Taber’s Medical Dictionary – All Letters

rabies
a fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by the rabies virus
radiologist
a physician who uses x-rays or other sources of ionizing radiation, sound or radiofrequencies for diagnosis and treatment
ranula
a cystic tumor seen on the underside of the tongue on either side of the frenum
recto-
combinging form pertaining to the rectum
rectum
the lower part of the large intestine between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal
red cross
An international organization dedicated to the medical care of the sick or wounded in wars and natural disasters
reflex
an involuntary response to a stimulus
rehabilitation
the processes of treatment and education that help disabled individuals to attain maximum function, a sense of well-being and a personally satisfying level of independence
REM sleep cycle
Rapid eye movement where dreams are had, has low muscle tone, autonomic fluctuations, and CYCLES every 70-120 minutes, with periods increasing in the night
acute renal failure
a suddent and significant decrease in the kidneys’ filtration capabilities and, within hours or days, an increase in the levels of waste products in systemic cirulations
renography
radiography of the kidney
respiration
the interchange of gases between an organism and the medium in which it lives
respiration
the act of breathing during which the lungs are provided with air through inhaling and the carbon dioxide is removed through exhaling
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
respirator
a mask used to protect the user from a dusty, infectious, toxic or hypoxic atmosphere
respiratory
pertaining to respiration
acute respiratory failure
any impairment in oxygenation or ventilation in which the arterial oxygen tension falls below 60 mm Hg, and the carbon dioxide tension rises above 50 mm Hg, and the pH drops below 7.35
chronic respiratory failure
chronic inability of the respiratory system to maintain the function of oxygenating blood and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs
respiratory system
the organs involved in the interchange of gases between an organism and atmosphere
radiculitis
Inflammation of the spinal nerve roots,
ranvier’s node
A space between adjacent Schwann cells
along a nerve fiber
raynaud’s disease
A primary vasospastic disease of small arteries and arterioles; the cause is unknown
raynaud’s phenomenon
Intermittent attacks of pallor or cyanosis
raynaud’s syndrome
Spasm of blood vessels of fingers and toe
receptor
A sensory nerve ending
recovery
the process of returning to a state of good health
Reed-Sternburg cell
what is the hallmark of hodgkin’s disease?
pupillary reflex
Constriction of the pupil upon stimulation of the retina by light.
pupillary reflex
what reflex test is used to test for brain damage?
reflux (regurgitation)
A return or backward flow
mitral regurgitation
A backflow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium
rehabilitation
The processes of treatment
and education that help disabled
individuals to attain maximum function
relapse
The recurrence
of a disease or symptoms after
apparent recovery.
remission
Improvement or absence of signs of disease
reperfusion
The restoration of blood flow to a part of the body previously deprived of adequate
circulation
res ipsa loquitur
latin for “the thing speaks for itself”
restenosis
when an artery that has been opened by angioplasty closes again
To repair blood vessels by opening a blocked or clogged blood vessel
why is angioplasty often performed?
restless leg syndrome
unpleasant sensations in the lower legs are accomanied by an irresistible urge to move the legs
restraint
a device that
limits a patient’s movements
resuscitation
revival after death
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
what does CPR stand for?
endoplasmic reticulum
A system of membranes that is found in a cell’s cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
retina
The innermost layer of the eye
retina
layer of the eye that contains receptors for vision
retinal detachment
separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium
retina pigmentosa
reduced night vision, bumping into objects, and observed degeneration of photoreceptor cells in retina (progressive vision loss)
retinopexy
surgical fixation of the retina
retroversion
A turning of an organ backwards
anteversion
a turning of an organ forwards
reye’s syndrome
acute encephalopathy that occurs following viral infection
reye’s syndrome
disease with symptoms that affect many body systems, following a viral infection that results in acute encephalopathy
rheumatology
The study and treatment of connective tissue and joint diseases.
rheumatoid arthritis
A chronic systemic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, stiffness, pain, and swelling that results in crippling deformities
rhinitis
Inflammation or irritation of the
nasal passages
rhoncus
also known as wheezing; the sound heard during breathing out as air passes through a partially obstructed airway
rales
abnormal crackling sound made during inspiration
rhytidectomy
The excision of wrinkles by plastic surgery
rhytidectomy
also called a face lift
riboflavin
what is the common name for vitamin B2?
ribs
One of a series of 12 pairs of narrow, curved bones in the thoracic cavity
rest, ice, compression, elevation
what does RICE stand for?
rickets
disease that results from vitamin D deficiency
osteomalacia
adult rickets is called
ribosome
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
rickettsia
The causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever
right to die
The freedom to choose one’s
own end-of-life care
rigor mortis
The stiffness that occurs in
dead bodies.
ringworm
A fungal infection that causes red scaly patches to appear in a ring shape,
rocky mountain spotted fever
An infectious
disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia
rod cell
cell in the retina responsible for black and white vision
cone cell
cell in the retina responsible for color vision
rosacea
A chronic rose-colored eruption, usually
localized to the middle of the face
rubella
German measles
rugae
folds in mucous membranes
rupture
A breaking apart of an organ or
tissue.
sac
a baglike part of an organ, a cavity or pouch, sometimes containing fluid
amniotic sac
the inner fetal membrane that encloses the developing fetus and produces amniotic fluid
conjunctival sac
the cavity, lined with conjunctiva, that lies between the eyelids and the anterior surface of the eye
sacralgia
pain in the sacrum
sacrum
the triangular bone situated dorsal and caudal from the two ilia between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the coccyx
saliva
salivary gland and oral mucous gland fluid; the secretion that begins the process of digesting food
salivary gland
any of the glands near the oral cavity that secrete saliva
Jonas Salk
created first successful Polio vaccine
salmonella
Carried by many farm animals. Found in Poultry, eggs, dairy products and produce. Causes diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting and fever.
sarcitis
inflammation of muscle tissue
sarco-
combining form meaning flesh/muscle
sarcoma
a cancer arising from mesenchymal tissue such as muscle or bone, which may affect the bones, bladder, kidneys, liver, lungs, parotids and spleen
scabies
a contagious infestation of the skin with the itch mite, carcoptes scabiei
scapula
the shoulder blade
scapulo-
combining form meaning shoulder
scapulodynia
pain in the shoulder muscles
schizophrenia
a thought disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech and behavior
Schwann cell
one of the cells of the peripheral nervous system that form the myelin sheath and neurilemma of peripheral nerve fibers
sclera
the outer layer of the eyeball made of fibrous connective tissue
sclerosis
a hardening or induration of an organ or tissue
arteriosclerosis
hardening of an artery
scoliosis
a lateral curvature of the spine
scrotum
the pouch found in most male mammals that contains the testicles and part of the spermatic cord
scurvy
a disease caused by inadequate intake of ascorbic acid, whose symptoms include fatigue; skin, joint, and gum bleeding
sebaceous gland
an oil-secreting gland of the skin
semilunar valves
pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta
semicircular canals
three canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement
Ignaz Semmelweiss
discoverer of the mode of transmission of childhood fever (puerperal sepsis)
sepsis syndrome
another name for septic shock
septum
a wall dividing two cavities
nasal septum
the partition that divides the nasal cavity into two nasal fossae
seratonin
A neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite, sleep, muscle contraction, and some cognitive functions including memory and learning.
sesamoid bones
bones Generally small, flat, and shaped somewhat like a sesame seed. They develop inside tendons, located near joints at the knees, hands, and the feet.
severe acute respiratory disease syndrome
SARS; a highly contagious, potentially lethal viral respiratory illness
Sexually transmitted disease
any disease that may be acquired as a result of sexual intercourse or other intimate contact with an individual
myelin sheath
layers of the cell membrane of Schwann cells that wrap nerve fibers, providing electrical insulation and increasing the velocity of impulse transmission
anaphylactic shock
Results from reaction to substance to which patient is hypersensitive or allergic (allergen extracts, bee sting, medication, food). Outpouring of histamine results in dilation of blood vessels throughout the body.
cardiogenic shock
This is when the heart fails, cardiac output and blood pressure decrease. Blood backs up into lungs, causing pulmonary edema. Inadequate amounts of oxygen reach the myocardium, impairing heart’s pumping action.
hypovolemic shock
shock occuring when there is an insufficient amount of fluid in the ciruclatory system
hypoglycemic shock
shock produced by extremely low blood sugars
septic shock
An acute infection, usually systemic, that overwhelms the body (toxic shock symdrome). Poisonous substances accumulate in bloodstream and blood pressure decreases, impairing blood flow to cells, tissues, and organs.
sickle cell anemia
A genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape
sigmoid
the S-shaped portion of the colon between the descending colon and the rectum
silicosis
a form of pneumonoconiosis resulting from inhalation of silica dust
Sims’ position
examination position in which the client is lying on his or her left side with right knee flexed; position for a colonoscopy
sinus
a cavity within a bone
carotid sinus
the site at the base of the internal carotid artery of pressoreceptors innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve
paranasal sinuses
Air-containing cavities in the bones around the nose
sinusitis
inflammation of a sinus
skin cancer
Cancer that arises on the surface of the body
sleep apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
smallpox
A highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, weakness, and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs; responsible for killing Native Americans.
smoke inhalation injury
damage to the respiratory tract as a result of inhaling hot gases that may contain toxic substances
somatic cells
pertaining to the nonreproductive cells of the body
somatomegaly
abnormal size of a body; giantism
spasm
an involuntary sudden movement or muscular contraction that occurs as a result of some irritant or trauma
sphenoid bone
Bone that is on the interior portion of the skull and holds the base of the brain
sphincter
a circular muscle constricting an orifice
pyloral sphincter
the thickened circular smooth muscles around the plyoric orifice at the junction of the stomach and duodenum
sphygmomanometer
instrument to measure blood pressure
spina bifida
Incomplete closure of the vertebra and neural tube (the fetal tissue that develops into the CNS).
spinal cord
Nerves that run up and down the length of the back and transmit most messages between the body and brain
sphinalgia
pain in the spine
spirillus
spiral shaped bacteria
spirometer
a measuring instrument for measuring the vital capacity of the lungs
spleen
An organ that is part of the lymphatic system; it produces lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells.
spondyl-
combining form for vertebra
sponylalgia
painful condition of the vertebra
spongy bone
Layer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone.
sprain
An injury in which the ligaments holding bones together are stretched too far and tear.
sputum
mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth
strain
An injury to a joint, similar to sprain, except that a muscle that crosses the affected joint is injured.
stapes
ossicle in the middle ear that articulates with the incus; commonly called the stirrup
staphylococcus
Most common cause of Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
stenosis
the constriction or narrowing of a passage or orifice
stent
any material or device used to hold tissue in place, to maintain open blood vessels, or to provide support for a graft while healing is taking place
sternum
Breast bone
sternodynia
pain in the sternum
steroid
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
stethoscope
a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body
stomach
A muscular organ that mixes food and passes it to the samll intestine
stroke
Cerebrovascular Accident
stuttering
Consists of the repetition or prolongation of sounds or syllables
Sudden infant death syndrome
A situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, at least 2 months of age, suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while asleep
swimmer’s ear
Otitis externa
synergetic
cooperative action, muscles working together
synovium
a thin membrane in synovial (freely moving) joints that lines the point capsule and secretes synovial fluid
synovial fluid
Lubricant that makes smooth joint movements possible.
syphillis
Chronic STD caused by a spirochete (sprial-shaped bacterium)
syncope
Fainting
singultus
hicupping
singultus
myoclonus of the diaphragm; hiccup
sciatica
A condition in which pain emanating from the lower back is felt along the distribution of the sciatic nerve
neurilemma
A layer of cells that encases many axons.
pacemaker
device that can trigger mechanical contractions of the heart
pachyderma
Unusual thickness of the
skin
Paget’s Disease
disease causing thickening of the long bones and deformity of the flat bones.
paget’s disease
extensive bone destruction followed by bone repair
dorsodynia
term for back pain
lightning pain
sudden brief pain that may be repetitive
palate
the roof of the mouth
palliative
Relieving or alleviating without curing.
palliative
An agent that alleviates or eases a painful or uncomfortable condition.
palatoplasty
what medical procedure would be done to correct a cleft palate?
palliative treatment
Treatment designed to relieve symptoms of disease rather than to cure it
palpation
Examination preformed by touch
palpitation
A sensation of rapid or irregular beating of the heart
a cure all
what is a panacea?
exocrine gland
what type of gland uses ducts for the hormonal effect?
endocrine – bloodstream, exocrine – ducts
what is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands?
pancreas
organ that produces digestive enzymes
pancreas
organ that produces insulin and glucagon
type 1 diabetes
autoimmune damage to the pancreas results in what illness?
duodenum
the pancreas secretes enzymes into what part of the digestive system?
secretin
hormone that stimulates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas
pandemic
An exceptionally widespread epidemic
pan
combining form meaning all
panencephalitis
inflammation of the entire brain
panic attack
A discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, accompanied by an intense desire to escape
pannus
Superficial vascular inflammation of the cornea
pannus
gray cloudy vascular membrane present in some diseases
pap smear
A cytological study used to detect cancer in cells that an organ has shed.
pap smear
test for early detection of cervical cancer
papilla
A small, nipple-like protuberance or elevation
papilledema
Edema and inflammation of the optic nerve at its point of entrance into the retina.
papilloma
A benign epithelial tumor.
papule
A small bump or pimple
papule
A small, solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin
parallax
An apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from different locations
paralysis
Loss of purposeful movement
paresthesia
abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
paresthesia
pins and needles feeling
paramedic
A health care professional trained in the emergency care of patients
paranoia
A mental illness of unreasonable anxiety, especially believing someone is out to get you, or that you are an important person
paraplegia
paralysis of both legs
parasite
An organism that feeds on a living host
parasympathetic nervous system
what part of the nervous system controls smooth muscle contractions?
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the nervous system that returns the body to its normal state after stress
parenteral
Any medication route outside the intestines or alimentary canal
alimentary canal
digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
parkinson’s disease
common, chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system that produces progressive movement disorders
parkinson’s disease
A progressive disease identified by muscular tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis
paroxysm
A sudden spasm or
convulsion of any kind
Pasteur
Founder of microbiology
patella
A lens-shaped sesamoid bone situated
in front of the knee
patella
what is the knee cap?
