parasites and pathagens

Who is susceptible to norovirus?
Any one of any age but especially people who arevery old or young or have compromised immune system

How did norovirus get its name?
It originally had the name Norwalk virus when it was discovered in Norwalk, Ohio, but it was eventually changed to norovirus. 1968in Norwalk, Ohio, with a group of elementary students

How did norovirus virus first become well known in thepopular press?
It started breaking out on cruise ships

How do people get norovirus
The virus is transmitted through direct contact witha person who has the norovirus or an infected person’s bodily fluids. Touchinginfected surfaces then placing the now infected hand in the mouth will transmitthe virus. Contaminated food or beverages that are consumed cause the sickness,also called food poisoning

What are the symptoms of the norovirus?
The norovirus causes acute gastroenteritis which isinflammation in the stomach and intestines that typically causes stomach pain,diarrhea, and/or vomiting. The person will feel extremely ill and in the worstcases could get dehydrated and have bloody stool along with constant vomitingand diarrhea.

What is the incubation period of the norovirus
1 to 2 days

what is the best way to prevent the norovirus
Clean your hands often and wash linens with hot waterand/or bleach. Disinfecting surfaces with chlorine-based disinfectants willkill the virus since chlorine and heat are the most effective methods ofkilling the norovirus. Make sure that any food that is to be consumed, whetherit is made at home or in a restaurant, has been properly cleaned and preparedfor consumption. If the hygiene of place that prepares food is questionable, itis best to avoid eating the food from that place.

How did yellow fever get its name?
It got its name from the liver damage of jaundice, which turns the eyes yellow.

What areas of the body are target areas for the virus?
The liver and the spleen are target areas.

How is yellow fever transmitted?
Yellow fever is transmitted from the bite of an infected female mosquito.

Currently, where are the most number of cases of yellow fever?

When was the worst year for cases of yellow fever in New Orleans?

where is the word rabies derived from
The term is derived from the Latin rabies, “madness”.[62] This, in turn, may be related to the Sanskrit rabhas, “to do violence”

the sanskrit one is the one she wants

how is rabies transmitted
While all mammals are susceptible to rabies virus infection, only a few species are reservoir hosts for the disease. In the U.S., the reservoirs for rabies virus include raccoons, skunks, foxes, coyotes, and bats.
Transmission of rabies virus usually begins when infected saliva of a host is passed to an uninfected animal. There are three vectors for rabies. The most common form of rabies virus transmission is through the bite and virus-containing saliva of an infected host. However, transmission of rabies virus is possible through aerosol transmission, and corneal and organ transplantation.
Ingestion of meat from rabid animals does not infect humans.

What is the incubation period for rabies? What are some factors that determine the length of the incubation period?
The rabies incubation period may vary from a few days to several years, but generally it is one to three months. During this time, the rabies virus multiplies inside the body.

The rabies virus will then travel along nerve cells to the brain, where it reproduces very quickly. The incubation period ends and rabies symptoms begin to develop. Usually within three to five days, the rabies virus has caused enough damage to the brain that the animal/patient will show obvious signs of rabies.

Rabies virus is usually infectious for ten days before the animal/patient shows signs of rabies.

What does hydrophobia mean and why was rabies once referred to as hydrophobia?
Due to the paralytic effect in pharyngeal muscles, someone with rabies will have difficulty swallowing. Salivation, then, will take effect, and saliva will inevitably drip from the patient’s mouth since it can’t be swallowed. This symptom, along with brain degeneration, increases the patient’s reactions to the sight, sound, or thought of water, and they could undoubtedly develop hydrophobia. Rabies was once called hydrophobia, which literally means “fear of water”.

Distinguish between furious and dumb rabies.
Furious Rabies is characterized by:
• Agitation
• Thrashing
• Biting
• Viciousness
• Choking
• Gagging
• Hyperventilation
• Cardiac arrhythmias
• Paralysis
• Death

Dumb Rabies is characterized by:
• Apathy
• Apparent depression
• Increased blood pressure
• Tachycardia
• Confusion
• Hallucinations
• Disorientation
Followed by:
• Increased periods of hyperactivity
• Stiffness of the back of the neck
• Increase in respiratory failure
Dumb rabies is most often found in patients who were exposed to the virus via bats

What areas of the world are considered rabies free
There are only a few known rabies-free areas in the world, mostly small island nations and peninsulas. Australia, New Zealand, Japan, England, Ireland, Iceland, Scandinavia, and Antarctica are all rabies-free.

