Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five axes of the
The placebo effect refers to
The beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
Xanax and Ativan are ________ drugs.
When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of
self-fulfilling prophecies
Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because they are unrealistic in their belief that they should never experience rejection.
rational-emotive behavior therapy
Psychopharmacology involves the study of how
drugs affect mind and behavior
Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of
post-traumatic stress disorder
Which treatment procedure involves the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain?
In treating alcohol dependence, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
aversive conditioning
Luke suffers from acrophobia, a fear of high places. Luke’s therapist suggests that his reaction to heights is a generalization of the fear triggered by a childhood playground accident in which he fell off a jungle gym. The therapist’s suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.
Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of
Identifying and eliminating the socially stressful conditions that contribute to psychological disorders is of most central interest to the advocates of
preventative mental health
Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne’s therapeutic approach would best be described as
Systematic desensitization is to classical conditioning as ________ is to operant conditioning.
a token economy
Gender differences in depression are least noticeable among
preadolescent children
The treatment of serious psychological disorders with prescribed medications or medical procedures that directly influence the nervous system is called
biomedical therapy
Psychoanalysts are most likely to view patient transference as
a potential aid to the patient in developing insight
The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of their patients’ complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of
diagnostic labels
Brain scans of people with ________ reveal higher than normal activity in brain areas involved in habitual behaviors.
During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to
be overactive
George Frideric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of
bipolar disorder
Instead of focusing on unconscious and repressed thoughts and impulses, ________ therapies focus on conscious thoughts and self-perceptions.
Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa’s symptoms are most likely to be relieved by ________ drugs.
Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of
Adelle’s feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?
electroconvulsive therapy
ADHD is diagnosed ________ often in girls than in boys. In the decade after 1987, a(n) ________ proportion of American children have been treated for this disorder.
less; increasing
A token economy is to operant conditioning as ________ is to classical conditioning.
systematic desensitization
An important feature of client-centered therapy is
active listening
Linkage analysis is of greatest interest to those who attempt to explain mood disorders from a ________ perspective.
Sluggishness, tremors, and twitches similar to those of Parkinson’s disease are most likely to be associated with the excessive use of certain ________ drugs.
A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is
free association
“For you to think you are worthless because your boyfriend sometimes criticizes you is absurd! I know a lot of highly worthy people who often receive criticisms.” This statement would most likely be made to a patient by a
rational-emotive behavior therapist
Gaining relief from negative thoughts through the distraction of pain is one of the motives for
non-suicidal self-injury
Rates of non-suicidal self-injury in the United States are highest among
adolescent females
In promoting therapeutic lifestyle change, Stephen Ilardi and his colleagues note that human brains and bodies were designed for physical activity and
social engagement
Melanie’s therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, she should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and shift her attention to playing a game with her 5-year-old son. This suggestion best illustrates
cognitive-behavioral therapy
The DSM-IV-TR is most clearly designed to ________ psychological disorders.
A World Health Organization study of 14 countries estimated that ________ had the highest prevalence of mental disorders during the prior year.
the US
Meta-analysis refers to
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies
The highest rates of depression occur in ________ countries among ________.
developed; young adults
Which perspective emphasizes the role of classical conditioning in the onset of anxiety disorders?
learning perspective
Double-blind studies enable researchers to assess the extent to which drug therapy outcomes are attributable to
the placebo effect
Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists
tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy
Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?
cognitive therapy
Sluggishness and inactivity are most likely to be associated with
major depressive disorder.
Rats that received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from
classical conditioning
In a therapeutic setting, a client who wants to lose weight eats some favorite foods laced with a nausea-producing drug. Yet, outside the therapist’s office the client knows he or she can eat those foods without fear of nausea. This awareness contributes to the limited effectiveness of
aversive conditioning
Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of
the medical model
Benny’s mother tries to reduce his fear of sailing by giving the 3-year-old his favorite candy as soon as they board the boat. The mother’s strategy best illustrates
Many professionals outside the field of psychology are prepared to offer psychotherapy in the process of completing a graduate program in
social work
“The technique reduces people to puppets controlled by therapists! It doesn’t respect human freedom.” This criticism is most likely to be directed at
a token economy
The assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions is most clearly central to
cognitive therapies
In which form of therapy is unwanted behavior systematically associated with unpleasant experiences?
aversive conditioning
People often enter psychotherapy during a period of crisis in their lives. This helps us understand why they
tend to overestimate the effectiveness of their psychotherapy
Most combat-stressed veterans do not later exhibit post-traumatic stress disorder. This best illustrates
A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as
Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of
behavior therapy
In classical conditioning therapies, maladaptive symptoms are usually considered to be
conditioned responses
Stressful events interpreted with a negative explanatory style can encourage dampened mood states that lead to behavioral withdrawal and subsequent social rejection by others. This best illustrates
depression’s vicious cycle
Lithium is often an effective ________ drug.
Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n)
increased expectation of negative outcomes.
Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor
A famous 12-step program is associated with
Which of the following disorders most often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behavior?
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
After discontinuing heavy use of an antianxiety drug, Angela experienced increased anxiety and difficulty sleeping. Angela was experiencing symptoms of
In one massive experiment, potentially delinquent boys were assigned to a 5-year treatment program that included professional counseling and family assistance. Many years later, Joan McCord’s investigation of this program’s effectiveness revealed that
clients’ accounts of the program’s effectiveness were often misleading and overly positive
Unusual ESP subjects who defy chance when first tested nearly always lose their “psychic powers” when retested. This decline is best explained in terms of
regression toward the mean
Tardive dyskinesia is often associated with long-term use of drugs that occupy certain ________ receptor sites.
Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult’s psychological disorder by exploring that person’s childhood experiences?
Mrs. Coleman is a withdrawn schizophrenia patient. To help her become more socially active, institutional staff members give her small plastic cards whenever she talks to someone. She is allowed to exchange these cards for candy and cigarettes. Staff members are making use of
a token economy
Professor Pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates the ________ perspective.
Connor is constantly chewing tobacco. To reduce his appetite for this product, a behavior therapist would most likely use
aversive conditioning
Training people to actively dispute their own self-defeating ideas best illustrates
cognitive therapy
Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Psy.D. who specialize in the practice of psychotherapy are typically
clinical psychologists
Although originally trained in Freudian techniques, Aaron Beck developed a ________ therapy for depression.
In one experiment, Asian-American clients were more likely to perceive counselor empathy if their counselor
shared the clients’ cultural values
Who developed the surgical procedure known as lobotomy?
Egas Moniz
As Jordan watches, his brother receives an electric shock from touching the frayed toaster cord. Jordan is now intensely afraid of toasters. This best illustrates that fear can be learned through
observational learning
Psychodynamic therapy has been found to be especially successful in the treatment of
Depressed people explain their failures in terms that are internal, stable, and global. Their explanations tend to be self-focused and
Critics of ________ have expressed a concern that appropriate patient behaviors will disappear following the discontinuation of a token economy.
behavior modification
An integrative therapy that aims to modify both self-defeating thinking and maladaptive actions is known as
cognitive-behavior therapy
The value of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is in part due to the effectiveness of
exposure therapy
Which form of therapy has been criticized for offering interpretations that cannot be proven or disproven?
A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who
uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approches
Compared with the general population, those who have suffered ________ have at least five times greater risk of suicide.
major depressive disorder
Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chronic depression, and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a
Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of
behavior modification
Generalized anxiety disorder is ________ common among men than women and ________ common among younger adults than older adults.
less; more