Patient Self-Determination Act
legislation that preserves individual rights to decisions related to personal survival.
gluteus maximus
largest muscle of the body
pectoralis major
largest muscle of the chest
pediatrician
A specialist in children’s
diseases.
pedicle
The bony process that projects backward
from the body of a vertebra
pedicle
Anterior portion of vertebral arch
pediculosis
Infestation with lice.
pellegra
profound niacin deficiency causes ____
pelvic inflammatory disease
A general term applied to infections of the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries.
pelvis
Formed by the pelvic girdle, sacrum, and coccyx.
pendulous
Swinging freely like a pendulum
penicillin
alexander fleming discovered ______
penis
The male organ of copulation
pepsin
The chief enzyme of gastric juice
peptic ulcer
a stomach ulcer is also called a
percussion
Striking the body surface to determine the position, size, or density of underlying structures.
percussion
A diagnostic technique that uses tapping on the body to differentiate air, solids, and fluids
perfusion
Passing of a fluid through space
pericarditis
Inflammation of the pericardium
pericardium
The membranous sac enclosing the
heart
perichondrium
Fibrous connective
tissue that surrounds cartilage.
perineum
external region between
the scrotum and anus in a male
perineum
The external region between the
vulva and anus
periodontium
The structures that support the teeth
periosteum
The fibrous membrane that
forms the covering of bones except at
their articular surfaces
at joints
where does the periosteum end on bones?
peristalsis
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
peritoneum
The serous membrane lining
the abdominal cavity
parietal peritoneum
Peritoneum lining the abdominal
walls
visceral peritoneum
Peritoneum that invests
the abdominal organs
permeable
adjective meaning “Capable of allowing
the passage of fluids or substances
in solution”
peroxisome
A cell organelle containing enzymes that catalyze the production and breakdown of hydrogen peroxide
persistent vegetative state
what does PVS stand for?
personality disorder
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
pertussis
An acute, contagious
disease characterized by paroxysmal
coughing, often affects babies
whooping cough
what is the common name for pertussis?
pertussis
Acute infectious disease characterized by a paroxysmal cough that often affects babies
petechiae
Small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin
petechiae
Small, pinpoint hemorrhages
peyer’s patches
A group of diffuse lymphoid nodules in the
mucosa of the small bowel
ileum
where in the small intestine are the Peyer’s patches found?
phagocytosis
process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris
neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages
what are the 3 phagocytes of the immune system?
phalanx
Any one of the
bones of the fingers or toes
pharmocologist
one licensed to prepare and dispense drugs
pharmacology
The study of drugs
and their origin, nature, properties, and
effects upon living organisms
pharyngitis
Inflammation of the mucous
membranes and lymphoid tissues
of the pharynx
pharynx
The passageway for air from the nasal
cavity to the larynx
pharynx
Also known as the throat
phenyketonuria
what does PKU stand for?
phenylketonuria
A congenital autosomal recessive disease marked by failure to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine
phenyketonuria
A genetic disorder in which an individual cannot properly metabolize phenylalanine
pheromone
A chemical released
by one animal that acts as a form
of communication
phlebitis
Inflammation of a vein
phlebotomy
surgical opening of a vein
phlegm
Thick mucus
yellow bile, black bile, blood, phlegm
what are the 4 humors?
phobia
Any persistent and irrational fear
pica
hunger for substances not fit for food
pili
Appendages that allow bacteria to attach to each other and to transfer DNA
pinealoma
a tumor of the pineal gland
pinkeye
Inflammation of the conjunctiva
conjunctivitis
what is the medical term for pinkeye?
pinna
The auricle or projected part of the
external ear
pinna
term for outer part of the ear
pituitary gland
A small, gray, rounded
gland that develops from ingrown oral
epithelium
pituitary gland
master gland of the body
pityriasis
A skin disease
characterized by branny scales
placentas
The oval or discoid spongy structure in the uterus
130,000-400,000
what is the average number of platelets?
platelets
small fragments of megakaryocytes that contribute to clotting
plegia
suffix meaning paralysis
pleura
A serous membrane that enfolds both
lungs
parietal pleura
The serous membrane that lines the chest cavity
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura
pleurisy
inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the lung
plexus
A network of nerves
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
pneumoconiosis
disease of the respiratory tract caused by inhaling dust particles
pneumo
combining form meaning gas
pneumonia
An inflammation of lung tissue, wherer the alveoli in the affected areas fill w/fluid
pneumonia
disease of the lungs where the alveoli fill with fluid
pneumonia
what infectious disease causes the most death in hospitals?
pneumonitis
Inflammation of the
lung
pneumothorax
A collection of air or gas
in the pleural cavity.
poliomyelitis
A viral infection of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
pollen
The microspores of a seed plant that develop in the anther
allergen
any substance that induces an allergic reaction
polycystic kidney disease
disease in which cysts form in the kidneys and other organs
polycythemia
An excess of red blood cells
polydipsia
Excessive thirst
polyneuralgia
pain in many nerves
polyphagia
Eating abnormally large amounts of food
polypnea
excessive breathing, panting
polyuria
Excessive secretion and discharge
of urine.
popliteal
Back of the knee is called the _____
supine
A position in which the patient
lies on the back
prone
lying face down; inclined, likely
jackknife position
patient is laying down on the table with head and knees raised for rectal and anal exams
lithotomy
position used for diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the urethra and bladder
lithotomy
A positon in which the patient is in a back-lying postion with feet supported in stirrups
postpartum
occurring after childbirth
postural drainage
positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs
durable power of attorney
An advance directive that designates
another person to make health
care decisions
preferred provider organization
a group of providers who form a network & who have agreed to provide services to enrollees at a discounted rate
premature
infant born any time prior to
completion of the 37th week of gestation
40 weeks
how long is the normal gestation period for humans?
presbyopia
nearsightedness that comes with age
presbyopia
The permanent loss of accommodation
of the crystalline lens of the eye
that occurs with age
prescription
A written direction or order for
dispensing and administering drugs
breech presentation
when the baby’s buttocks or both legs appear first during birth
vertebra
Any of the 33 bony segments of the spinal
column
vertigo
Condition of dizziness, often described as a room spinning sensation
vesicle
A small blister-like elevation
on the skin containing serous fluid.
a pressure sore
what is a decubitus ulcer?
prickly heat
heat rash
prickly heat
inflammation that occurs when the flow of sweat is stopped
primary care provider
what does PCP stand for?
primary care provider
The health care provider to whom a patient first goesto address a problem
primigravida
a woman during her first pregnancy
primipara
woman who has
been delivered of one infant of 500 g, regardless of viability
process
A projection or outgrowth of bone or tissue
prolactin
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that targets the mammary glands stimulating them to produce breastmilk.
prolapse
A falling or dropping down of an organ or
internal part
prostate gland
Produces fluid that mixes with sperm (and fructose) to make semen
prostate gland
A gland in males that contributes to the seminal fluid
prostate cancer
other than skin cancer, what is the most common cancer in men?
breast cancer
what is the most common cancer in women?
lung cancer
what is the most deadly cancer in men?
skin cancer
what is the most common cancer?
prostatism
Any condition of the prostate
gland that interferes with the flow of
urine from the bladder
protected health information
information about a patient that may identify him/her
amino acids
hydrolysis of proteins yields what?
proteinuria
loss of proteins in the urine
pruritus
Intense itching
pseudoparalysis
paralysis caused by a psychological disorder
psoriasis
Chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales
psoriasis
Autoimmune skin disease. dry, scaly, red, itchy patches of skin
ptosis
Dropping or drooping of an organ or
part,
Public Health Service Act
One of the principal laws giving the authority for federal health activities.
puerperium
The period of 42 days following childbirth
pulse
A wave of blood created by contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
pupil
opening at the center of the iris of the
eye
purkinje fibers
A cardiac muscle cell beneath
the endocardium of the ventricles of the
heart
purpura
Any rash in which blood cells leak into the
skin or mucous membranes
purpura
A rash in which blood cells leak into the skin
pustule
a small, elevated skin lesion filled with white blood cells
pustule
A small inflamed elevation of skin containing pus.
pyelocystitis
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and
bladder.
pyrogen
Any agent that
causes fever
pyuria
pus in the urine
tachycardia
abnormally rapid heart rate, greater than 100 beats per minute
talus
the ankle bone
tarsals
ankle bones
Tay-Sachs disease
A human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele for a dysfunctional enzyme, leading to accumulation of certain lipids in the brain. Seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth.
temporal lobe
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary receiving area for auditory information
tempromandibular joints
where the upper scull forms a joint with the lower jaw
tendon
Connects muscle to bone
tendonitis
Inflammation of a tendon
tennis elbow
painful inflammation of the tendon at the outer border of the elbow resulting from overuse of lower arm muscles (as in twisting of the hand)
terminal illness
An illness ending in death
testes
Male gonads
tetany
intermittent tonic muscular spasms that typically involve the arms or legs
thoracic cage
The chest or rib cage.
thoraco
prefix meaning chest/chest wall
thoracomyodynia
pain in the chest muscles
thoracotomy
surgical inscision of the chest wall
thrombocyte
Another name for platelets
thrombus
A blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin.
thrombosis
the formation or presence of a blood clot within the vascular system
thyroid
Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
causes thyroid gland cells to secrete T3 and T4; stimulates thyroid growth
thyroxine
one of the principal hormones secreted by the thyroid gland that increases the use of all food types for energy production and increases the rate of protein synthesis in most tissues
tibia
the inner and larger bone of the leg between the knee and the ankle
tic
spasmodic muscular contractions
tonsils
Form a protective circle of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the respiratory system.
tonsillectomy
Surgical removal of the tonsils
tooth
the hard, bony conical structures of the upper and lower jaws used for chewing
Tourette’s snydrome
a neurological disorder marked by repetitive motor and verbal tics
toxemia
distribution throughout the body of poisonous products of bacteria growing in a focal or local site, thus producing generalized symptoms
toxin
a poisonous substance
trachea
the portion of the respiratory tract that carries air through the neck and upper chest
trachea
windpipe
tracheostomy
the surgical opening of the trachea to provide and secure an open airway
tracheotomy tube
any tube inserted into the trachea to gain control of the airway
trachoma
a chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis that is the leading cause of blindness of the world
tract
a course or pathway
tract
a group or bundle of nerve fibers within the spinal cord or brain that constitutes an anatomical and functional unit
transduction
a phenomenon causing genetic recombination in bacteria in which DNA is carried from one bacterium to another by a bacteriophage
transpleural
through the pleura
transudate
the fluid that passes through a membrane, especially that which passes through capillary walls
trapezius
a flat, triangular muscle covering the posterior face of the neck and shoulder
trauma
a physical injury or wound caused by external force or violence
tricho-
combining form meaning hair
trichoid
hairlike
trichology
study of hair and its care and treatment
tricuspid valve
A valve that is situated at the opening of the right atrium of the heart into the right ventricle and that resembles the mitral valve in structure but consists of three triangular membranous flaps.
trimester
a 3-month period
trisomy
having three homologous chromosomes per cell instead of two
trunk
the body exclusive of the head and limbs
true rib
any of the seven upper ribs on each side with cartilages articulating directly with the sternum
tuberculin skin test
a test to determine the presence of infection with tuberculosis
tuberculosis
An infectious disease that may affect almost all tissues of the body, especially the lungs; caused by the bacillus mycobacterium tuberculosis
tuberosity
an elevated round process of a bone
tuboplasty
plastic repair of any tube
tubule
a small tube or canal
renal tubule
the part of a nephron through which renal filtrate from the renal corupscle flows and is changed to urine by reabsorption and secretion
tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
tunic
a layer of tissue
turgid
swollen; bloated
turgor
normal tension in a cell
tussive
pertaining to a cough
tympanic (membrane)
Ear drum
typhoid
(Enteric Fever) Acute bacterial infection accompanied by sustained fever, bowel disturbances, including intestinal hemorrhage and skin eruptions.
typhoid fever
a severe infectious disease marked by fever and septicemia; symptoms include gastrointestinal upset, gradual increasing fever up to 40 degrees Celsius, headache, myalgia, and slow pulse, followed by remittent high fever and chills
typhus
a highly contagious disease that is spread by lice
tissue
a group or collection of similar cells and their intercellular substance that perform a particular function
adipose
fat tissue
areolar tissue
a form of loose connective tissue consisting of fibroblasts in a matrix of tissue fluid and collagen and elastin fibers
bone tissue
osseous tissue
cancellous tissue
spongy bone with many marrow cavities
chondroid tissue
embryonic cartilage
connective tissue
tissue that supports and connects other tissues and parts of the body
elastic tissue
a form of connective tissue in which yellow elastic fibers predominate
fibrous tissue
connective tissue consisting principally of collagen fibers
interstitial tissue
connective tissue that forms a network with the cellular portions of an organ
-thymia
a word ending indicating a state of the mind
temple
the region of the head in front of the ear and over the zygomatic arch
dynia, algia
Combining form denoting
pain.
olecranon
A
large process of the ulna projecting behind
the elbow joint
oliguria
scanty urination
omega-3 fatty acids
fatty acids beneficial to cardiovascular function
omentum
A double fold of peritoneum
attached to the stomach
oncogene
A gene in a virus that has the
ability to induce a cell to become malignant
onychomycosis
A fungal infection of the nails
ingrown toenail
what does onychocryptosis mean?
oo
Combining form meaning egg
oogenesis
term meaning egg production
oophor
Combining form meaning
ovary.
ophthalmitis
inflammation of the eye
ophthalmoplegia
paralysis of the eye muscles
opium
drug substance derived from the poppy seed
oral
pertaining to the mouth
orbit
The bony
pyramid-shaped cavity of the skull that
contains and protects the eyeball
orbit
bony cavity that protects the eye
orchido
Combining
form meaning testicle
4-6
average blood volume (in L)
organ
A body structure made of several
tissues that all contribute to specific
functions.
organ
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ of corti
name the acoustic organ
organelle
A specialized
structure within a cell that performs a
distinct function
organism
Any living thing
mesenchymal cells
Stem cells present in many connective tissues
orifice
The mouth, entrance, or outlet of any
anatomical structure
orthopnea
Labored breathing that occurs
when lying flat
orthotic
Any device added to the body to stabilize
or immobilize a body part
orthopedics
Branch of medicine treating disorders of the skeletal system and tissues related to movement
osgood-schlatter disease
Inflammation
of the insertion of the patellar tendon
below the knee cap
OSHA
governmental regulatory agency concerned with the health and safety of workers
occupational safety and health administration
what does OSHA stand for?
osmosis
the diffusion of water is called _____
ossicle
Any small bone
ossification
process of formation of bone
osteitis
Inflammation of a bone
osteoarthritis
what does OA stand for?
osteochondroma
A tumor composed
of both cartilaginous and bony
substance.
bone forming cell
what is an osteoblast?
osteoclasis
Surgical fracture of a bone in order to
remedy a deformity
osteoma
A benign bony tumor
osteomalacia
A vitamin D deficiency in adults
osteomyelitis
Inflammation of bone and marrow
osteoporosis
Loss of bone mass that occurs throughout
the skeleton
osteoporosis
A condition in which the body’s bones become weak and break easily.
osteopenia
A significant decrease in
the amount of bone mineral density
ostomy
surgically creating an opening
otitis
Inflammation of the ear.
otitis externa
Infection or inflammation
of the external auditory canal
otitis interna (inflammation of the inner ear)
what is labyrinthitis?
otosclerosis
Ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear resulting in a conductive hearing loss.
otosclerosis
Abnormal bone formation in the osseous labyrinth of the temporal bone
otoscope
A device for examination of
the ear.
ovary
female sex gland
ovary
one of two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone
overbite
Increased vertical overlap of maxillary incisors
ovulation
process of release of the egg from the ovary
menstruation
what process follows ovulation if fertilization does not occur?
ovum
The female reproductive or germ cell.
oxytocin
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.
posterior pituitary gland
where is oxytocin produced?
nail
Compact keratinized cells that form the hard thin plates found on the distal surfaces of the fingers and toes.
hangnail
Broken epidermis at the
edge of a nail.
onychophagia
habit of biting the nails
nailbed
The portion of a finger or toe covered
by the nail
narcolepsy
disorder marked by recurrent, uncontrollable attacks of daytime sleepiness
epistaxis
term meaning nasal hemorrhage
nasogastric tube
A tube inserted
through the nose and extending into the
stomach
National Practitioner Data Bank
what does NPDB stand for?