What animal is responsible for the largest number of rabies cases in the U.S.?
Bats are the most common animals responsible for the transmission of human rabies in the U.S. Cats are the most common domestic animals with rabies in the U.S.

What puts you most at risk for contracting rabies?
Traveling or living in developing countries where rabies is more common, especially countries in Africa and Southeast Asia
• Activities that are likely to put you in contact with wild animals that may have rabies (exploring caves where bats live, or camping without taking precautions to keep wild animals away)
• Working in a laboratory with the rabies virus
• Wounds to the head or neck, which may help the rabies virus travel to your brain more quickly

Specifically, what animals would you want to avoid on the Girl Scout camp out?
• Foxes
• Skunks
• Bats
• Rats
• Squirrels
• Chipmunks
• Rabbits
• Beavers
• Groundhogs
Almost any wild or domestic animal can potentially get rabies…but it is very rare in small rodents!

Fish, reptiles, and birds are not known to carry the rabies virus.

How is Lassa fever like Ebola? How is it different?
Both originallydiscovered in Africa
• Incubation periodis the same
• Both have onsetand abrupt symptoms that are similar such as fever, headaches
• Both are viral hemorrhagic fevers so they are very similar

Ebola (in Africa) might have been spread through needles in a hospital where reusing needles was a common practice.

Death still occurs in between 50 and 90 percent of people with Ebola, even with supportive care.

Lassa fever (Northern Liberia)- over 35% of the people who had the disease died. Diamond mines put workers close to rodents.

How is Lassa fever like Hanta? How is it different?
Hanta and Lassa Fever are both spread through bodily discretions of infected animals or humans.
• They have similarsymptoms including fever and chills.
• Hanta’sincubation period is slightly longer, lasting up to five weeks where as LassaFever’s incubation period only 1-3 weeks

How do people get Lassa Fever?
• Spreadfrom human to human by touching the blood, urine, feces, or other bodilydiscretions of an infected human
• Airbornetransmission occurs when a person inhales tiny particles of air contaminatedwith rodent excretions
• Thereis no evidence of airborne transmission from human to human

When was this disease first identified (year)? Where?
The disease wasfirst identified in 1969 in Lassa, Nigeria

When was the first case of polio in the United States?

Can you have polio and not know it?
yes, 95% of people with polio don’t have symptoms

When was the oral polio vaccine developed? Who developed it?
1961 by Albert Sabin

What type of polio vaccine is most commonly used today? Who developed it?
IPV, inactivated polio vaccine, developed by Jonas Salk in 1952 but was not licensed until 1955 after much testing.

The last reported case of polio in the U.S. was in 1999. Should we continue to vaccinate children?
Yes. The disease is transmitted through contaminated feces. Most commonly water contaminated by feces from a person with polio can be a transmitter. Flies have also been found to be possible transmitters if they pick up the disease. Although polio is more common in regions with bad hygiene, we should still vaccinate children

Do people in New Orleans have reason to fear Denguefever?
Yes; this is because NewOrleans is a subtropical region. Because of this, mosquitoes tend to be common.These mosquitoes may carry the dengue virus and infect people when they bitethem

Where did Dengue fever originate?
The definite answer to thisquestion is not known, but it is believed that it came from Africa and wasspread throughout the world with the slave trade. One explanation for the namedengue is that it is from the Swahili “Ka-Dinga pepo” that describesthe disease as a sudden cramp like disease caused by an evil spirit.

How is Dengue transmitted?
Dengue is transmitted throughinfective female Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes obtain thevirus through the blood of an infected human

What is the most common arthropod-borne disease in theworld

What does SARS stand for?
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

How is SARS transmitted?
Person to person contact; kissing, hugging, sharing food/drink, direct touching or talking to someone within 3 ft. Also by touching infected surface, then putting hand in mouth. Respiratory droplets produced by infected person’s cough or sneeze are propelled through air and deposited on nearby person’s mouth, nose, or eyes (airborne).

