Drugs and Behavior Final

Age 21 became the uniform legal drinking age across the U.S. in

The major factor determining individual differences in BAC after drinking alcohol is
Volume of distribution (mainly body size)

In a typical person, intoxication to the point of staggering and greatly impaired sensory perception occurs at about what BAC?
0.25 percent

Fairly high doses of alcohol interfere with erection of the penis in males, probably because of
impaired processing of erotic signals

In studies relating homicide to alcohol use
About half of all murderers and half of all murder victims had been drinking

Cirrhosis of the liver can result from drinking alcohol
In large amounts (a pint of whiskey a day) for ten years or more

Heart attacks are
less likely for those who drink one drink per day

Growth retardation, small head circumference, small eyes, flattened bridge of the nose, and mental retardation are signs of
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

If one member of a pair of identical twins is dependent on alcohol, the other twin
Has about a 50% chance of also being dependent on alcohol

Per capita sales of cigarettes in the U.S. began to decline
In 1980

In 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the FDA
Had no authority to regulate tobacco products

One recent fad in tobacco use has been
Tobacco lozenges

As a rapid and potent poison, nicotene causes death by
Paralyzing respiration

The psychological effect of cigarette smoking is
A combination of arousal and activation and calm and relaxation

Gum, patches, lozenges, and inhalers, are all various forms of
Nicotene replacement therapy

The early history of coffee included a 1674 pamphlet from England titled
The Women’s Petition Against Coffee

Most regular brewed teas have about how much caffeine per cup?
40-60mg (about half the amount in coffee)

According to current FDA rules on “cola” drinks
They cannot contain more than 6mg caffeine per ounce

The maximum CNS effect of caffeine is reached about______after drinking coffee
2 hours

The most consistent withdrawal symptom after chronic caffeine use is

Drinking 5 or more cups of coffee per day
Doubles the risk of a heart attack

The U.S. market for over-the -counter drug products totals about
$18 billion, the same as the dietary supplement market

Why would you want dextromethorphan in a cold remedy?
It acts as a cough suppressant

Acetylsalicylic acid was developed in the Bayer laboratory in Germany in 1898 and sold under the brand name

The earliest recorded use of opium as a medicine was probably by
Egyptians, around 1500 BC

Possession of opium, morphine, or Heroin without a prescription was made a crime by
A 1915 Supreme Court Decision

“Black tar” is
A name given Heroin from Mexico that is brown or black in its pure form

The textbook says that opioid withdrawal is similar to
A bad case of intestinal flu

The fact that animals with no history of opioid withdrawal will press a lever to self-administer low doses of intravenous morphine or heroin demonstrates the importance of_______ in developing opioid dependence.
Positve reinforcement

In a heroin user, negative reinforement of drug-taking behavior can occur when
Withdrawal symptoms are alleviated by another injection

Developing dependence on heroin
Seems to require three or more injections per day for several days

Describe three major medical uses for opioid drugs:
1. Pain relief-work quickly and are strong
2. Intestinal disorders-counteract diarrhea
3. Cough suppressants-reduce acitvity in “cough control center” in Medulla

One name that has been used for hallucinogenic drugs is psychedelic, which means
Mind-viewing, and implies a beneficial, visionary effect

The major thrust of early research on LSD was for its
Supposed ability to access the subconscious mind

In rare cases, people who have used LSD experience similar symptoms weeks or months later. The common term for this has been

Psilocybe mexicana and Psilocybe cubensis are examples of
Hallucinogenic mushrooms

Atropa Belladonna is also known by the name
Deadly nightshade

The red and white speckled mushroom that has been associated with an early Christian cult as well as with other religions all over the world is
Amanita Muscaria

Most of the resin is in which part of the cannabis plant?
Flowering tops

Canabis indica seems to have more psychoactive potency, whereas Cannabis Sativa is more associated with

The primary active ingredient in marijuana is
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

In a study of heart rate changes following smoked marijuana with 4 percent THC or 20 mg oral THC,
The peak effects were similar, but smoking produced effects much sooner

A great number of studies have consistently reported that smoked marijuana and oral THC both produce
Increased total daily food intake