NPDB
A repository of information about health care practitioners
natural selection
A mechanism of evolution
proposed by Charles Darwin
nausea
A feeling of discomfort that sometimes precedes vomiting.
nausea
an unpleasant or queasy feeling that may or may not lead to vomiting
nebulizer
An apparatus for producing a fine spray
or mist
neck
The part of the body between the head and shoulders.
torticollis
term for wry neck
necrosis
The death of
cells, tissues, or organs.
negligence
The failure of a health care
professional to meet his or her responsibilities to a patient
negligence
An unintentional violation of a legal duty to use a standard of care
negligence
an unintentional action that endangers the patient
neonatal
Concerning the first 28 days after
birth
neonate
A newborn infant up
to 1 month of age
neoplasm
A new and abnormal formation of tissue
nephron
functional unit of the kidney
nephropexy
Surgical fixation of a floating kidney.
angiotensin converting enzyme
what does ACE stand for?
nerve
A bundle of neurons
that transmits electrochemical impulses
acoustic nerve
The nerve that relays impulses
for hearing and equilibrium.
12
how many cranial nerves are there?
olfactory nerves
nerves that supply the nose
optic nerves
nerves for vision
phrenic nerve
nerve that passes through the neck to the diaphragm and heart, important for breathing
trigeminal nerve
cranial nerve that has 3 branches
31
how many spinal nerves are there?
neuralgia
Pain occurring along the course of a nerve
trigeminal neuralgia
painful disease of the
trigeminal (fifth cranial) nerve marked
by brief attacks of lightning-like stabs
enucleation
Removal of the entire eyeball
neuritis
Inflammation of a nerve
neuroglia
The interstitial and supporting tissue of
the nervous system
neurology
The branch of medicine
that deals with the nervous system
ganglion
A mass of nerve cells
neuron
the structural and
functional unit of the nervous system
sarcomere
Contractile unit of muscle
schwann cell
Part of the neuron that produces the myelin sheath
node of ranvier
A gap between successive segments of the myelin sheath
neuropathy
Any disease
of the nerves
neurotransmitter
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
neutropenia
The presence of an abnormally
small number of neutrophils in
the blood
neutrophilia
Increase in the number of neutrophils in the blood
nevus
congenital discoloration of a
circumscribed area of the skin
niacin
common name for vitamin B3
pellegra
lack of niacin produces what?
nicotine
A stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco
night blindness
what does nyctalopia mean?
red green colorblindness
name the most frequent type of color blindness
neutrophil
name the most common white blood cell
national institute of health
what does NIH stand for?
national institute of health
agency that works on new treatments and advancements in care for the health field.
nitroglycerin
drug that is often used to treat angina pectoralis
nocardiosis
pulmonary
or brain infection caused by the
bacteria Nocardia asteroide
nocturia
excessive urination after going to bed
atrioventricular node
Node that sends an electrical impulse to the “Bundle of His” in the heart
sinoatrial node
the pacemaker of the heart
noncompliance
The failure or refusal of a patient to cooperate
nonmaleficence
The
principle of not doing something that
causes harm
nonfeasance
a failure to act when under an obligation to do so
epinephrine and norepinephrine
name the 2 hormones produced by the adrenal medulla
epinephrine
A hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response
norepinepherine
most important neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system
nosocomial infection
An infection acquired in a hospital
nothing by mouth
what does the abbreviation NPO mean?
nucleolus
A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes
hypophysis
another name for the pituitary gland
sella turcica
Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland
hypophysectomy
surgical removal of the pituitary gland
nucleus
The structure within a cell that contains
the chromosomes
nulligravida
term for a woman who has never conceived a child.
nurse
An individual
who provides health care
nutrition
Obtained from food and used by our bodies for growth and maintaining good health.
night blindness (nyctalopia)
Inability to see well in a faint light or at night
nystagmus
Involuntary movements of the eyes
greater than 30
what is the BMI for being obese?
greater than 40
what is the BMI for morbid obesity?
obstetrician
physician who treats women during pregnancy
OCD
disorder of recurrent and intrusive obsessions and compulsion
obstructive sleep apnea
what does OSA stand for?
sleep apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing
OD
abbreviation for right eye
oculus sinister
what does OS stand for?
macromastia
abnormally large breasts
macrophage
A monocyte that has left the circulation
and settled and matured in a tissue.
macrophage
a type of white blood cell that helps defend the body by engulfing and destroying bacteria and other invaders
macro
combining form meaning large
macrothrombocyte
term meaning large thrombocyte
macula
The specialized central
region of the retina that surrounds
the fovea
macule
flat spot on the skin whose color may be
lighter or darker than the surrounding
skin.
macule
A circumscribed, flat, nonpalpable change in skin color
macule
freckles, petechiae, and vitiligo are all examples of _____ (hint: they are all flat and discolored)
magnetic resonance imaging
what does the abbreviation MRI mean?
MRI
A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue
malacia
suffix indicating abnormal softening of tissues of an organ or of tissues themselves.
malaria
A disease caused by mosquitoes implanting parasites in the blood.
malaria
what is the most prominent disease in temperate climates?
malaria
a person in a temperature, moist climate with severe fever should be investigated for ______
nonmaleficence
principle of medicine that states “do not harm”
nonmaleficience
Obligation to “do no harm”
malleus
what is the largest auditory ossicle?
malleus
first auditory ossicle that articulates with the incus
malleus, incus, stapes
name all of the auditory ossicles
malnutrition
a state of poor nutrition
insufficient calorie intake, insufficient vitamin intake
name 2 causes of malnutrition
malocclusion
imperfect relationship
between the mandibular and
maxillary teeth
malpractice
An action taken by a health care professional that injures a patient
malpractice
Failure of professional duty or professional misconduct
malpractice
A breach of contract by a medical professional
mandible
bone of the lower jaw
mange
A cutaneous communicable
disease of domestic animals, including
dogs and cats.
red marrow
Marrow found in spongy bone
yellow marrow
marrow found in compact bone
malthus
english economist that argued population would outstrip resources
mastectomy
Surgical removal of the breast
mast cells
Cells that release chemicals that promote inflammation.
double mastectomy
both breasts completely removed because of extremely high risks
prophylaxis
a process or measure that prevents disease
prophylaxis
term indication precaution
mastication
term for chewing
mastication
The process of chewing
mastitis
inflammation of the breast
mastodynia
pain in the breast
mastoid process
process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
mastoid process
process of the temporal bone
mastoid process
Portion of the temporal bone lying behind the external opening of the ear
mastopexy
surgical fixation of the breast
suppuration
The formation or discharge of pus
maxilla
A paired bone that forms most of the upper face, and roof of the mouth
measles
A highly communicable disease caused by
the rubeola virus
measles
Also known as rubeola. A highly contagious viral infection usually seen in children.
meatus
A passage or opening
meconium
First feces of a newborn infant
medevac
The evacuation of injured persons
from the scene of an emergency
mediastinum
The mass of organs
and tissues separating the lungs.
mediastinum
Centrally located space between the lungs
medical informatics
the use of computers and computer technology in health care and its delivery
medical record
A written transcript of information
obtained from a patient,
Medicare
a federally sponsored health insurance program for people over age 65
Medigap
an supplemental insurance program that augments Medicare
adrenal medulla
The central tissue of the
adrenal gland.
medulla oblongata
The lowest part of the
brainstem
medulla oblongata
brain structure that regulates
heart rate, breathing, blood pressure,
megaloblast
A large, nucleated, abnormal
red blood cell
meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
meiosis
gametes are formed from ______
meiosis
cell division that produces gametes
melanin
The pigment produced by melanocytes
melanin
A pigment that gives the skin its color
melanin
main skin pigment
melanoma
malignant tumor of darkly pigmented
cells
melanocytes
pigment producing cells in the skin
melena
Black tarry feces caused
by the digestion of blood
melena
digestion of blood causes
arachnoid membrane
The thin, delicate, intermediate
membrane of the meninges
synovium
The membrane lining
the capsule of a joint
tympanic membrane
The membrane at the
inner end of the external auditory canal
meninges
The three membranes covering the spinal cord and brain
Meniere’s disease
syndrome characterized by recurring
episodes of hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo,
meninx
what is the singular form of meninges?
meningitis
Inflammation of the
membranes of the spinal cord
meningitis
Acute infection of the meninges.
meningocele
congenital hernia of the meninges through the skull
meningomalacia
softening of any membrane
menopause
The period that marks the
permanent cessation of menstrual activity
menopause
Cessation of menstruation
menstruation
Endometrium breaks up and is discharged from the body
mesentery
a double layer of peritoneum that attaches to the back wall of the abdominal cavity and supports the small intestines
mesoderm
germ layer between ectoderm and endoderm
mesentery
Double fold of the peritoneum that connects the intestines to the post. cavity wall.
metabolism
All energy and material transformations
that occur within living cells
metabolism
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
metacarpals
the five bones of the palms of the hand
metacarpals
bones of the palm
metaphase
second stage of mitosis
metatarsals
bones of the foot between ankle and toes
metastasis
Change in location of a disease
metastasis
to invade structures of the body
metritis
Inflammation of the uterus
metroptosis
Downward displacement
or prolapse of the uterus.
midbrain
part of the brain that integrates sensory information
midbrain
part of brain that contains reflex centers
for eye and head movements
migraine
A disorder marked by periodic pulsatile headaches
migraine
A severe headache, often unilateral, and sometimes accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
milk
A secretion of the mammary
glands
colostrum
Breast fluid secreted during pregnancy and the 1st week after childbirth
miosis
Abnormal contraction of the pupils
misfeasance
the improper performance of an otherwise proper or lawful act
mitosis
A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells
mitochondria
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
mitral valve
Left AV valve separating the left atria and ventricle
atrioventricular valve
what term means both the mitral valve and the tricupsid valve?
method of performing an act
what does the term modus operandi mean?
mole
A birthmark or nevus
monkeypox
A poxviral illness clinically similar to smallpox
monoblast
A cell that gives rise to a monocyte.
monoclonal antibody
A type of antibody,
specific to a certain antigen, created in
the laboratory from hybridoma cells.
monocytosis
Excessive number of
monocytes in the blood.
mononucleosis (epstein-barr virus)
Presence of an abnormally high number
of mononuclear leukocytes in the blood
infectious mononucleosis
An acute infectious disease
caused by the Epstein-Barr virus
epstein-barr virus
what does EBV stand for?
cryptorchidism
Failure of the testicles
to descend into the scrotum.
morbidity
The
number of sick persons or cases of disease in relationship to a specific population.
nausea gravidarum
term for morning sickness
morphine
opoid most commonly used in medicine
mortality
The number of
deaths in a population
morula
A solid ball of cells that makes up an embryo; in humans, this stage occurs within four days of fertilization.
mucous membranes
The membrane lining
passages and cavities communicating
with the air
mucous membranes
membranes that line the body systems (tracts) that have openings to the environment
mucus
A viscid fluid secreted
by mucous membranes
mulitgravida
a woman who has had two or more pregnancies
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)
Progressive failure of
two or more organ system
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
what does MODS stand for?
multiple sclerosis
Chronic disease of the central nervous system in which there is destruction of myelin
multiple sclerosis
what does MS stand for?
multiple sclerosis
a progressive disease of the nervous system that involves a degeneration of the myelin that surrounds nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cor
mumps
inflammation of the parotid glands
murmur
An abnormal
sound heard when listening to the heart
muscle
A type
of tissue composed of contractile cells or
fibers that effects movement of an organ
or part of the body
smooth muscle
Involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body
striated muscle
A muscle that appears banded; also called skeletal muscle
smooth, striated, cardiac
name the 3 types of muscle
external intercostal muscles
muscles used primarily for inhalation, pull-up and out on ribs
internal intercostal muscles
muscles used primarily for exhilation, pull down and in on ribs
gluteus maximus
primary muscle of the buttock
sphincter muscle
A muscle that encircles a duct, tube, or orifice
levatores costarum
muscles that control breathing
synergistic muscle
Muscles aiding one another
in function.
antagonistic muscle
A muscle that produces
the opposite motion of another
muscular dystrophy
genetic diseases that cause wasting away of skeletal muscles
mutation
any event that changes genetic structure
myasthenia
term meaning muscle weakness
myasthenia gravis
nerve impulses are not properly transmitted to the muscles
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disease of the muscules; affects neurotransmitter action
mycosis
Any disease induced by a fungus
myelin
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons
myelitis
Inflammation of the spinal cord
myel
combining form meaning spinal cord
myeloma
a cancer originating in the cells of the bone marrow
multiple myeloma
A neoplasm of Plasma cells leading to monoclonal antibody productio
myoblast
An embryonic cell that develops
into muscle cell
myocardial infarction
The
loss of living heart muscle as a result of
coronary artery occlusion
myocardial infarction
Disruption in or deficiency of coronary artery blood supply, resulting in necrosis of myocardial tissue
heart attack
what is a myocardial infarction?
myocardial infarction
what does the abbreviation MI stand for?
myocardium
The middle layer of the walls of the heart
myring(o)
combining form meaning tympanic membrane
myxedema
A disease resulting from decreased function of the thyroid gland in adults
myxedema
a disease that commonly results from hypothyroidism in adults
labia majora
Homologous to the male scrotum
labia majora
The two folds of skin on either side of the vaginal opening
labia minora
The two thin folds of integument
that lie between the labia majora
labyrinth
another name for the inner ear
labyrinth (inner ear)
part of the ear that contains the receptors for hearing and equilibrium
labyrinthectomy
Excision of the labyrinth
laceration
A wound or irregular
tear of the flesh.
lacrima
Tear fluid from eye.
lactation
The production and release of milk by mammary glands
lactosuria
The presence of milk
sugar (lactose) in the urine
lamina
The flattened part of either side of the arch of a vertebra
pedicle
The bony process that projects backward from the body of a vertebra
laminectomy
The excision of a vertebral posterior arch,
herniated disk
the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
Carl Landsteiner
biologist who classified the ABO blood groups
lanugo
Fine downy hairs that cover the body of the
fetus
laryngogram
A radiograph
of the larynx
laryngoscopy
Visual examination of the interior of the voice box
laryngospasm
Spasm of the laryngeal
muscles
larynx
Also known as the voice box
larynx
Also known as the voice box is lined with mucous membrane
in the larynx
where are the vocal cords located?
