money.
C. was headed by a scientist who was a pioneer in the development of the computer.

During World War II, the effectiveness of German U-boats and underwater mines was ended by the development of
A. acoustic countermeasures.
B. sonar.
C. centrimetric radar.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

During World War II, Germany held the technological edge over the Allies in
A. centimetric radar.
B. rocket-propelled bombs.
C. ocean mine detection.
D. aircraft bombers.
E. intelligence gathering.
B. rocket-propelled bombs.

During World War II, the Allied development of the Gee navigation system
A. was first used in the last months of the war.
B. sent a sonic message telling pilots they were in range of their targets.
C. used electronic pulses to plot course location.
D. proved ineffective at sea.
E. raised the accuracy rate of night-bombing raids to 30 percent.
C. used electronic pulses to plot course location.

During World War II, all of the following were Allied advances in intelligence-gathering EXCEPT the
A. creation of the Enigma machine for coded communications.
B. introduction of punched-hole card technology.
C. creation of the first programmable, digital computer.
D. breaking of the German codes early in the war.
E. breaking of Japanese codes before American entry into the war.
A. creation of the Enigma machine for coded communications.

During World War II, the Fair Employment Practices Commission was created
A. to help southern African Americans move to northern cities to take war jobs.
B. by President Roosevelt to stop black protesters from marching on the capital.
C. after serious racial rioting broke out in several northern industrial cities.
D. and led by A. Philip Randolph.
E. in response to significant protests led by the Congress of Racial Equality.
B. by President Roosevelt to stop black protesters from marching on the capital.

During World War II, the United States military
A. used quotas to limit the number of black servicemen in the military.
B. excluded blacks from combat duty.
C. began to relax its practices of racial segregation.
D. allowed blacks into all branches of the military for the first time.
E. doubled the number of black servicemen to 200,000.
C. began to relax its practices of racial segregation.

During World War II, American Indians
A. saw government war contracts bring a higher standard of living to many reservations.
B. were excluded from military service.
C. were pushed out of white society and back onto the reservations.
D. saw war work spread to almost every Indian reservation in the United States.
E. saw the war effort undermine efforts to revitalize tribal traditions.
E. saw the war effort undermine efforts to revitalize tribal traditions.

In 1942, the United States and Mexico agreed to the braceros program which
A. increased the number of Mexican immigrants the United States would accept as new citizens.
B. allowed United States businesses to establish war production factories in Mexico.
C. admitted Mexican contract laborers into the United States for a limited time.
D. accepted Mexican citizens into the United States armed forces.
E. eliminated the tariff on goods produced in Mexico.
C. admitted Mexican contract laborers into the United States for a limited time.

In 1943, the “zoot-suit riots” in Los Angeles
A. resulted from tensions between the African-American and Mexican-American communities.
B. led the city to prohibit the wearing of zoot suits.
C. began when off-duty Mexican-American soldiers refused to wear their military uniforms.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
B. led the city to prohibit the wearing of zoot suits.

In 1942, when the United States interned Japanese Americans in “relocation centers,”
A. all of the affected Japanese were American citizens.
B. the West Coast of the United States was not an important military region.
C. all of those affected were first-generation Japanese immigrants.
D. the move was protested by California Attorney General Earl Warren.
E. there was no evidence that the Japanese Americans were a domestic security risk.
E. there was no evidence that the Japanese Americans were a domestic security risk.

All of the following statements regarding the internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II are true EXCEPT
A. the United States government has never admitted wrongdoing.
B. the order for internment was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1944.
C. most of those interned lost all their property and possessions.
D. the internment camps were essentially prisons.
E. the relocation centers offered sub-par schools and minimal medical care.
A. the United States government has never admitted wrongdoing.

During World War II, Chinese Americans
A. were drafted in a higher proportion than any other national group.
B. received a favorable image in U.S. government propaganda.
C. saw the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Acts.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

During World War II, American women who worked outside the home
A. tended to be older than women who worked in the past.
B. were barred from unions.
A. were not allowed to have children under the age of three in their care.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
A. tended to be older than women who worked in the past.

During World War II, in the United States, all of the following social indicators experienced a rise in their rate of occurrence EXCEPT
A. the marriage rate.
B. high school enrollment.
C. the divorce rate.
D. the juvenile crime rate.
E. the birth rate.
B. high school enrollment.

During World War II, American shoppers
A. faced many shortages of consumer goods.
B. made consumerism a powerful force in society.
C. had more money to spend than they had the decade before.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

In the 1940s, swing music
A. was a new form of jazz.
B. originated in Latin America.
C. grew out of the square dance.
D. first appeared in the United States in Kansas City.
E. reinforced racial taboos.
A. was a new form of jazz.

During World War II, the United States military services
A. saw the major purpose of the USO to bring new recruits into the armed forces.
B. tolerated homosexuality.
C. tolerated illicit heterosexual relationships.
D. encouraged USO women to form relationships with servicemen.
E. banned the practice of painting bathing beauties on the nosecones of fighter planes.
C. tolerated illicit heterosexual relationships.

