Chapter 18 Diseases of the Skin and eyes

The causative agent of gas gangrene is
Clostridium perfringens

Ringworm is caused by a

The antimicrobial enzyme that degrades peptidoglycan and is found in tears and sweat is

Which of the following is not normal skin flora

A. Salmonella

B. Micrococcus

C. Staphylococcus

D. Propionibacterium


A highly successful WHO-CDC vaccination program has eradicated

The virulence mechanism of the M protein of S. pyogenes is
interference with macrophage function

Which of the following is mismatched

A. P. acnes – acne

B. E. coli – conjunctiva

C. S. aureus – impetigo

D. Chickenpox – shingles

E.coli -conjunctiva

A disease caused by Staphylococcus areues is
S. aureus causes impetigo, cellulitis, and scalded skin syndrome

Which virulence factor is not normally associated with virulent S. aureus

How can you differentiate between smallpox and chicken pox?
More on extremities and head for small pox

What toxin mediated disease does Clostridium perfringens cause?
Gas Gangrene

What are the parts of the skin and it’s defenses?
Epidermis and the dermis

Epidermis is water proof / protects from microbials, sloughs off dead cells
Renews it’s self every 25-45 days
No nerve endings or blood vessels

Dermis-Source for epidermis
Connective tissue,nerves, lymphatic system, hair follicles, glands (Sebum and lyzozyme)

What are the normal flora of the skin? Where are they and how are they able to survive?
Diphtheroids (propionbacterium acnes)
Micrococci (Staphlococcus epidermis)
Yeast (candida albicans)

Can survive dry and salty conditions
Dense populations of MO in skin folds

What are the parts of the eye?
Lacrimal duct
Superior and inferior canaliculi
Lacrimal sac
Nasolacrimal duct
Conjunctiva -Thin membrane that covers the eye, secrets oil and mucous containing fluids – best defense
Cornea – covers the iris- epithelial cells which can reginerate, no lymphocytes, no inflammation, immune privilidge

What are the normal flora of the eye?
Similar to skin
Micrococci, diphtheroids, yeast, streptococci and staphylococci

What is the best defense of the eye?
Film of Tears that originate from the lacrimal gland of the eye
aka lysozyme

What is acne?
Acne is the infection of follicles

What is impetigo
Peeling of the skin (Staphyloccus aureus and streptococcus pyogenes)

What is cellulitis?
infection of the dermis and the subdermis

What is staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome or ssss?
Is the loss of the protective keratin layer, affects mostly newborns and babies, causes lesions and desquamation

What is gas gangrene?
Anaerobic endospore bacterium caused by Clostridium perfringens . A toxin / gas
two forms- localized and diffused

What is hansen’s disease?
Leprosy. Caused by Mycobacterium Leprae
Chronic and progressive. A skin and nerve disease

What are the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus?
Coagulase, (primary method of identifying S.aureas) hyaluronidase, lipase, nuclease

What are the virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes?
Teichoic Acids
m protein

Are protozoan infections zoonotic?
Yes, they are zoonotic.

What is the varicella virus?
chicken pox
Pustular rash lesions filled with fluid
Can recuperation and become varicella-zoster infection
Can reemerge as shingles (skin lesion)

What is the variola virus?
Small pox
Pustular rash lesions filled with fluid
WHO-CDC Vaccination program
Bio-Terrorism agent, extremely infectious vial disease (epidemic)
Mostly on extermities and face/ head

What does vaccine MMR treat?
Measles mumps and rubella.
Maculopapular rash diseases with raised or flat colored

Measles- koplicks spots, exanthemum, can casue actute sclerosing panencephalits, syncytia function
Rubella – Serious for a fetus can disrupt development

What are warts? Are there different types?
Papillomas (viral)
Mostly begnin. Some infected.
New vaccine came out -cervical hpv, gardisill,

HPV, Plantar warts (HPV-1), Flat warts (HPV-3,10,28),

What is Leishmaniasis? Where is it located?
Cutaenous, large skin lesion
Protozoan (zoonosis) no vaccine

Ring worm is a fungal infection, a ____?
Condition name Tinea and then location
Scalp Tinea Capitis
Foot tinea pedis
Hand- Tinea Poris
Nail – tinea- Unguium

What is a superficial mycosis?
A Fungal yeast infection.
Tinea veriscolor- skin infection blotches

What is conjunctivitis?
Can be a bacterial infection or a viral infection
Neonates are at risk at birth. can cause inflammation and tissue damage

What is Keratitis?
A viral herpes infection
A serious infection- complete corneal destruction

What is river blindness?
A parasite infection
parasite contains bacteria in a mutualism. Contributes to the infection. Can be chronic, endemic in areas.

The initial differential diagnosis between chickenpox and smallpox is
that more smallpox lesions occur on the face and limbs

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Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Presentation classic rash – small red spots (petechiae) that starts to erupt on both the hands & feet (including palms & soles) that rapidly progress toward the trunk until they become generalized. Rash appears on the …

Gram-Positive Cocci Both staphylococci and streptococci are gram-positive cocci, non motile, do not form spores but they are distinguished by two main criteria. (1) Microscopically, staphylococci appear in grapelike clusters, whereas streptococci are in chains. (2) Biochemically, staphylococci produce catalase …

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