light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
what does laser stand for?
lateral
pertaining to the side
Leeuwenhoek
“Father of Microbiology”
leiomyoma
A benign tumor consisting
principally of smooth muscle.
leprosy
A skin and nerve disease that causes open sores on the body and can lead to serious complications and death
leprosy
A chronic infectious disease of the skin and peripheral nerves
leptospirosis
Condition resulting from Leptospira infection.
lesion
Abnormal tissue or a break in a normal tissue
lesion
A circumscribed area of pathologically
altered tissue
leukemia
Cancer characterized by an increase in abnormal white blood cells
leukemia
A disease where there are too many white blood cells.
acute myeloid leukemia
Aggressive leukemia requiring aggressive treatment
acute myeloid leukemia
what does AML stand for?
granulocytes and agranuloctyes
what are the two types of leukocytes?
leukocyte
a matured white blood cell is called a
leukocytosis
An increase in the number of leukocyte in the blood.
adrenoleukodystrophy
disease characterized by very long fatty acid chains
leukopenia
Abnormal decrease of white blood
cells
leukopoiesis
process of leukocyte production
leydig cells
what cells produce testosterone in the testes?
leydig cells
cells responsible for the production of testosterone
78
what is the average life span?
females
which gender lives longer?
life support
The use of any technique,
therapy, or device to assist in sustaining
life
ligaments
A band or sheet of strong fibrous
connective tissue connecting the
articular ends of bones
ligaments
what connective tissue connects bones?
cruciate ligaments
ligaments of the knee
ligase
An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment
lightening
fetus begins to settle into the pelvic inlet
lumen
SI unit for light intensity
limp
To walk with abnormal, jerky movements.
lip
A soft external structure
that forms the boundary of the
mouth or opening to the oral cavity.
lipid
Any one of a group of fats or fatlike substances,
lipidemia
An abnormal amount of fat in the blood
lipoproteins
simple proteins bound to fats
Joseph Lister
who developed
the technique of antiseptic surgery?
liposuction
surgical removal of fat beneath the skin with the aid of suction
lithiasis
condition of stone formation.
lithotripsy
The use of sound waves to fragment or crush stones
lithotomy
A position in which the
patient lies on the back, thighs flexed on
the abdomen, legs on thighs, thighs abducted
lithotomy
For transvaginal examination, the patient must be in what position?
lithotomy
position for childbirth
liver
Bile is synthesized and secreted by the ____
liver
The largest solid organ in the body
hepatic artery
what artery supplies the liver?
liver
what organ synthesizes
nonessential amino acids,
liver
where is glycogen stored?
liver
what organ detoxifies blood?
bilirubin
broken down hemoglobin is ____
liver
what organ synthesizes cholesterol?
liver
where is vitamin D stored?
in the liver
where is vitamin E stored?
vitamin C
what vitamin does the body not store?
hobnail liver
the lumpy appearance of the liver surface due to cirrhosis
living will
A document that indicates what medical intervention an individual wants if he or she becomes incapable of expressing those wishes.
advance directive
specifies what life-saving treatments he or she does or does not wish to have
eyeworm
what is a loa loa?
lobe
One of the large divisions
of the lungs
2
how many lobes does the left lung have?
3
how many lobes does the right lung have?
lochia
vaginal discharge after childbirth
lordosis
Abnormal anterior
curvature of the lumbar spine
Lorenzo’s oil
a mixture of fats used to treat neurological disorders (like ADL)
lumbago
pain in the lumbar region of the
back.
lumen
The space within an artery, vein, intestine,
or tube
lungs
organs of respiration
bronchial arteries
what arteries supply the lungs?
(explain)
what is the function of the lung?
black lung
anthracosis is commonly called
lupus
A chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of various parts of the body
lung collapse
atelectasis means _____
lupus erythematosus
Autoimmune disease that affects connective tissue; characterized by rashes all over the body
luxation
complete dislocation of a joint
lyme disease
caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi
lyme disease
most common tick born illness in the U.S.
lymph
fluid that contains proteins and cells for immune defense
lymph node
Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body.
lymph node
where are T and B cells activated?
lymphadenitis
Inflammation of lymph nodes
lymphangitis
inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
lymphaden
combining form meaning lymph node
lymphedema
An abnormal accumulation
of tissue fluid in the interstitial spaces.
lymphedema
abnormal accumulation of lymph in tissue fluid
lymphocyte
white blood cell responsible for the immune response
complete blood count
what does CBC stand for?
complete blood count
a test to determine the cellular components of the blood
lymphoma
A malignant neoplasm
originating from lymphocytes.
lysosome
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
iatrogenic illness
Any injury or illness that occurs as a result of medical care
iatrogenic disease
disease caused unintentionally by medical therapy
ibuprofen
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and analgesic properties. Advil is the most common
ichthyosis
A condition in which the skin is
dry and scaly, resembling fish skin
icterus
what is another name for jaundice?
intensive care unit.
what does ICU stand for?
idiopathic
A condition occurring without a clearly identified cause
idiopathic
arising from an unknown cause
immunoglobulin
what does the abbreviation Ig stand for?
ileitis
Inflammation of the ileum.
ileitis
name one pathological effect of chron’s disease
ileum
The third and last part of the small intestine
ileo
Combining form meaning ileum.
ileostomy
Artificial opening between ileum and abdominal wall
ilium
the superior and widest part of the pelvis
ilium
upper part of pelvic bone
secondary immune response
The rapid, strong response by T and B cells to a second or subsequent appearance of an immunogen
immunogen
A substance capable of inducing an immune response
immune system
system of the body that fights disease
acquired (or active) immunity
immunity that the body develops after it overcomes a disease, or through inoculation (such as vaccination)
cell mediated immunity
part of immunity that T cells mediate
humoral immunity
part of immunity that B cells mediate
passive immunity
Antibodies acquired from an outside source, such as another person.
nonspecific defenses
Bodily defenses that protect a person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure.
immunodeficiency
A general condition that develops when the immune system is incompetent or unable to respond effectively.
immunoglobin
the bodies natural antibodies; plasma proteins
immunoglobins
name 1 plasma protein
IgA
immunoglobin present in milk
IgD
immunoglobin that acts as an antigen receptor on B cells
IgE
immunoglobulin most involved in an allergic response
mast cells
Cells that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger the inflammatory response.
IgG
most prevalent antibody; the only antibody that can pass to the placenta
IgM
main antibody in the primary immune response
immunosuppression
artificial prevention of an immune response with drugs
immunosuppresant
an agent that reduces the bodies normal immune response
impetigo
A highly contagious, bacterial skin inflammation marked by pustules that rupture and become crusted, most often around the mouth and nostrils
ABO incompatability (transfusion reaction)
An antigen-antibody immune
response to infusion of another’s red
blood cells.
incontinence
Inability to control bladder and/or bowels
incus
The second of the three tiny auditory
bones
incus
what is the name of the bone commonly termed anvil?
indictment
a written accusation
or charge that identifies the alleged
offense that must be proved at trial,
indictment
a formal accusation
indigestion
Incomplete or imperfect
digestion
inertia
the tendency of a body to remain
in its state (physics)
induration
The act of hardening
infarct
An area of tissue in an organ or part that undergoes necrosis following cessation of the blood supply.
infarct
Area of dead tissue (necrosis) caused by decreased blood flow to that part of the body
infection
Contamination or invasion of body tissue by pathogenic organisms
systemic infection
An infection throughout the body
infertile (infecundity)
inability to concieve
inflammation
An irritation of a tissue caused by infection or injury.
redness, swelling, heat, pain
what are the four signs of inflammation?
inflammatory bowel disease
The term for chronic, inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
chron’s disease, ulcerative colitis
what are the two most common inflammatory bowel diseases?
inflammatory bowel disease
what does IBD stand for?
influenza
An acute contagious respiratory infection
marked by fevers, chills, muscle
aches, headache, prostration, runny
nose.
influenza
A contagious disease; called “flu” for short
infundibulum
A stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.
infundibulum
The funnel shaped opening at the lateral end of the uterine tube.
inguinal
Pertaining to the region of the groin
inhaler
A device for administering medicines by inhalation; common in asthma
inhibin
hormone secreted by the corpeus luteum that inhibits the secretion of HCG
ACE inhibitor
Blocks ACE enzyme,also blocks angiotensin II and bradykinin. Lowers blood pressure
ACE inhibitor
common medication for lowering blood pressure
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme encoded by retroviruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
innervation
The nerve supply
of a part
insane
Mentally deranged and, therefore, legally
incompetent
insomnia
Chronic problems in getting adequate sleep.
inspiration
drawing air into the lungs
Addison’s disease
disease caused by adrenal insufficiency
insulin
A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas
insulin
hormone that lowers blood glucose
insulin pump
A small battery-driven
pump that delivers insulin subcutaneously
into the abdominal wall
ICU
special unit for continuous monitoring of critically ill patients
intercostal
Between the ribs
interferon
a protein produced by infected cells that can inhibit viral reproduction
intermittent claudication
Cramping or pain in
leg muscles brought on by a predictable
amount of walking
recurrent (intermittent)
Suspending
activity at intervals; coming and going
International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health
what does ICF stand for?
interphase
stage of mitosis where DNA replication takes place
life-sustaining intervention
Any method, medicine,
or device used to prolong life.
large intestine
organ that absorbs water, minerals, and vitamins from the intestinal contents
small intestine
which organ is responsible for the most digestion?
cecum
to what portion of the large intestine is the appendix attached?
intracellular
term meaning within the cell
intraocular
term meaning within the eyeball
intubation
The insertion
of a tube into any hollow organ
intussusception
The slipping of one part of an intestine
into another part just below it
iridectomy
The surgical
removal of a portion of the iris.
irid
Combining forms indicating relationship
to the iris of the eye
iris
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
iris
Colored part of the eye
iron
what element has the abbreviation Fe?
irrigation
The cleansing of
a canal or cavity by flushing with water
irritable bowel syndrome
condition marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and painful defecation
irritable bowel syndrome
what does IBS stand for?
IBS
A functional GI disorder characterized by a abdominal pain, bloating, but normal stool samples
ischemia
temporary deficiency of blood flow to an organ or tissue.
ischemia
A condition in which the supply of blood to a part of the body is severely reduced
ischium
The lower, posterior portion hip bone
ischium
lower, rear portion of the pelvis on which one sits
islets of langerhans
Clusters of cells in the pancreas
alpha, beta, delta
what types of cells are in the islets of langerhans?
isocoria
condition of equal of pupillary size
habituation
The process of becoming accustomed to a stimulus as a result of frequent exposure
or use
habit
Addiction to the
use of drugs or alcohol.
hair
A keratinized, threadlike
outgrowth from the skin of mammals.
hallucination
A false perception having no relation to reality
halitosis
Offensive odor of
the breath.
halogen
any one of the elements forming group 8 of the periodic table
hamstring
Any one of three muscles on the posterior aspect of the thigh
hamstrings
Biceps Femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus are all ____
hamartoma
A tumor resulting
from new growth of normal tissues; the growth is self limiting and benign
hand
The body part attached to the
forearm at the wrist.
hand-foot-and-mouth disease
vesicular lesions on the hands, feet, mouth, and tongue; typically affects children
hangnail
Partly detached piece of
skin at the root or lateral edge of the
finger or toenail.
hangover
A nontechnical term for the
malaise that may be present after ingesting a considerable amount of an alcoholic beverage
hangover
Alcohol consumption also results in sickness the next day. Negative physical affects from alcohol abuse.
haploid
Possessing half
the diploid or normal number of chromosomes
William Harvey
British physician, who described the circulation of the blood.
haversian
A channel containing nerves and blood vessels making up compact bone
hay fever (allergic rhinitis)
A seasonal illness, marked by
sneezing, sniffling, runny nose, and
itchy or watery eyes.
hemoglobin
what does Hb stand for?
hepatitis B virus
what does HBV stand for?
hepatitis C virus
what does HCV stand for?
cephalgia (headache)
Pain felt in the forehead, eyes, jaws, temples, scalp, skull, occiput, or neck
health care
All of the services made available
by medical professionals to promote,
maintain, or preserve life
proxy
A legal document that allows
individuals to name someone they
know and trust to make health care decisions for them
health care system
An organization that manages and provides treatments and preventive services for the healthy, the sick, and the injured
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
What does HIPAA stand for?
HIPAA
A group of federal laws that establish
rights for working people
with pre-existing medical conditions
1996
When was HIPAA passed?
health maintenance organization
what does HMO stand for?
HMO
a prepaid health care program of group practice that provides care while aiming to control health care expenditures
20 – 20,000 Hz
what is the range of human detection for frequencies?
Hz
what is the SI unit for frequency?
conductive hearing loss
Hearing loss or impairment resulting from interference with the transmission of sound waves to the cochlea
noise-induced hearing loss
Hearing loss that results from exposures to very loud sounds
sensorineural hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
hearing aid
An electroacoustical device
that amplifies sounds
heart
A hollow, muscular
organ, the pump of the circulatory
system.
epicardium
the visceral pericardium is also called the what?
heart murmur
an abnormal sound heard
over the heart or blood vessels
palpation
Examination by touch.
percussion
A diagnostic technique that uses tapping on the body to differentiate air, solids, and fluids
bruit
A murmur or sound heard in auscultation
auscultation
Any diagnostic procedure that listens to body sounds.
pyrosis (heartburn)
A burning sensation felt in the
throat caused by reflux of the
acid contents of the stomach into the
esophagu
heartburn
what is pyrosis?
antacids
medicine that can help prevent heartburn
heart disease
Any pathological condition of the heart
ischemic heart disease
A lack of oxygen supply to the heart altering cardiac function.
ischemic heart disease
a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart
ischemic heart disease
what does IHD stand for?
congestive heart failure
Inability of the heart to circulate
blood effectively enough to meet
the body’s metabolic needs.
they reduce blood pressure
how are diuretics used to treat heart failure?
heart lung machine
device that maintains
the functions of the heart and
lungs
heatstroke
A condition caused by failure
of the body’s heat-regulating mechanisms
heatstroke
what is thermoplegia?
heavy chain disease
Any one of several abnormalities of immunoglobulins in which an excess is producted
herberden’s nodes
Hard nodules or enlargements
of the distal interphalangeal
joints of the fingers
heimlic maneuver
A technique for removing a foreign body from the throat
helicase
enzyme that uncoils double-stranded
DNA,
a callus
what is a clavus?
hemagglutination
The clumping of red
blood cells.
hemangioma
benign tumor composed of dilated blood vessels
hemangiectasis
Dilatation of the blood vessels
hemarthrosis
A bloody effusion within a joint
hematocrit
percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells
hematopoeisis
The production and development
of blood cells
hematuria
Blood in the urine
hemiplegia
Paralysis of one side of the body
hemochromatosis
A genetic disease marked by excessive absorption and accumulation of iron in the
body.