In 1985, the FDA approved the sale of dronabinol (Marinol), which
Is a capsule containing THC

Tolerance to the effects of smoked marijuana
Allows experienced marijuana users to obtain euphoric effects with minimal cognitve impairment

Studies of the effects of marijuana on automobile driving show
Significant impairments when inexperienced users are studied in a laboratory environment

The questions who, what, why, when, where, how, and how much were introduced as a way to…
Help us evaluate whether a particular type of drug use is a problem

The use of a substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of probles occurring is…

Drugs have played a significant role in human society…
For thousands of years

Based on two different large annual surveys, it appears that the percentage of young people reporting current marijuana use…
Is about half the percentage reporting current use in the late 1970’s

One of the most important risk factors for drug use is…
having friends who use marijuana or other substances

According to results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which of these ethnic groups reports the highest rate of use of alcohol, tibacco, and marijuana?

An example of a longitudinal study of drug use would be…
Following the same group of people at intervals over several months or years

The U.S, government in the 1800s had few regulations on industry and in general took a “hands off” approach to government that has been referred to by the term_______.

Those who have received a “personality disorder” diagnosis, such as antisocial personality disorder
Have an increased likelihood of also having a substance use disorder

In determining whether using a drug causes people to become criminals, it is important to remember that
longitudinal studies find that indicators of criminal or antisocial behavior usually occur before the first use of any illicit drug

About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year for drug-law violations?
1.5 million

One concern that led to the initial passage of federal drug-control legislation in 1906 was
Patent Medicines

The Harrison Act of 1914
Required pharmacists and physicians to register and pay a tax to dispense certain drugs

In 2008, the FDA approved______new drugs

The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
Established schedules of controlled substances and moved enforcement to the Justice Department

According to current federal law, a fine of up to $10,000 and loss of all federal privileges (including student loans and grants) can result from conviction
for possession of marijuana or any controlled substance

From the 1920’s to the 1970’s about 1 out of 1000 Americans was in prison at any point in time. Due largely to changes in drug laws and drug enforcement, that rate has now
Increased to 5 per 1000

Testing for drug use using sweat, saliva, or hair samples
is now allowed for U.S. federal employees

It is estimated that_____percent of the illegal drug supply is seized by federal agencies each year

The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, water balance, etc) within certain limits is called

Drug molecules must be somewhat lipophilic (soluble in oil) in order to
Readily cross the blood-brain barrier

Parkinson’s disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to
Dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia

The brain imaging technique described in the book that can study where specific chemicals are binding in living humans is called
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Most drugs have three different kinds of names. Which of them belongs to a specific manufacturer?
Brand name

Among the psychoactive drugs, alcohol is classified as a(n)

The idea of a safety margin for a particular drug is based on the idea that
Toxic doses will typically be larger than therapeutic doses

The potency of a drug is defined only in terms of
The amount required to produce an effect

If repeated exposure to a drug increases the activity of the CYP450 enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing the drug, then latter doses will be less effective than the first few doses. This is an example of
Drug disposition tolerance

The use of cocaine by members of the general public in Europe and North America was initially in the form of
Drinks, such as coca wine and Coca-Cola

Which famous physician studied cocaine as a treatment for morphine dependence and depression?
Sigmund Freud

What is cocaine still used for medicinally?
It is used as a local anesthetic for nasal, laryngeal, and esophageal surgeries

Is formed in the body when cocaine and alcohol are used together

Cocaine use during pregnancy now appears to be associated with
No consistent effects on physical growth, test scores, or language up to age six

Studies of the mechanism of action of the amphetamines have focused mainly on
Release of norepinephrine and dopamine

The effect of amphetamines on weight control
Is real, but small and limited in duration

The “date rape” drug Rohypnol (flunitrazepam)
Is sold as a hypnotic agent (sleeping pill) in many countries other than the U.S.