How is SARS spread?
SARS is spread through saliva of infected person.

When and where did this disease first appear?
Scientists believe SARS originated inthe Guangdong province in southern China. SARS was first found in 2003 in Asiaby a man from Hanoi.

What is the incubation period?
Incubation period for SARS is typically 2 to 7 days, although in some cases it may be as long as 10 days

What are some methods of prevention?
Frequent handwashing with soap and water or useof alcohol-based hand rub. Avoid touching eyes, nose & mouth with uncleanhands. Cover nose and mouth with tissue when coughing or sneezing. But this isall theoretically, SARS was not spread because all infected people died.

Description of O’NYONG-NYONG
small RNA virus that is found only in Uganda. Name comes from Ugandan language and means weakening of joints

Symptoms/signs of O’NYONG-NYONG
fever, weak joints, diarrhea, maculopapular rash

Transmission of O’NYONG-NYONG

Prevention of transmission of O’NYONG-NYONG

what are O’NYONG-NYONG hosts

Where are cases of O’NYONG-NYONG found
there are no cases in the united states- has only been found in Africa, specifically Uganda
Incubation period: 8+ days

Where and when did this Marburg Fever first appear?
1967 in Germany and Yugoslavia. The expected origin is Uganda.

What other virus is Marburg closely related to?
Marburg is closely relatedto the Ebola virus

How is this Marburg fever transmitted
o Persons who have handledinfected monkeys and have come in direct contact with their fluids or cellcultures, have become infected. Spread of the virus between humans has occurredin a setting of close contact, often in a hospital. Droplets of body fluids, ordirect contact with persons, equipment, or other objects contaminated withinfectious blood or tissues are all highly suspect as sources of disease.Transmission does not occur during the incubation period. Infection resultsfrom contact with blood or other body fluids (faeces, vomitus, urine, saliva,and respiratory secretions) with high virus concentration, especially whenthese fluids contain blood. Transmission via infected semen can also occur.

What are the symptoms of the later stages of the Marburg Fever?
A severe watery diarrhea, abdominal pain andcramping, nausea, and vomiting begin and can persist for a week. The appearanceof patients at this phase are described as showing “ghost-like” features. Theyhave deep-set eyes, expressionless faces, and extreme lethargy. A non-itchyrash is also a feature noted in most patients between days 2 and 7 after firstsymptoms appear. Patients then develop severe haemorrhagic symptoms betweendays 5 and 7, and usually have some form of bleeding. Findings of fresh bloodin vomit and feces are often accompanied by bleeding from the nose, gums, andvagina. Involvement of the central nervous system can result in confusion,irritability, and aggression. In fatal cases, death occurs most often between 8and 9 days after symptom appear, usually preceded by severe blood loss andshock

What is the reservoir host of the Marburg virus?
Recent studies show that the African fruit bat is the reservoir host of the Marburg virus. It is a sighted,cave-dwelling bat which is widely distributed across Africa. Fruit batsinfected with Marburg virus do not to show signs of illness. Primates,including humans, can become infected with Marburg virus, which can progress toserious disease with high mortality.

What part of the body does the rotavirus infect? Be specific
It infects the stomach and intestines. It causes them to become inflamed.

What are the symptoms of the rotavirus
The symptoms are diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal pain, fever, and loss of appetite.

How is the rotavirus spread?
It is transmitted in stool, hands, objects, food, and water. It is mostly found in children but can also affect adults who are around children constantly.

Worldwide, how many deaths occur each year with the rotavirus
527,000 death annually

What 2 continents have the most deaths due to rotavirus? WHY?
Africa and Asia have the most because of bad sanitation, poor hygiene, and overcrowding in poorer countries

What is the best way to prevent rotavirus?
Staying hydrated is important and washing hands and staying clean. There are vaccines being developed.