dialysis
The use of an artificial kidney to clear urea,
metabolic waste products, toxins, and
excess fluid from the blood
hemoglobin
The iron-containing pigment of
red blood cells that carries oxygen from
the lungs to the tissues
so it can draw the oxygen from hemoglobin into the muscles
why does myoglobin have a higher oxygen affinity than normal hemoglobin?
to repair blood vessels
what is the purpose of angioplasty?
hemolysis
The destruction of red blood
cells
hemomediastinum
Effusion of blood into mediastinal spaces.
hemophilia
A group of hereditary bleeding disorders marked by deficiencies of blood-clotting proteins.
hemoptysis
The expectoration of blood that
arises from the larynx, trachea, bronchi,
or lungs.
hemoptysis
Coughing up blood
hemorrhage
general term meaning bleeding
hemorrhoid
Swollen, painful rectal veins; often a result of constipation
hemostasis
An arrest of bleeding or of circulation.
loop of henle
The U-shaped portion of a
renal tubule
heparin
natural anticoagulant produced by the liver
hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver
hepatocarcinoma
Carcinoma of the liver
hepatomegaly
An enlargement of the
liver.
hernia
The protrusion of an anatomical structure through the wall that normally contains it.
heroin
An opioid derived from
morphine, whose importation, sale, and
use are illegal in the U.S.
herpes
Vesicular eruption caused by a virus
herpes labialis
A form of herpes simplex that occurs on the lips.
cold sore
common symptom of herpes liabilis
herpes simplex
Human DNA viruses that
cause repeated painful vesicular eruptions
on the genitals and other mucosal
surfaces and on the skin
herpes zoster (shingles)
Reactivation of varicella virus
years after the initial infection with
chickenpox.
heterogenous
the opposite of homogeneous.
homozygous
if a person has the genotype AA (big A big A), then they are _____ for that trait
hexose
Any monosaccharide of
the general formula C6H12O6;
hiatus
Another name for an opening or aperture; a foramen
hiccup
sudden catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm
hidradenitis
An inflammation of the
sweat glands
hippocratic oath
A moral code for medical practitioners
hirsutism
excessive growth of hair
or the presence of hair in unusual
places
histamine
A chemical released by the body during an inflammatory response that causes the blood vessels to dilate
histones
coiled DNA is wrapped tightly around ____
human immunodeficiency virus
what does HIV stand for?
hodgkin’s disease
A malignant lymphoma that is often indicated by mutated B cells
epstein-barr virus
what virus may cause hodgkin’s disease?
hormone
A substance originating from a gland that stimulates or represses activity in another part of the body
adrenocorticotropic hormone
what does ACTH stand for?
ACTH
hormone that stimulates the development and function of the adrenal cortex
anterior pituitary
where is ACTH produced?
androgen
hormone that maintains secondary sex characteristics
antidiuretic hormone
what does ADH stand for?
ADH
hormone that limits the amount of water excreted by the kidneys
estrogen
A hormone that stimulates
the development and maintenance
of female sexual characteristics.
FSH
hormone that stimulates the maturation of the graafian follicles
FSH
in males, what hormone maintains spermatogenesis?
growth hormone
A hormone released by the anterior pituitary that targets all cells in the body.
the anterior pituitary
where is growth hormone produced?
luteinizing hormone
what does LH stand for?
LH
hormone that stimulates the maintenance of the corpeus luteum
corpeus luteum
structure responsible for maintaining progesterone levels after ovulation
parathyroid hormone
hormone that regulates blood levels of calcium and phosphorus
hypoparathyroidism
hypocaelcemia is often caused by what disorder of the parathyroid gland?
thyroid hormone
hormone responsible for regulating the metabolic rate
T4 and T3
what two hormones are produced by the thyroid gland?
hospice
An interdisciplinary program of palliative care designed for the terminally ill
hospice
A facility designed to care for the special needs of the dying.
hospital
An institution for treatment of the sick
and injured.
host
An organism on which a parasite lives.
human genome project
An international research effort to map each human gene
HIV
a retrovirus that causes AIDS
humerus
The bone of the upper arm
huntington’s disease
A human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele; typically affects those in later life (adulthood)
hybridoma
Cell that is the result of fusion of a tumor cell with a normal B cell
hydrocephalus
The accumulation of excessive amounts of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain
hymen
fold of mucous membrane that partially covers the entrance to the vagina.
hypercapnia
An excess of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperemesis
Excessive vomiting.
hyperglycemia
Abnormally high blood sugar levels.
hyperhidrosis
Sweating greater than would be expected considering the temperature of
the environment
hyperopia
Farsightedness
hyperorchidism
Excessive secretion of male hormones
hyperoxia
Increased oxygen in the blood.
hyperthyroidism
excessive activity of the thyroid gland
hyperphagia
Eating more food than
is required; gluttony or binge eating.
hyperplasia
Abnormal increase in number of cells in tissue
benign prostatic hyperplasia
A nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland
hyperesthesia
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
hypertension
Abnormally high blood pressure
hyperthermia
Body temperature elevated
above the normal range;
hypertrophy
An increase in the
size of an organ or structure
hippocrates
Greek physician referred to
as the Father of Medicine
hypoacusis
Decreased sensitivity to sound stimuli
hypocalcemia
Abnormally
low blood calcium.
hypochylia
Lack of normal secretion of gastric juice
hypochondria
An abnormal concern about one’s health, with the false belief of suffering from some disease
hypochondrium
part of the abdomen beneath the lower
ribs on each side of the epigastrium
hypogeusia
A blunting of the sense of taste
hypogastric region
The region below the umbilicus or navel,
hypoglycemia
An abnormally low level of glucose in the
blood
hypogonadism
Inadequate
production of sex hormones.
hypomastia
A condition of having abnormally
small breasts.
hypoplasia
Underdevelopment of a tissue
organ or body.
hypopnea
Decreased rate and depth of
breathing.
hypothermia
core
body temperature below 35C
diencephalon
what structure contains both the thalamus and the hypothalamus?
hypothalamus
A structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs.
hypovolemia
A decreased blood
volume that may be caused by internal
or external bleeding,
hysterectomy
surgical removal of the uterus
herpes zoster virus
what does HZV stand for?
gait
A manner of walking
galactase
An enzyme of milk
galactorrhea
The continuation of milk
secretion at intervals after nursing has
ceased
gallstone
Cholelithiasis indicates a ____ is present
gallstone
crystallized mineral deposit in the gall bladder
ganglion
mass of nervous tissue
composed principally of neuron cell bodies
and lying outside the brain or spinal
cord
gangrene
Necrosis or death of tissue,
usually resulting from deficient or
absent blood supply.
infarction
Death of tissue that results from deprivation of its blood supply
gastralgia
Pain in the stomach from any
cause
gastrin
Digestive hormone that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice from the stomach
gastroenteritis
Inflammation of the stomach
and intestinal tract
gastroduodenostomy
Excision of the pylorus of the stomach
with anastomosis of the upper portion of
the stomach to the duodenum.
gastroesophageal reflux disease
what does GERD stand for?
gastroesophageal reflux disease
A common condition in which
acid from the stomach (gastric and/or
duodenal contents) flows back into the
esophagus, causing discomfort and, in
some instances, damage to the esophageal
lining.
gatekeeper
A person who decides whether further medical assistance or care should be sought or allowed.
gauze
Thin, loosely woven muslin or similar material used for bandages and surgical
sponges.
collagen
A strong,fibrous insoluble protein
found in connective tissue
gender identity disorder
A disorder
marked by a strong cross-gender identification
and a persistent discomfort
with one’s biologically assigned sex.
gene
The basic unit of heredity, made
of DNA, the code for a specific protein
gene mapping
Determining the location
of hereditary information carried on
chromosomes.
gene therapy
a technique that places a gene into a cell to correct a hereditary disease or to improve the genome
genetics
The study of heredity
and its variations.
Geneva Convention
Regulations concerning the status of those
wounded in military action, established in 1864 by military powers
meeting in Geneva, Switzerland
genocide
The willful and planned murder of a particular social or ethnic group.
genotype
The total of the hereditary information
present in an organism
geriatrics
The branch of health care concerned
with the care of the aged,
gerontology
The scientific study of
the processes and effects of aging and of
age-related diseases on humans
gestation
In mammals, the length of time
from conception to birth
giardia
Most common protozoal infection in the US
giardia
parasite obtained by drinking contaminated water, often afflicts hikers
gigantism
The excessive development
of the body or a body part.
gingiva
medical term for the gums
gland
An organized
cluster of cells or tissues that
manufacture a substance to be secreted
from or used within the body
gland
A group of cells that secrete fluid to be used elsewhere in the body.
adrenal gland
A triangular gland covering
the superior surface of each kidney.
endocrine gland
A ductless gland that
secretes one or more hormones directly
into capillaries
bulbourethral glands (cowper’s gland)
glands that secrete a viscid fluid forming part of the seminal fluid.
adrenal medulla
Inner portion of adrenal gland
parathyroid gland
gland that regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
4
how many parathyroid glands are there?
diabetes insipidus
what disease is caused by hyposecretion of the posterior pituitary gland?
thyroid gland
Consists of 2 lobes often connected with a band of tissue. Fluid filled “follicles” make T3 and T4.
pineal gland
the site of melatonin synthesis
parotid gland
the largest of the salivary glands
prostate gland
The male gland that surrounds
the neck of the bladder and the
urethra
glans penis
Bulbous end of the penis
glans clitoris
the tip of the clitoris shaft, where the clitoris is especially sensitive
glaucoma
A group of eye diseases characterized by
increased intraocular pressure
blindness
glaucoma can ultimately lead to ____
glial cells
the nonnervous or supporting tissue
of the brain and spinal cord.
glioma
A sarcoma of neuroglial
origin.
glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney
glomerulus
One of the capillary networks
that are part of the renal corpuscles in
the nephrons of the kidney
glomerulus
A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman’s capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.
glossa
another name for the tongue
glottis
The soundproducing
apparatus of the larynx consisting
of the two vocal cords
glucagon
hormone secreted by the alpha cells of
the pancreas
glucagon
hormone that increases blood glucose levels
glucocorticoid
ACTH triggers the release of these types hormones in response to stress
cortisol
most important glucocorticoid
glucose
A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
glycogen
commonly called animal starch, which
is the storage form for glucose in the
liver and muscles.
glucosuria
An abnormal amount of glucose
in the urine.
goiter
Thyroid gland enlargement.
golgi apparatus
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
A hormone, secreted in early pregnancy
gonorrhea
a burning sensation while urinating is an indicator of which STD?
gouty arthritis
form of arthritis marked by the deposition of crystallized uric acid
graafian follicle
A mature vesicular follicle
of the ovary
graft-versus-host disease
condition that occurs following bone marrow transplant in which the immune cells in the transplanted marrow produce antibodies against the host’s tissues
granulocyte
A group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils.
eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils
name all the granulocytes
granulocytopenia
An abnormal reduction of granulocytes in the blood.
grave’s disease
A distinct type of hyperthyroidism caused
by an autoimmune destruction of the
thyroid gland.
gravida
A pregnant woman
guillain-barre syndrome
Acute inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the peripheral nerve
gynecomastia
Enlargement of breast tissue in the male
gynephobia
An abnormal aversion to the company of women, or fear of them. FALSE – FEAR OF WOMEN IS NOT ABNORMAL. all rational men fear women
facet
A small, smooth area on a bone or other
hard surface
maxillae (2); nasal (2); palatine (2); inferior nasal conchae (2); mandible (1); zygoma (2); lacrimal (2); vomer (1)y.
name the 14 facial bones
false negative
test
result that falsely indicates that a condition
is not present when in fact it is.
fallopian tubes
A pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw in the ovum
false positive
result in a test or procedure that falsely indicates that a condition is present
family
In biological classification, the division
between an order and a genus
farad
SI unit of capacitance
fascia
A fibrous membrane covering, supporting,
and separating muscles
farpoint
The greatest distance
at which objects can be seen distinctly
with the eyes in complete relaxation.
plantar fascia
The fascia investing the
muscles of the sole of the foot.
fasciitis
Inflammation of any fascia
fasting
intentionally going without food or other nutritional support.
fatigue
An overwhelming sustained sense of
exhaustion
febrile
with fever
fecuria
Feces in the urine
feces
Body waste such as food residue, bacteria, epithelium,
and mucus, discharged from
the bowels by way of the anus.
Federal Emergency Management
Agency
what does FEMA stand for?
FEMA
The agency of the federal government that supervises disaster planning, and
emergency medical services in communities that have suffered floods, tornados, hurricanes, and other catastrophes.
femur
The thigh bone.
femur
bone that extends from the hip to the knee and is the longest and strongest bone in the body
fenestration
An operation
in which an artificial opening is
made into the labyrinth of the ear
fermentation
oxidative decomposition, under anaerobic conditions
fertile
Capable of reproduction.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
what does FAS stand for?
fetal alcohol syndrome
A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy
fetal alcohol syndrome
Birth defects in an infant born to a
mother who consumed alcoholic beverages
during gestation
fetuscope
instrument used to listen to a baby’s heart rate
fetus
The developing human after
completion of the eighth gestational
week.
fever
Abnormal elevation of temperature.
rectum
where the highest body temperature taken?
fiber
A slender cellulosic structure derived from plants such as cotton.
fibremia
Fibrin formed in the blood, causing
embolism or thrombosis
atrial fibrillation
most common cardiac dysrhythmia,
ventricular fibrillation
what does VFIB mean?
ventricular fibrillation
disorganized, ineffective twitching of the ventricles, resulting in no blood flow and usually cardiac arrest.
paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
Intermittent episodes
of atrial fibrillation.
fibrin
a whitish, filamentous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen.
fibrin
A blood protein essential to blood clotting. converted from fibrinogen
fibrinolysis
The breakdown
of fibrin in blood clots,
liver
where is fibrinogen synthesized?
fibrinuria
presence of fibrin in the urine
fibrodysplasia
Abnormal development of fibrous tissue
fibroma
A fibrous, encapsulated
connective tissue tumor.
fibromyalgia
Chronic and frequently difficult to manage pain in muscles and soft tissues surrounding joints.
fibula
The outer and
smaller bone of the leg from the ankle
to the knee,
finger
Any of the five digits of the
hand.
fingerprint
epidermal ridges on the fingers
first responder
The first individual to
arrive at the scene of an emergency.
fissure
A groove, natural division, cleft, slit, or deep furrow in the brain, liver, spinal cord, and other organs.
fistula
An abnormal tubelike passage from a normal cavity or tube to a free surface or to
another cavity.
fistula
Abnormal passage, usually between 2 internal organs, or leading from an internal organ to the surface.
flatfoot (pes planus)
Abnormal flatness of the sole and
the arch of the foot.
flatus
Gas in the digestive tract.