When benzodiazapines bind to their “receptors” in the brain they,
enhance the inhibitory effects of GABA

The four most widely sold benzodiazepines are all longer-acting drugs sold primarily as

Animal self-administration experiments and studies of drug choice among humans indicate that
Short-acting barbiturates are more likely to lead to dependence than any of the benzodiazepines

What household product contains nitrous oxide?
Whipped cream dispensers

The modern era of abuse of volatile solvents by young people can be traced to a 1959 newspaper report of
Glue sniffing

The usual recreational dose of GHB when taken alone is about
1-5 grams

Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was first used to treat schizophrenia, it is now used primarily to treat
severe depression

Phenothiazenes and neuroleptics were terms used to describe the early forms of

Many of the new atypical antipsychotics are known to cause
Significant weight gain and metabolic changes

A recent study of the long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs found that
Three-fourths of the patients stopped taking their medication within 18 months

The initial effect of tricyclic antidepressants is to
Inhibit reuptake of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin

The FDA now requires a printed warning on several selective reuptake inhibitors because they increase the risk of
Suicide in children and adolescents

What is the average lag period for antidepressants to begin to be effective?
2 Weeks

The fastest, and probably the most effective, treatment for severe cases of depression is
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

One of the early types of stimulant drug reported to be used by boxers and others was

Stimulant drugs like caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine are sometimes considered to increase energy output and are, therefore, called_______drugs.

Laboratory studies of endurance on stationary bicycles have found that caffeine
Can significantly improve work output at doses of 300-500 mg

One ingredient in dietary supplements was banned by the FDA in 2004 after a major league baseball pitcher died from heat stroke after using it. The ingredient was

Although testosterone and related anabolic steroids clearly increase muscle mass during puberty, it has been more difficult to determine scientifically whether adult men with normal testosterone can get much stronger from extra steroids, partly because
It would be unethical to expose research participants to the high doses of multiple steroids used by athletes.

It has been difficult to do double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on the effects of steroids because
They produce detectable psychological effects, so the participants can tell when they are being given the steroid and when they are being given the placebo

Women who use steroids to increase their strength might produce some irreversible effects, including
Increased facial hair

So called “pituitary giants” often die at an early age because their internal organs continue to grow due to excessive production of
Human growth hormone

One widely-used legal dietary supplement that has been shown to increase strength is

An ideal body fat range for a healthy human male is
14 to 20 percent

Primary prevention programs are aimed at
Young people who have not tried drugs

In the public health model, programs designed to reach people who have started using some substances and to prevent them from abusing these substances or moving to more dangerous substances, would be classified as
Secondary prevention

Tertiary prevention programs are aimed at
People who have completed treatment for dependence and need relapse prevention or follow up

In the early 1970s, the Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior model began to be questioned when it was learned that
Students with more knowledge about drugs had a more positive attitude toward drugs

The social influence model grew out of a 1976 paper describing a successful prevention approach aimed at
Cigarette smoking

DARE is one of the most widespread drug prevention programs in schools. Research on DARE has shown that
It has not produced lasting reductions in drug or alcohol use

Project ALERT and Life Skills Training were included as examples of
Programs that Work, according to the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention

Out-of-school peer programs include peer influence approaches, as well as
Peer participation programs, such as community service

Beginning in 1986, the federal government launched a massive campaign based on anti-drug policies, locker searches, etc., to promote
“Drug-Free” schools

In discussing what we should be doing in drug prevention, the text says, “above all…”
Avoid sensational scare stories and preachy approaches

studies of court-ordered referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous versus other types of interventions have
Not found differences in effectiveness between AA and other approaches

Giving the user rewards for drug free urine samples
Is a form of contingency management

Relapse prevention approaches to treatment
Have the clients identify people, places, and behaviors associated with drug use and learn to avoid or change them.