What does HPV stand for?
Human Papilloma Virus

What cells are the host cells of the virus?
HPV infects humans

What is the incubation period of HPV?
The time frominfection until the first signs or symptoms appear can vary. It can be aslittle as a few weeks to over a year. The average incubation period is three months, according to Health Science Report.

Who is at risk of HPV?
Most sexually active men and women will contract HPV at some point in their lives. Most will never know it.

How many people in the U.S.are infected with HPV?
20 million

What is the link between HPV and cervical cancer?
HPV can lead tocervical cancer. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts. Most “high risk” HPV types cause cervicalcancer. If the body clears the infection, the cervical cells return to normal.Actual cervical cancer is rare in the US because most women get Pap tests andhave abnormal cells removed before they turn into cancer.

Do people in New Orleans have reason to fear Denguefever?
Yes; this is because NewOrleans is a subtropical region. Because of this, mosquitoes tend to be common.These mosquitoes may carry the dengue virus and infect people when they bite them

Where did Dengue fever originate?
The definite answer to this question is not known, but it is believed that it came from Africa and was spread throughout the world with the slave trade. One explanation for the name dengue is that it is from the Swahili “Ka-Dinga pepo” that describesthe disease as a sudden cramp like disease caused by an evil spirit.

How is Dengue transmitted
Dengue is transmitted through infective female Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes obtain the virus through the blood of an infected human

What is the most common arthropod-borne disease in theworld?

How is mono transmitted?
Person to Person; intimate contact (through kissing) with the saliva of an infected person. It is almost impossible to prevent because healthy individuals can carry the virus.

What family of viruses is mono included in?
The Herpes Family

What is a potentially harmful risk of mono?
It could develop into acute CMV infection (cytomegalovirus )

What % of people in the U.S. has mono by the time they are 30?

What are the symptoms of mono?
Drowsiness, Fever, General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling, Loss of appetite, Muscle aches or stiffness, Rash, Sore throat, Swollen lymphnodes, especially in the neck and armpit, Swollen spleen

Why is shingles referred to as the virus that lingers?
People of any age who have had chicken pox can get this disease. The reason is because the varicella-zoster virus lingers in the body “” in the nerve roots. Many things can trigger an outbreak of shingles, including a suppressed immune system, stress, a general run-down condition, etc.

What are the host cells of shingles?

What are the symptoms of shingles?
Before the shingles rash develops, there is often pain, itching, or tingling in the area where the rash will develop. This may happen anywhere from 1 to 5 days before the actually rash appears. The rash forms blisters that typically scab over in 7-10 days and clears up within 2-4 weeks.
Most commonly, the rash occurs in a single stripe around either the left or the right side of the body. In other cases, the rash occurs on one side of the face. In rare cases (usually among people with weakened immune systems), the rash may be more widespread and look similar to a chickenpox rash.
Shingles symptoms occur in stages.
1. Headache, sensitivity to the light
2. Itching, tingling, or pain in a small area
3. Rash may occur in that area – blisters fill with fluid and then crust over

**Other symptoms include dizziness, long-term pain, rash on face, change in vision

Can a person with shingles give shingles to another person?
People do not catch shingles from each other. A person with shingles cannot give another person shingles, nor can you catch shingles from someone with chickenpox. In fact, it has been found that when people who have had chickenpox encounter the disease again, it increases their immunity and means they are less likely to develop shingles

Can a person with shingles give another person the chickenpox?
Chickenpox is infectious – people can give it to someone who has not already had it. Someone with shingles may give another person chickenpox if that person has never had chickenpox before, through direct contact with the shingles sores. This is because it is the same virus. Once people have had chickenpox, they do not usually get it again.

Who is most at risk for contracting shingles? Be specific.
Anyone who has had chickenpox can develop shingles – and most people have chickenpox in childhood: it is one of the common childhood illnesses and is usually trivial. (Chickenpox in adults can be more distressing; but it is generally no more serious than in children.)
Shingles is more likely to occur in older people and by the age of 85, around 60% of us will have had shingles.
People who have not had chickenpox cannot get shingles. (Some people with shingles claim that they have never had chickenpox. This simply means that their original bout of chickenpox was so mild that it was not diagnosed at the time – or they have simply forgotten because it was such a long time ago.)

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