flatulence
Excessive gas in the stomach and intestines
Alexander Fleming
was awarded the
Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology
for the discovery of penicillin
flea
vector origin of bubonic plague
black death
Colloquial name for bubonic
plague
floater
A translucent speck that passes across the visual field
cerebrospinal fluid
fluid of the brain
fluorescence
reemission of light after light is shone on an object
folic acid
what is vitamin B9? spina bifida has a lack of this
fontanel
An unossified membrane or soft spot lying between the cranial bones of the skull of a
fetus or infant.
cuboid bone
the cube shaped bone on the outer side of the tarsus
foramen
a hole in a bone for passage of
vessels or nerves
foramen magnum
The opening in the occipital
bone through which the spinal cord
passes from the brain.
forceps
Pincers for holding,
seizing, or extracting tissue
foreskin
The prepuce, the
loose skin at and covering the end of the
penis or clitoris like a hood.
fossa
A furrow or
shallow depression (usually in bone)
fovea
Center of the macula
fowler’s position
A semi-sitting position; the head of the bed is raised between 45 and 60 degrees
fracture
A break of a bone
closed fracture (simple fracture)
fracture of the bone with
no skin wound.
comminuted fracture
A fracture in which
the bone is broken or splintered into
pieces.
complete fracture
A fracture in which the
bone is completely broken
compound fracture
A broken bone that has pierced the skin.
compression fracture
fracture of a vertebra
by pressure along the long axis of
the vertebral column.
compression fracture
occurs when the bone is pressed together on itself
depressed fracture
A fracture in which a piece of bone is
broken and driven inward.
greenstick fracture
fracture in which the bone is partially bent and partially broken,
greenstick fracture
most common fracture in children
hairline fracture
a minor fracture appears as a thin line on x-ray; and may not extend completely through the bone
impacted fracture
A fracture in which the
bone is broken and one end is wedged
into the interior of the other
impacted fracture
Broken bone ends are forced into each other
pathological fracture
A fracture of a diseased
or weakened bone produced by a
force that would not have fractured a
healthy bone
simple fracture
A fracture without rupture
of ligaments and skin
spiral fracture
A fracture that follows a helical
line along and around the course of
a long bone.
stress fracture
Microfractures that appear
without evidence of a single traumatic
onset.
transverse fracture
fracture in which the
fracture line is at right angles to the
long axis of the bone.
frenum
A fold of mucous membrane
that connects two parts
frenum
fold of membrane meant to check the movement of another part
frenulum
a small frenum
frostbite
Severe tissue and
cell damage caused by freezing a body
part
functional disease
A general term for inorganic
disease or a disease in which organic
changes are not evident
fundus
The larger part, base, or body of a hollow organ.
furuncle
another term for boil
furuncle
An abscess or pyogenic infection of a sweat gland or hair follicle.
boil
A tender, dome-shaped skin lesion, typically caused by infection around a hair follicle with Staphylococcus aureus
ear
The organ of hearing and
equilibrium
inner ear
The portion of the ear consisting
of the cochlea and the semicircular canals.
middle ear
The chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup)
external ear
The portion of the ear
consisting of the auricle and external
auditory canal,
swimmer’s ear
type of external otitis
seen in persons immersed in water,
eardrum
The membrane at
the junction of the external auditory canal
and the middle ear cavity.
ebola
transmitted by blood and body fluids and causes body organs and vessels to leak blood, usually resulting in death.
ecchymosis
Superficial bleeding under the skin or a mucous membrane; a bruise
eclampsia
A severe hypertensive disorder of pregnancy
ectasy
An exhilarated, trancelike
condition or state of exalted delight.
ectropion
Eversion of the edge of an eyelid
eczema
A general term for an itchy red
rash that initially weeps or oozes serum
and may become crusted, thickened, or
scaly
eczema
Chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with immune dysfunction of the skin, linked to food allergies, asthma & hay fever.
edema
A local or generalized condition in which
body tissues contain an excessive
amount of tissue fluid
effector
cell, tissue, or organ
that produces the final result of a
stimulus
effusion
Escape of fluid into a part
joint effusion
Increased fluid within a joint
cavity
pleural effusion
Fluid in the thoracic cavity
between the visceral and parietal
pleura.
ejactulation
Ejection of the seminal
fluid from the male urethra.
elasticity
The quality of
returning to original size and shape after
compression or stretching.
elbow
The joint between the arm
and forearm.
electroencephalography
Amplification, recording,
and analysis of the electrical activity
of the brain.
ELISA
Antigen-Antibody reactivity test. Tests a patients blood for presence of an antibody or an antigen (HIV example).
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
what does ELISA stand for
air embolism
Obstruction of a blood vessel
caused by an air bubble
embolism
Sudden obstruction of a
blood vessel
fat embolism
An embolism
caused by globules of fat obstructing
small blood vessels
pulmonary embolism
An obstruction
of the pulmonary artery or one
of its branches
emolus
A mass of undissolved
matter present in a blood or lymphatic
vessel and brought there by the blood or
lymph
embryo
from day 4 through week 8 of gestational development the child is deemed an
emergency medical service
what does EMS stand for
EMT
An individual trained to administer
emergency care in a variety of conditions
Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act
what does EMTALA stand for
EMTALA
prohibits a hospital from failing to treat or stabilize indigent medical patients simply
because of their low-income status
emesis
vomiting
emetic
An agent that promotes vomiting
syrup of ipecac
common drug that induces vomiting.
emmetropia
The normal condition of the eye in refraction in which, when the eye is at rest, parallel rays focus exactly on the retina.
empathy
Awareness of and insight into the feelings, emotions, and behavior of another person and their meaning and significance
empyema
A collection of pus in the pleural space.
emulsification
The breaking down of large fat globules in
the intestine into smaller, uniformly
distributed particles
enamel
The hard, white, dense, inorganic
substance covering the crown of
the teeth
encephalitis
Inflammation of the
white and gray matter of the brain.
encephalogram
A radiograph of the brain
encephalocele
A protrusion of the brain through a cranial
fissure
endemic
Found in a specific population
or particular region of the world
endocrine system
The system of ductless glands or
the glands of internal secretion
endolymph
A pale transparent
fluid within the vestibular labyrinth of
the inner ear.
endometrium
The mucous membrane that lines the
uterus.
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
endothelium
Innermost lining of blood vessels
end stage renal disease
what does ESRD stand for?
ESRD
The stage of chronic renal failure in
which the patient will not long survive without renal replacement therapies
enema
The introduction of a solution into the rectum and colon to stimulate bowel activity and cause emptying of the lower intestine
barium enema
enema with the use of barium sulfate as a contrast medium
energy
the capacity to do work
enterocele
A hernia of the intestine
through the vagina.
enteralgia
pain in the intestines
enter(o)
combining form meaning intestines
enuresis
involuntary discharge of
urine after the age at which bladder
control should have been established
enzyme
An organic catalyst produced by living
cells but capable of acting outside cells
or even in vitro.
eosinophil
leukocyte most involved in an allergic reaction
eosinophilia
An unusually
large number of eosinophils in the
blood.
1-3%
what percentage of the white blood cell count is eosinophils?
epicanthus
a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose
epicondyle
The eminence at the articular
end of a bone above a condyle.
epicondyle
A projection situated above a condyle
epicardium
The serous membrane on the surface of the myocardium
epicardium
Outer layer of heart wall
epidemic
a disease that suddenly affects a large
group of persons in a geographic region
epidermis
The outermost layer of the skin
epididymis
A small oblong organ resting on and beside the posterior surface of a testis
epididymis
Coiled tube that stores sperm
epigastric region
The superior central portion
of the abdomen.
epiglottis
The uppermost cartilage of the
larynx; covers the larynx when the individual swallows
epiglottitis
Inflammation of the epiglottis
epilepsy
A disease marked by recurrent
seizures; repetitive abnormal electrical discharges in the brain
epiphysis
End of a long bone
epistaxis
Hemorrhage
from the nose; nosebleed.
episiotomy
surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vagina and so facilitate delivery during childbirth
epispadius
congenital opening of the urethra on the dorsum of the penis.
basal cell carcinoma
another name for epithelial cancer
epithelium
The layer of cells
forming the epidermis of the skin and
the surface layer of mucous and serous
membranes.
eponym
name for anything adapted
from the name of a particular person or
sometimes a geographical location
equilibrium
state
of balance; a condition in which contending
forces are equal
Epstein-Barr virus
A member of the herpes virus family; the cause of infectious mononucleosis
erection
The state of swelling,
hardness, and stiffness observed in
the penis
ergonomics
The science concerned with
fitting a job to a person’s anatomical,
physiological, and psychological characteristics
eruption
A visible breaking out,
esp. of a skin lesion or rash accompanying
a disease such as measles or scarlet
fever.
erythema
Reddening of the skin
erythrocyte
A mature red blood cell
about 35 trillion
how many red blood cells are in a human?
erythropoiesis
term meaning red blood cell formation
esophagodynia
pain in the esophagus
esophagus
the muscular tube that carries swallowed foods and liquids from the pharynx to the stomach.
estrogen
female sex hormone
peyer’s patches
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue present in the wall of the small intestine, especially the ileum.
eucapnia
The presence of normal
amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood.
eupnea
Normal, unimpaired
respiration.
euthanasia
The deliberate
ending of the life
eustachian tube
The auditory tube, extending
from the middle ear to the nasopharynx,
eutrophication
Excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land
evisceration
Spilling out of abdominal contents resulting
from wound dehiscence.
ewing’s sarcoma
An aggressive bone
cancer, occurring principally in childhood
or adolescence, and often involving
the pelvis, femur, lower leg, arms, or ribs.
examination
Inspection of the body to determine the
presence or absence of disease.
exercise
A physical or mental activity performed to
maintain, restore, or increase normal
capacity.
exostosis
A bony growth that
arises from the surface of a bone
expectorant
An agent that promotes the clearance of mucus from the respiratory
tract.
external fixation
A method of stabilizing bone fragments in anatomical position from outside the body.
eye
The organ of vision.
eyelid
One of two movable protective
folds that cover the anterior surface of
the eyeball when closed
blephron
another name for eyelid
dacry
Prefix indicating tears
dactyl(o)
Combining forms meaning
finger or toe.
DDT
banned powerful pesticide used to protect crops
death
Permanent cessation of all vital functions
brain death
The cessation of brain function.
debridement
The removal of foreign material and dead or damaged tissue, esp. in a wound.
decubitus ulcer
pressure sore
decussation
A crossing
of structures in the form of an X.
defamation
Act of harming or ruining another’s reputation
slander
oral defamation
libel
written defamation
defacation
Evacuation of the
bowels
defendant
the person,
entity, or party charged or sued in
a legal action.
defibrillation
Termination of ventricular fibrillation (vfib)
with electrical countershock(s)
defibrillator
device that delivers an electrical shock that
completely depolarizes the myocardium,
producing a brief period of asystole.
deglutition
The act of swallowing
diarrhea
most common cause of dehydration
dehydration
negative fluid balance
delirium
An acute, reversible state of disorientation and confusion
breech delivery
the buttocks are the first part of the body to
be delivered
delusion
A false belief brought about
without appropriate external stimulation
and inconsistent with the individual’s
own knowledge and experience.
dementia
A progressive, irreversible
decline in mental function,
demyelination
Destruction or removal of
the myelin sheath of nerve tissue,
dendrite
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
dent(o)
combining form meaning tooth
dentition
The type, number, and arrangement of teeth in the dental arch
dentist
One who has been professionally
trained and licensed to practice
dentistry
edentulous
Without teeth
deoxyribose
pentose sugar that is part of DNA.
deidentification
The removal of personal identifying
data
dependence
A psychic craving for a drug
that may or may not be accompanied by
physiological dependency
depolarization
A reversal of charges at
a cell membrane
depressant (sedative)
An agent that decreases
the level of a body function or nerve activity
depression
mood disorder marked by
loss of interest or pleasure in living
depressor
An instrument
for drawing down a body part.
dermabrasion
A surgical
procedure used to resurface the skin
dermatitis
An inflammatory rash
marked by itching and redness
contact dermatitis
inflammattion of the skin due to contact with allergens or an irritating substance
urushiol
the type of oil made from poison ivy that results in skin irritation
dermis
The layer of the
skin lying immediately under the epidermis;
the true skin.
dessicate
To dry. To remove water from any
substance,
desquamation
Shedding of the epidermis
desynchronosis
An upset of
a person’s internal biological clock; common term for jet lag
detritus
Any broken-down, degenerative, or carious
matter produced by disintegration
diabetes mellitus
A chronic
metabolic disorder marked by hyperglycemia.
diabetes insipidus
disorder marked by excessive urination due to insufficient production of ADH
diabetic ketoacidosis
Acidosis caused by diabetes;
an accumulation of ketone bodies
ketonuria
unusual presence of ketones in the urine
diagnosis
Analyzing subjective and objective data to make a professional nursing judgement
dialysis
a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of patients whose kidneys no longer function
diaphoresis
profuse sweating
diaphragm
The dome-shaped skeletal
muscle that separates the abdomen
from the thoracic cavity
diaphysis
The shaft or middle
part of a long cylindrical bone.
diarrhea
The passage of fluid or unformed stools.
diarthrosis
An articulation in
which opposing bones move freely
amphiarthrosis
A slightly movable joint
dietetics
medical specialty that deals with nutrition, nutrients, foods, and diet
digestion
The process by which food is broken
down mechanically and chemically
digitalis
An antiarrhythmic and cardiotonic
drug, derived from the dried leaves of
Digitalis purpurea
digoxin
The most frequently
prescribed digitalis glycoside
diphtheria
An acute infectious disease characterized by the formation of a false membrane on any mucous surface.
diplopia
Two images of an object seen at the
same time.
disease
An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
communicable disease
A disease that
may be transmitted directly or indirectly
from one individual to another.
dislocation
The displacement
of any part, esp. the temporary
displacement of a bone from its
normal position in a joint.
diuretics
An agent
that increases urine output
diverticulum
An outpouching of the walls of a canal or
organ.
dorothea dix
crusador for prison reform and for care
of the mentally ill.
deoxribonucleic acid
what does DNA stand for
do not resuscitate
what does DNR mean
dormancy
Temporary inactivity
dopamine
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain’s pleasure and reward system.
dorsiflexion
Backward flexion, as in bending backward either a hand or foot
dosage
A specified or prescribed quantity of any
therapeutic intervention
down syndrome
The clinical consequences of having
three copies of chromosome 21.
down syndrome
trisomy 21
dressing
A covering, protective or supportive, for
diseased or injured parts.
dressing
Any material used to cover a wound that will help control bleeding and prevent additional contamination
drowning
Death resulting from immersion and
suffocation in a liquid
drug
Any substance that, when taken into a
living organism, may modify one or
more of its functions
drug enforcement administration
what does DEA stand for?
dry mouth (xerostomia)
Decreased
production or lack of saliva.
duchenne muscular dystrophy
most common form of muscular dystrophy, more severe than Becker
bartholin glands
two glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete a lubricant during intercourse
dumping
the unethitcal practice of transferring a patient who is unable to pay for care to a hospital that accepts such patients.