Prevention of withdrawal symptoms using medications would be considered part of the______process

Both drug agonist (substitution) and antagonist treatments are included in the________phase of treatment

Because of the potential danger of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, these symptoms are often prevented or treated by administering

Rapid opioid detoxification is based on
Anesthetizing users and administering an antagonist, so that withdrawal occurs while they are asleep

Besides methadone, another substitute medication has recently been approved for maintaining opioid dependent patients. It is

The substance that accounted for the most admissions in the Treatment Episode Data Set between 1996 and 2006 was

Is treatment for drug dependence effective?
Statistically, treatment does reduce crime and increase employment

What are the approved medical uses for dronabinol (THC), and why do some argue that smoked marijuana needs to be available to cancer patients and others in addition to (or instead of) oral THC?
There are a couple of medical uses that are actually approved for THC. Oral ingestion of THC has been shown to be very effective in reducing nausea caused by cancer treatment drugs. Dronabinol is the generic name for the capsules containing THC which are prescribed to chemotherapy patients to help them gain weight and reduce vomiting from the chemotherapy. Dronabinol is also approved for use in AIDS patients to help stimulate their appetite. Some argue that smoked marijuana should also be legal for cancer patients and others who may need it because it has a few benefits over oral THC. These benefits include faster onset of effects, greater control over the medication and its effects, and the possibility that there are other compounds within marijuana that contribute to its beneficial effects.

Distinguish between the terms anabolic and androgenic when referring to steroid effects. What natural male hormone does both? What happens if women use anabolic steroids?
The term anabolic refers to those steroids that increase muscle, while androgenic refers to steroids that have masculinizing effects. Masculinizing effects include initial growth of male sex organs and glands, increased facial hair, and deepening of the voice. The male hormone testosterone actually creates both of these effects. Although there are women who chose to take steroids to gain muscle mass, there are some irreversible side effects that can occur. These side effects include increased facial hair, deepening of the voice, and enlarged clitoris. These side effects occur because anabolic steroids still have androgenic effects.

Your text and lecture have presented multiple prevention programs and strategies. Consider the effective and ineffective aspects of these programs and strategies and provide your own vision or framework for an effective prevention program.
There are many types of prevention strategies; some may be more effective than others. One type of prevention is primary prevention, which targets those who have not yet tried the substance and can typically be seen in schools, such as the DARE program. Primary prevention is effective in that it possibly reduces long term drug use. However, it is ineffective in keeping most people from trying the substance at least once. Secondary prevention is aimed at people who have tried multiple substances or tried a substance multiple times, and for which there is some concern that they could become addicted. These programs are popular on college campuses. They are effective sometimes because they give people more knowledge about the subject, but are ineffective because most individuals aren’t likely to pay much attention to the programs after they have gone through them. Tertiary prevention targets those who have already been through rehab and need relapse prevention or follow up. I think that for the most part tertiary prevention programs are effective, but there will always be people who just keep relapsing. Universal prevention programs target large groups such as whole communities, selective programs target high risk groups, and indicated prevention programs are aimed at individuals who show signs of developing a problem (such as kids who start smoking at young ages). In my opinion there is no way to keep everyone from experimenting with drugs, but an effective prevention program would involve educating young people on how to use substances as safely as possible if they are going to try them. A combination of alot of different strategies would also cover a lot of areas that might be the most effective.

Court-mandated (forced/coerced) drug treatment continues to be controversial in the field. Further discuss your personal views of this approach. If you disagree with this approach, realistically discuss what society should do for treatment of repeat drug offenders.
My personal view of court-mandated therapy is that even though it can be frustrating for both the client and the therapist, it seems that sometimes forced/coerced therapy is effective and does help certain individuals overcome their addictions and cause fewer problems for society. It is important to keep in mind that therapy will not work for every person, even if the individual is in therapy voluntarily. Therefore I believe that court-mandated therapy should be kept due to the fact that it does help certain people.

Over the past 15 weeks we have discussed many topics within the field of drugs and behavior. Discuss specifically how what you have learned in this course has changed your view of drugs and human behavior.
Over the course of this class I have learned many things that have caused my view of certain drugs to change. Probably the biggest change in attitude has been towards hallucinogens, specifically those like Psilocybin (mushrooms). Before this class I had the belief that these drugs were actually very safe, because everyone I have known that does them believes them to be perfectly safe and always told me they could not harm you. I am glad that I now know that hallucinogens are actually one of the classes of drugs that people should be the most careful with. My view towards other drugs has not really changed, but I have learned quite a bit about them that I did not know before.

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