During World War II, Congress abolished the
A. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC).
B. Works Progress Administration (WPA).
C. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
D. CCC and WPA.
E. WPA and FDIC.
D. CCC and WPA.

A significant issue in the 1944 election was
A. America’s relationship with the Soviet Union.
B. corruption charges involving the White House.
C. the strategy of the war.
D. civil rights.
E. the domestic economy.
E. the domestic economy.

In the 1944 elections,
A. Republicans gained control of the Senate.
B. President Franklin Roosevelt was too ill to campaign.
C. Democrats increased their control of the House.
D. Thomas Dewey nearly won the electoral vote.
E. Henry Wallace was elected vice president.
C. Democrats increased their control of the House.

All of the following statements regarding the Allied invasion of France in June 1944 are true EXCEPT
A. the attack saw perhaps the largest number of naval vessels and armaments ever assembled in one place.
B. the landing was made across the narrowest part of the English Channel.
C. Allied paratroopers were dropped behind German lines prior to the beach landings.
D. within a week, German forces had been dislodged from most of the Normandy coast.
E. American, British, and Canadian forces stormed the beaches on June 6, 1944.
B. the landing was made across the narrowest part of the English Channel.

In August 1944, the Allies liberated from German occupation the city of
A. Rome.
B. Warsaw.
C. Stockholm.
D. Paris.
E. Amsterdam.
D. Paris.

In February 1945, an Allied bombing attack on Dresden, Germany
A. destroyed 75% of the previously undamaged city.
B. killed approximately 135,000 people.
C. resulted in mostly civilian casualties.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

The Battle of the Bulge
A. began in the spring of 1945.
B. saw the American army drive deep into Germany.
C. was the last major battle on the western front.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
C. was the last major battle on the western front.

In April 1945, American and British forces halted their advance on Germany at the Elbe River
A. because their supply lines had become overextended.
B. to wait for the Russian army to arrive.
C. due to fierce German resistance.
D. at the announcement that President Franklin Roosevelt had died.
E. because all bridges over the river had been destroyed.
B. to wait for the Russian army to arrive.

In February 1944, American naval forces won a series of victories in the Marshall Islands under the command of
A. Dwight Eisenhower.
B. Douglas MacArthur.
C. Omar Bradley.
D. Joseph Stilwell.
E. Chester Nimitz.
E. Chester Nimitz.

The 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf
A. was the largest naval engagement in history.
B. saw Japanese forces sink four American aircraft carriers.
C. was the only time German and Japanese naval forces fought together.
D. included the American capture of Okinawa.
E. resulted in the American capture of Tinian, Guam, and Saipan.
A. was the largest naval engagement in history.

The costliest battle in the history of the United States Marines Corps was
A. the Battle of Iwo Jima.
B. the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
C. the Battle of Okinawa.
D. the Battle of Midway.
E. the Battle of Guadalcanal.
A. the Battle of Iwo Jima.

In mid-1945, evidence of Japan’s desperation to continue the war included
A. sending thousands of pilots on suicide missions.
B. nighttime attacks by Japanese troops against American lines.
C. the loss of over 100,000 Japanese lives at Okinawa.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

In 1939, the first steps toward the creation of an atomic bomb were taken by
A. the Soviet Union.
B. Great Britain.
C. the United States.
D. Japan.
E. Nazi Germany.
E. Nazi Germany.

All of the following statements regarding the Allied development of an atomic bomb during World War II are true EXCEPT
A. the program was code-named the Manhattan Project.
B. plutonium was a practical fuel for the bomb.
C. the program proceeded at a faster pace than had been expected.
D. the government secretly poured nearly $2 billion into the project.
E. Albert Einstein was in charge of the program.
E. Albert Einstein was in charge of the program.

In 1945, the first atomic explosion in history took place in
A. Hiroshima, Japan.
B. the Bikini Islands.
C. Alamogordo, New Mexico.
D. the Salt Lake desert in Utah.
E. Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
C. Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Prior to ordering the use of an atomic bomb against Japan, President Harry Truman
A. sent evidence of a test explosion to the Japanese government.
B. issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or face utter devastation.
C. warned the Japanese about the atomic bomb but sent no evidence of its effect.
D. told Japan to evacuate Hiroshima or face the consequences.
E. did not send any kind of message to Japan.
B. issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or face utter devastation.

In August 1945, the primary reason the United States dropped a second atomic bomb on Japan was because
A. the Japanese did not immediately surrender after the first bomb was dropped.
B. the Soviet Union announced it would not enter into war against Japan.
C. the Japanese government announced that the United States had only one atomic bomb.
D. the emperor of Japan asked the United States for more time to consider surrendering.
E. the emperor of Japan declared that his country would fight to the death.
A. the Japanese did not immediately surrender after the first bomb was dropped.

In 1945, the Japanese surrender to the United States
A. was announced a few days after a second atomic bomb had been dropped.
B. was formally signed on the American battleship Missouri.
C. occurred on September 2, 1945.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

Casualties in World War II
A. saw fourteen million combatants die.
B. saw more than one million Americans killed or wounded.
C. were relatively light in the United States compared to those of other countries.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct.

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