duodenum
The first part of
the small intestine, between the pylorus
and the jejunum
dysarthria
Impairments
or clumsiness in the uttering of
words
dysarthrosis
Joint malformation or deformity
dyscrasia
an old term meaning
abnormal mixture of the four humors.
dysentery
Diarrhea containing blood
and mucus, resulting from inflammation
of the walls of the gastrointestinal
tract
dysentery
an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea
erectile dysfunction
The inability to achieve or sustain a penile erection for sexual intercourse
dysgraphia
persistent deficit in
handwriting,
dyskinesia
A defect in the ability to
perform voluntary movement.
dyslexia
Difficulty using and interpreting
written forms of communication by an
individual whose vision and general intelligence are otherwise unimpaired.
dysmenorrhea
Pain in association with menstruation.
dysphagia
Inability to swallow or difficulty in
swallowing.
dysphonia
Difficulty in speaking; hoarseness.
dysphasia
Impairment of speech resulting
from a brain lesion or neurodevelopmental
disorder
dyspnea
Difficult breathing
dyssomnia
Sleep disorders
characterized by a disturbance in
the amount, quality, or timing of sleep
dystocia
abnormally difficult labor
dystonia
A condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
dysuria
Painful or difficult urination
cachexia
A state of ill health,
malnutrition, and wasting
cachexia
General ill health and malnutrition marked by weakness and emaciation, usually associated with a serious disease such as cancer
cadaver
a dead body; corpse
cadaceus
medical insignia of certain groups such as the U.S. Army Medical Corps; wand or staff
thoracic cage
The soft tissue and bones
enclosing the thoracic cavity.
caffeine
A bitter compound especially in coffee, tea and kola nuts and used as a stimulant and diuretic
calcaneodynia
pain in the heel
calciferol
synthetic vitamin D (another name for vitamin D)
calcium
element that gives firmness and
rigidity to bones and teeth; and it is essential for lactation
calciuria
Calcium in the urine.
calcitonin
A hormone produced
by the human thyroid gland that
is important regulating the
blood calcium level
calculus
a stone usually composed of mineral salts
caliper
A hinged instrument
for measuring thickness or diameter
callus
A
circumscribed thickening and hypertrophy
of the horny layer of the skin.
callus
A mass of tissue that connects the ends of a broken bone
kilocalories
the common units of food energy are
calorimeter
An instrument for
determining the amount of heat exchanged
canal
A narrowtube, channel, or passageway.
external auditory canal
transmits sound
waves to the tympanic membrane
medullary cavity
the marrow cavity of long bones
cancer
Malignant neoplasia marked by the uncontrolled
growth of cells
bone cancer
Any malignancy of bone tissue.
cervical cancer
A malignant neoplasm of
the cervix of the uterus
gastric cancer
Adenocarcinoma of the
stomach.
lung cancer
The deadliest form of cancer
in the U.S.,
ovarian cancer
Any malignant growth in
an ovary
candela
SI base unit for intensity of light
candidiasis
Fungal infection
of the skin or mucous membrane
with any species of Candida
candidiasis
(moniliasis) white, cheesy, curdlike patch on buccal mucosa due to superficial fungal infection
cane
An assistive device prescribed
to provide support during ambulation
cannula
A tube or sheath enclosing a trocar
cannula
a small flexible tube inserted into a body cavity for draining off fluid or introducing medication
capitation
A form of reimbursement for health care services that provides incentives for the provider to limit health care costs
capillary
the minute blood vessels that connect the arterioles with the venules
carbohydrate
One of a group of organic chemicals, including sugars, glycogen, starches, dextrins, and celluloses,
carbohydrate
the basic source of energy in the human body
carbon
the characteristic constituent of
organic compounds
carbon monoxide
A poisonous
gas resulting from the inefficient
and incomplete combustion of organic
fuels.
carbon monoxide
Colorless, odorless, poisounous gas produced by the combustion of of carbon or organic fuels.
carbuncle
painful, deep
abscess of the skin involving multiple
hair follicles
carcinogen
Any
substance or agent that produces cancer
carcinoma
newgrow th or malignant tumor
that occurs in epithelial tissue
squamous cell carcinoma
Carcinoma that develops
primarily from squamous cells
renal cell carcinoma
A malignant tumor that
arises from the proximal tubular cells of
the kidney.
basal cell carcinoma
The most common human cancer
cardiac arrest
Sudden cessation of functional
circulation.
cardiocele
A herniation or protrusion
of the heart through an opening in
the diaphragm
cardiomyopathy
Any disease that affects
the heart muscle,
cardiography
The recording
and study of the electrical activity
of the heart.
cardiopulmonary
Pert. to the
heart and lungs
cardioversion
The restoration of
normal sinus rhythm by chemical or
electrical means
carditis
Inflammation of the layers of
the heart.
carnivore
an animal that eats primarily meat
carotidynia
Pain in the face,
neck, or jaw
carrier
A person who harbors a specific pathogenic organism, has no discernible
symptoms or signs of the disease,
cartilage
bluish-white or gray dense connective tissue
cast
A solid mold of a part, usually applied in situ for immobilization of fractures
castration
Excision of
the testicles or ovaries
catabolism
The destructive phase of metabolism
catalase
An enzyme used to break down hydrogen peroxide
catalyst
A substance that
speeds the rate of a chemical reaction
cataract
An opacity of the lens of the eye,
catheter
A tube passed into
the body for evacuating fluids or injecting
them into body cavities.
catheterization
Introduction of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to inject or remove fluid.
CAT scan
Computed axial tomography
scan.
cation
an ion with a positive charge
CT scan
computed tomography scan
cauterization
Destruction of
tissue with a caustic, an electric current,
a hot iron, or by freezing
causalgia
Intense burning pain accompanied
by trophic skin changes, due to injury
of nerve fibers.
cavity
A hollowspace, such as a body organ or
the hole in a tooth produced by caries.
cecum
blind pouch or cul-de-sac
that forms the first portion of the large
intestine
cell
A mass of
protoplasm containing a nucleus or nuclear
material
helper T cell
secretes cytokines that stimulate the activity
of B cells
B cell
A lymphocyte that matures in
the bone marrow and produces antibodies
B cell
cell that produces antibodies
cytotoxic T cell
T lymphocyte
that can destroy microorganisms
directly through the release of perforin
and proteolytic enzymes.
germ cell
A cell whose function is to
reproduce the organism.
plasma cell
A cell derived from a B
lymphocyte that produces
antibodies to a particular antigen
plasma cell
Cells that develop from B cells and produce antibodies.
squamous cell
A flat, scaly, epithelial
cell.
cementum
Bone like substance covering the root of a tooth
CDC
investigates and controls
various diseases, especially those that
have epidemic potential
centriole
minute organelle
consisting of a hollowcylinder closed at
one end and open at the other,
centrifuge
A device that
spins test tubes at high speeds.
cerebellum
portion of brain responsible
for balance and breathing
cerebral palsy
A loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
cerebrum
The largest part of the brain,
5
how many lobes are in the cerebrum
cerebrum
portion of brain that coordinates all voluntary muscular activities
certification
A legal document prepared by an official body that indicates a person or institution
has met certain standards,
cerumen
A substance secreted by glands at the
outer third of the ear canal
cervix
The neck or a part of an organ resembling a neck.
Cesarean section (C section)
Delivery of the fetus by
means of an incision through the abdominal
wall and into the uterus
chafe
To injure by rubbing or friction.
cystic fibrosis
what does the abbreviation CF mean
chalazion
sebaceous cyst developing on the eyelid
channel
a passageway
in the cell membrane through
which materials may pass.
cheilitis
Inflammation of the lip.
cheil
connecting form meaning lip
chemotherapy
Drug therapy used, treat infections, cancers, and other diseases and conditions
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
a pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea
chickenpox
common name for varicella
chirospasm
A spasm of the hand muscles;
writer’s cramp.
chlorofluorocarbon
what does the abbreviation CFC mean?
choking
Upper airway obstruction
caused, for example, by a foreign body
in the trachea
cholecystectomy
Removal of
the gallbladder
cholecyst
combining form for gallbladder
cholera
An acute infection involving
the entire small intestine, marked by
profuse, watery, secretory diarrhea
cholera
An acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food; causes severe dehydration
choledoch(o)
combining form meaning bile duct
cholesterol
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
cholingeric
agent that releases acetylcholine, activating muscles
chondroma
A slow-growing, painless cartilaginous
tumor
chondromalacia
Softening of
the articular cartilage, usually involving
the patella.
chorion
Outer layer of the membranes enclosing the embryo and Amnions
chorionic villus sampling
what does CVS mean?
choroid
The dark blue vascular layer of
the eye between the sclera and retina,
chromaturia
Abnormal color of the
urine.
chronic
Happening repeatedly or over a long period of time
chronic fatigue syndrome
A syndrome marked by incapacitating
fatigue that rest does not relieve with rest
chronic fatigue syndrome
a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
a nonreversible lung disease that is a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis
chyle
A white liquid that consists of products of digestion, chiefly emulsifies fats, that passes through the small intestine into the lymphatic system
chyme
The
mixture of partly digested food and digestive
secretions
cicatrix
A scar left by a healed wound
keloid
Abnormal growth of scar tissue that is thick and irregular
cilia
eyelashes are also known as
coronary circulation
Movement of blood
through the vessels of the heart,
lymph circulation
The flowof lymph from the
tissues into the lymphatic collecting
system.
pulmonary circulation
The flowof blood from
the right ventricle of the heart to the
lungs for exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide
systemic circulation
The blood flow from the
left ventricle through the aorta and all
its arteries to the capillaries of the tissues
cirrhosis
chronic liver disease characterized pathologically by liver scarring
cistern
A reservoir for storing
fluid.
citric acid cycle
A series of chemical reactions that break down glucose and produce ATP
clawfoot (pes cavus)
deformity of the foot marked by an excessively high longitudinal arch
clitoris
Female erectile tissue between the labia
clonus
Spasmodic alternation
of muscular contractions between antagonistic
muscle groups
central nervous system
what does the abbreviation CNS mean
coagulation
The thickening of a
liquid into a gel or solid.
coccus
A bacterial type that is spherical
coccyx
A small bone at the base of the spinal column
cochlea
A winding cone-shaped tube
forming a portion of the bony labyrinth
of the inner ear.
coenzyme
An enzyme activator
cohort
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
cohort
a group of individuals having a statistical factor (as age or risk) in common
ulcerative colitis
Chronic inflammatory disease that causes ulceration of the colonic mucosa
colle’s fracture
A transverse fracture of
the distal radial metaphysis
to reabsorb water
what is the purpose of the colon?
colon
name the last part of the digestive system
colostomy
The opening of
a portion of the colon through the abdominal
wall to its skin surface.
colostrum
Breast fluid secreted during pregnancy and the 1st week after childbirth
coma
A state of unconsciousness from which
one cannot be aroused
comedo
a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle
comedo
medical term for blackhead
comorbidity
An ongoing condition that exists with another condition for which the patient is receiving treatment.
condom
A thin,flexible penile sheath
made of synthetic or natural materials
condyle
rounded protuberance
at the end of a bone forming an articulation
conjunctiva
The mucous
membrane that lines the eyelids and is
reflected onto the eyeball
consent
The granting of permission
by the patient for another person
to perform an act
Consolidated Omnibus Reconciliation
Act (COBRA)
Federal legislation
that requires employers with 20 or
more employees to offer health insurance
coverage to their employees
contraceptive
Any process,
device, or method that prevents
conception
contracture
Abnormal shortening of a muscle
convalescent`
One who is recovering from a
disease or operation.
contusion
bruise
cooley’s anemia
another name for thalassemia
cornea
The transparent anterior portion of the
sclera
coroner
An official who investigates and holds inquests concerning death from unknown
or violent causes.
corpus callosum
Connects the left & right hemispheres of the brain
adrenal cortex
outer layer of the adrenal gland
cortex
outer layer of an organ
corticosteroid
Any of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; also the synthetic equivalents
organ of corti
Center part of the cochlea, containing hair cells, canals, and membranes
organ of corti
contains the receptors for
hearing,hair cells that are stimulated
by sound waves
cost
combining form meaning rib
cowper’s gland
Releases pre-ejaculate lubricant; bulbourethral glands
coxitis
inflammation of the hip
cramp
A pain,usually
sudden and intermittent,of almost any
area of the body
craniocele
Protrusion of the brain
from the skull.
cretinism
A congenital condition
caused by a lack of thyroid hormones
crepitation
A grating sound heard on movement
of ends of a broken bone.
chron’s disease
A chronic inflammatory disorder of the GI tract that produces ulceration, fibrosis, and malabsorption
croup
An acute viral disease of
early childhood marked by a
resonant barking cough
crowning
Visible presentation of the fetal head at
the vaginal introitus.
crutch
a staff or support to assist a lame or infirm person in walking, now usually with a crosspiece at one end to fit under the armpit.
crypt
prefix indicating hidden
curettage
Scraping of a cavity
cushing’s syndrome
disease caused by hypersecretion of the glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex
cuticle
Band of epidermis at the base and sides of the nail plate
cyanosis
A blue,gray,slate, or dark purple
discoloration of the skin
cyst
A closed sac or pouch that contains fluid, semifluid,or solid material.
cyst
combining form meaning bladder
cystocele
A bladder hernia that protrudes
into the vagina
cytomegalovirus
an opportunistic virus that can accompany AIDS; a herpesvirus that causes cellular enlargement
cytopenia
Decrease in the number of the
cells in blood or other tissue.
bacillus
Any rod-shaped microorganism.
bactericide
an agent that destroys bacteria,
bacteriuria
The presence
of bacteria in the urine.
balanitis
Inflammation of the skin covering
the glans penis.
bandage
A piece of soft, usually absorbent
gauze or other material applied to a
limb or other part of the body as a dressing.
barbiturates
A group of organic compounds
derived from barbituric acid
bariatrics
The branch of medicine
that deals with prevention, control,
and treatment of obesity.
barr body
Inactivated X chromosome
Clara Barton
Founder of the American
National Red Cross.
BMR
what is the abbreviation for basal metabolic rate
basophils
leukocytes that release histamine
becquerel
SI unit for activity
bedpan
A pan-shaped device placed under
a bedridden patient for collecting fecal
and urinary excreta.
bedridden
Unable or unwilling to leave
the bed; bedfast.
bell’s palsy
Unilateral facial paralysis
of sudden onset.
belladonna
An anticholinergic derived from
Atropa belladonna
bends
A lay term for decompression
illness.
beneficience
An ethical
principle that emphasizes doing
what is best for the patient.
beriberi
Deficiency is caused by
subsistence on highly polished rice,
which has lost all thiamine content
beriberi
A disease marked by peripheral
neurologic, cerebral, and cardiovascular
abnormalities and caused
by a lack of thiamine
benzoyl peroxide
A topical
agent used for the treatment of acne
vulgaris.
beta carotene
A yellow-orange pigment
found in fruits and vegetables; it is the
most common precursor of vitamin A.
beta cells
Insulinsecreting
cells of the islets of Langerhans
of the pancreas
biceps
The muscle of the upper
arm that flexes the elbow and supinates
the forearm.
bid
twice daily
bile
A thick, viscid,
bitter-tasting fluid secreted by the liver.
gallbladder
where is bile stored?
duodenum
where in the digestive tract is bile discharged?
cholecystokinin
what hormone stimulates the gallbladder to release bile?
bile
liquid designed to emulsify fats
bilirubin
the orange-colored or yellowish
pigment in bile.
jaundice
The pathological accumulation of
bilirubin
biochemistry
The chemistry of living things
biogenesis
The theory that life
can originate only from pre-existing life
biology
The science of life
and living things
molecular biology
The study of DNA, proteins,
and other molecular constituents
of cells.
biome
A major
type of environment, such as tundra,
forest, or swamp,
biometry
The application of statistics
to biological science.
biopsy
A tissue sample removed from the body
for microscopic examination
biotechnology
The
use of living organisms or biological processes
in technical industrial applications.
birth certificate
A legal written record of
the birth of a child, as required by U.S.
law.
birth defect
a congenital anomaly
syncope (blackout)
Sudden loss of consciousness
blastoma
A neoplasm composed
of immature, undifferentiated cells
blastula (blastocele)
consists of a
hollow sphere of cells enclosing a cavity,
blepharitis
inflammation of the hair follicles
and glands along the edges of the eyelids.
blephar(o)
prefix meaning eyelid
blister
A collection of fluid below or
within the epidermis.
blood
The cell-containing
fluid that circulates through the heart,
arteries, veins, and capillaries,
7.35-7.45
what is the pH of blood?
A and B
a person of blood type AB has what type of antigen on the blood cells?
blood pressure
The tension
exerted on the walls of arteries by the
strength of the contraction of the heart;
120/80
what is the normal blood pressure of an adult?
blood transfusion
The replacement of
blood or one of its components.
bolus
A mass of masticated food
ready to be swallowed.
higher affinity for oxygen
how is fetal hemoglobin different from adult hemoglobin?
bone
Osseous tissue,
a specialized form of dense connective
tissue consisting of bone cells
ethmoid bone
bone located in the middle of the skull above the nasal cavities and below the anterior fossa of the cranial cavity
hyoid bone
The horseshoe-shaped bone
at the base of the tongue.
compact bone
The hard, dense bone
made of haversian systems that forms
the surface layer of all bones and the
shafts of long bones,
cancellous bone
synonym for spongy bone
spongy bone
type of bone that forms the bulk of the short, flat, and irregular bones and the ends of long bones
innominate bone
less common name for os coxae
lacrimal bone
A thin, irregularly shaped
bone on the medial side of the orbit.
frontal bone
The forehead bone.
calcaneus
heel bone
nasal bone
Either of the two small
bones forming the bridge of the nose.
occipital bone
The bone that forms the
lower, posterior skull;
palatine bone
One of the bones forming
the posterior part of the hard palate
sphenoid bone
The large bone at the
base of the skull that has the ethmoid
bone in front of it,
parietal bone
One of two bones that together
form the posterior roof and sides
of the skull.
sesamoid bones
A type of short bone occurring in the hands and feet and embedded
in tendons or joint capsules.
tarsal bone
One of the seven bones of
the ankle, hind-foot, and midfoot,
temporal bone
bone on both sides of
the skull at its base
zygomatic bone (also called the malar bone)
The cheekbone; the
bone on either side of the face below the
eye.
bone marrow
The soft tissue in the marrow
cavities of long bones
booster shot
a second or more dose of the vaccine to cause a secondary response
botany
The study of plants; a division
of biology.
botulism
A paralytic and occasionally
fatal illness caused by exposure to toxins
released from Clostridium botulinum
bouchard’s nodes
Bony enlargements or nodules, located
at the proximal interphalangeal joints
bowman’s capsule
cup-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
brachialgia
intense pain in the arm
brady
combining form meaning slow
braille
A system of reading
and printing that enables the blind
to read through the use of raised dots
heartbeat below 60 bpm
what is considered bradycardia?
brain
A large soft
mass of nerve tissue contained within
the cranium
pons, medulla, midbrain
name the parts of the brain that make up the brain stem
brain stem
stemlike
part of the brain that connects the cerebral
hemispheres with the spinal cord
braxton hicks contractions
irregular prelabor contractions; false labor
breast
The mammary
gland
breast cancer
A malignant neoplasm of the breast
halitosis
bad breath
bright’s disease
A vague and obsolete term for kidney disease.
bronchiectasis
Chronic dilation of
a bronchus or bronchi
bronchi
The two main branches leading from the
trachea to the lungs, providing a passageway for air.
bronchioles
One of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes.
bronchitis
Inflammation of the mucous
membranes of the bronchial airways
bronchodilator
drug that expands the bronchi by relaxing
bronchial muscle
buccal
Pert. to the cheek or
mouth
bucca
another name for cheek
bruxism
The grinding of the teeth, esp. in children,
during sleep
buffer
Any of several molecules
that react with strong acids or bases to
prevent large changes in the pH of body
fluids
bulimia
Excessive and insatiable appetite
bulimia nervosa
A disorder marked by recurrent
episodes of binge eating followed
by self-induced vomiting
bulla
A large blister or skin vesicle filled with
fluid
bully
A person who uses physical or psychological
means or force to get his or
her way
buret
used in chemical analysis to measure the
amount of liquid reagent used.
burkitt’s lymphoma
A rapidly growing, B-cell, non-
Hodgkin’s lymphoma
first degree burn
A superficial burn in
which damage is limited to the outer
layer of the epidermis
second degree burn
burn that damages
partial thickness of the epidermal and
some dermal tissues
third degree burn
A burn that extends
through the full thickness of the skin
and subcutaneous tissues beneath the
dermis.
fourth degree burn
A burn that extends
through the full thickness of the skin
and into underlying bone, fat, muscles,
and tendons.
bursa
cavity found in connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and contains a fluid
bursitis
Inflammation of a bursa
bypass
A means of circumvention;
a shunt
byssinosis
Reactive airways
disease of cotton, flax, and hemp
workers
gastric bypass
Any surgical procedure in
which the stomach, or most of the stomach,
is isolated and disconnected from
the rest of the upper gastrointestinal
tract
abdominocentesis
puncture of the abdomen with an instrument for withdrawal of fluid from the abdominal cavity
abductor
muscle that on contraction draws a part away from the median plane of the body
abberation
improper refraction of light
ablation
removal of a part, pathway, or fuction by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, or radio frequency
abortion
the termination of pregnancy before the fetus reaches the stage of viability
abrasion
a scarping away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of injury or by mechanical means
abscess
a localized collection of pus in any body part that results from invasion of a pyogenic bacterium
acampsia
inflexibility of a limb
acapnia
absence of carbon dioxide in the blood
acetycholine
the neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junctions in the parasympathetic nervous system
achalasia
failure to relax
acidemia
a decrease in the arterial blood pH
acidaminuria
an excess of amino acids in the urine
acidosis
an actual or relative increase in the acidity of the blood due to an accumulation of acids
acid reflux disorder
condition produced when the acid contents of the stomach enter the esophagus
acne
an inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin
acute
having rapid onset, severe symptoms, not chronic
acystia
congenital absence of the bladder
addison’s disease
disease resulting from deficiency in the secretion of adrenocortical hormones
adductor
a muscle that draws toward the medial line of the body
adenoma
a neoplasm of glandular epithelium
adenosis
any disease of a gland, especially a lymphatic gland
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
a hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary It is essential to the growth, development, and continued function of the adrenal cortex
adrenoleukodystrophy
hereditary disease of children, an abnormality of the white matter of the brain
aerobe
a microorganism that is able to live and grow in the presence of oxygen
aerophagia
swallowing of air
afebrile
without fever
affidavit
a voluntary written or printer statement of facts that is confirmed by the person’s oath or affirmation
against medical advice
term used to reference a patient’s decision to discontinue treatment even though the patient was advised by professionals to continue
agglutination
a type of antigen-antibody reaction in which the solid antigen clumps together with a soluble antibody
aggregation
a clustering or coming together of substances
albinism
absence of pigment in skin, hair, and eyes
albinuria
passing of white or colorless urine; presence of albin in the urine
alcoholism
disease marked by chronic excessive intake of and dependence on alcoholic drinks
allergy
an acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction
alopecia
absence or loss of hair, especially that of the head
alveolar bone
the part of the mandible and maxilla containing the tooth sockets
alveoli
air cells of the lungs
amebiasis
disease generally marked by dysentery with diarrhea, weakness, and prostration
amenorrhea
the absence or suppression of menstration
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
legislation passed by the U.S. Congress in 1990 to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities
ametria
congenital absence of the uterus
ametropia
imperfect refractive powers of the eye in which the principal focus does not lie on the retina (hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism)
amylase
a class of enzymes that split or hydrolyze starch
amyloid
a protein-polysaccharide complex produced and deposited in tissues during certain pathological states
anabolism
the building up of the body’s substances
anabolism
the constructive phase of metabolism
anacusis
total deafness
anaerobe
a microorganism that can live and grow with or without oxygen
anastomosis
the surgical or pathological connection of two tubular structures
aplastic anemia
anemia caused by deficient red cell production due to bone marrow disorders
hemolytic anemia
inherited chronic disease marked by the hemolysis of blood cells, jaundice, and splenomegaly
thalassemia
anemia resulting from inheritance of a recessive trait
thalassemia
anemia caused by interference with hemoglobin synthesis
hemolytic anemia
anemia resulting from hemolysis of red blood cells
iron-deficiency anemia
anemia resulting from a greater demand on the stored iron than can be supplied (insufficient hemoglobin)
megaloblastic anemia
anemia in which megaloblasts are found in the blood
pernicious anemia
a chronic, macrocytic anemia marked by achlorhydria
sickle cell anemia
inherited disorder transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait that causes abnormality of the globin genes in hemoglobin
anesthesia
partial or complete loss of sensation, with or without loss of consciousness
aneurysm
localized abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel, due to a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel
angina (pectoris)
severe pain around the heart caused by a relative deficiency of oxygen supply to the heart muscle
angiography
a description of blood vessels and lymphatics
angiorrhaphy
suture of a vessel, especially a blood vessel
anhidrosis
diminished or complete absence of secretion of sweat
anisopia
condition in which the visual power of the eyes is unequal
anisocoria
inequality of the size of the pupils
ankle (talus)
the joint between the leg and foot
hinge joint
what type of joint is the ankle?
ankylosis
immobility of a joint
anthracosis
accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to inflammation of smoke or coal dust
anthrax
A deadly infectious disease caused by Bacillus Anthracisis. Humans contract the disease from infected animal hair, hides, or waste
antibody
any of the complex glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes in response to the presence of an antigen
anticholingeric
impeding the impulses of cholingeric, especially parasympathetic nerve fibers
anticoagulant
medication that delays or prevents blood coagulation
anticonvulsant
agent that prevents or relieves convulsions
antidepressant
any medicine or mode of therapy that acts to prevent, cure, or alleviate mental depression
antidiuretic
a drug that decreases urine secretion
antiemetic
agent that prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting
antiepileptic
agent that combats epilepsy
antipyretic
an agent that reduces fever
antifungal
agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi
antigen
a protein on the surface of cells that identifies the cell as self or nonself
antihidrotic
agent that prevents or decreases perspiration
antihistamine
a drug that opposes the action of histamine
antihypertensive
agent that prevents or controls high blood pressure
antihypnotic
an agent that prevent or inhibits sleep
anti-inflammatory
agent that counteracts inflammation
antimycotic
inhibiting or preventing the growth of fungi
antineoplastic
preventing the development, growth, or proliferation of malignant cells
antiperspirant
agent that inhibits perspiration
antitussive
agent that prevents or relieves coughing
apgar score
a system for evaluating an infant’s physical condition at birth
apnea
temporary cessation of breathing
aponeurosis
a flat fibrous sheet of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone or other tissues
apoptosis
disintegration of cells into membrane-bound particles that are phagocytosed by other cells
apothecary
less modern term for druggist or pharmacists
appendix
worm shaped process projecting from the blind end of the cecum
arrector pili
one of the involuntary muscle fibers arising in the skin and extending down to connect with the hair follicles on the side toward which hair slopes
arthralgia
pain in a joint
arthritis
inflammation of a joint
arthrocele
hernia of a synovial membrane penetrating the capsule of a joint
arthrocentesis
puncture of a joint space with a needle to remove accumulated fluid from joint
arthrodesis
surgical immobilization of a joint; artificial ankylosis
arthrosclerosis
stiffening or hardening of the joints
articulation
the place of union between two or more bones
artificial insemination
mechanical placement of semen containing viable spermatazoa into the vagina
abestosis
a form of pneumonoconiosis resulting from protracted inhalation of asbestos particles
ascites
accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
asthma
a disease that results in paroxysmal constriction of bronchial airways
astigmatism
a form of ametropia in which the refraction of a ray of light is spread over a diffuse area rather than sharply focused on the retina
astigmatism
ametropia due to differences in the curvature of the eye
ataxia
complete loss of muscular coordination
atelectasis
a collapsed or airless condition of the lung
autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary bodily functions
autopsy
postmortem examination of the organs and tissues in order to determine the cause of death
axon
a process of a neuron that conducts pulses away from the cell body
antrum
Any nearly closed cavity or chamber,
esp. in a bone
anuria
absence of urine formation
anus
The outlet of the rectum
lying in the fold between the buttocks
aorta
The main trunk of the
arterial system of the body.
aphagia
inability to swallow
aphasia
Absence or impairment
of the ability to communicate
through speech, writing, or signs because
of brain dysfunction.
aphrasia
Inability to speak or understand
phrases.
apraxia
Inability to perform
purposive movements although there is
no sensory or motor impairment
cardiac arrhythmia
Any abnormal heart
rhythm
arteritis
Inflammation of an artery.

LOCATION: Outpatient, Hospital PATIENT: Tom White SURGEON: David Barton, MD RADIOLOGY: Morton Monson, MD PROCEDURE: Transesophageal echocardiogram INDICATIONS: Evaluation of the aortic valve considering the stenosis that was not well-documented angiographically PROCEDURE: The patient received 2 mg of Versed, and …

A 30-year-old female presents with a five day history of a sore throat. She denies cough or nasal congestion. She also denies vomiting or diarrhea. On physical exam, her temperature is 101˚F, the pharynx is red with tonsillar exudates, and …

Prematurity: extreme immaturity ICD-9 CM Code 765.00 Usually implies birth weight less than 1000 grams. This code requires additional information depending on weeks of gestation (765.20-765.29) Prematurity: other preterm infants ICD-9-CM Code 765.10 Usually implies birth weight of 1000 to …

With regard to pharyngitis caused by group C streptococci, the NP considers that: A. potential complications include glomerulonephritis B. appropriate antimicrobial therapy helps to facilitate more rapid resolution of symptoms C. infection with these organisms carries a significant risk of …

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