Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with
During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to
The prominent feature of mood disorders is the experience of
Depression is more likely to be a shared tendency between identical twins than between fraternal twins. This most clearly supports explanations of this mood disorder from a ________ perspective.
Research regarding depression indicates that
with each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevalence.
A breakdown in selective attention is most likely to be experienced by those who suffer from
Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the psychiatric hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from
Among schizophrenia patients, the fluid-filled areas adjacent to cerebral tissue are
abnormally large and the thalamus is abnormally small.
Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from
A sense of being separated from your body and watching yourself with a sense of detachment is a symptom of
Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her, so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer, working at home. Sadie’s behavior is most characteristic of
Most combat-stressed soldiers do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor
Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n)
A person attacked by a fierce dog develops a fear of all dogs. This best illustrates
Systematic desensitization is based on the idea that ________ facilitates the elimination of fear.
Systematic desensitization is a form of ________, which is a type of ________.
counterconditioning; behavior therapy
Psychodynamic therapies try to understand patients’ current symptoms by focusing on recurring patterns in their
Who would be most likely to expect that patients are often motivated to resist retelling a recent dream?
Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of
Which treatment procedure involves the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain?
Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa’s symptoms are most likely to be relieved by ________ drugs.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy works, top-down, by changing thought processes. Antidepressant drugs work, bottom-up, on the emotion-forming
When testing a new drug, researchers control for a placebo effect by using
the double-blind procedure.
During the 1940s and 1950s, lobotomies were most likely to be performed on psychologically disturbed patients who were
A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by
feelings of personal worthlessness.
Gender differences in depression are least noticeable among
A disorder in which an individual is happy, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic with dangerously poor judgment being common, is known as
A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
bias our perceptions of the labeled person.
Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
The onset of schizophrenia is typically associated with early
Schizophrenia that develops rapidly, seemingly as a reaction to stress, is called ________ schizophrenia.
Flat affect and catatonia are symptoms most closely associated with
Delusions of persecution are most common among those with ________ schizophrenia.
The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by
a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness.
An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarrassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of
Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of
Repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ________ as repeatedly washing your hands is to ________.
In one treatment for bed-wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid-sensitive pad that when wet, triggers an alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of
Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists
tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
Carl Rogers referred to a caring, nonjudgmental attitude as
unconditional positive regard.
Unlike psychodynamic therapists, humanistic therapists tend to focus on the ________ more than the ________.
Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne’s therapeutic approach would best be described as
One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received the new pill. In this experiment, the investigators are making use of
Double blind procedure
Which of the following biomedical treatments provides some of the benefits of ECT without triggering memory loss?
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, the rTMS
One possible explanation for the delayed effect of antidepressant drugs is that the increased availability of serotonin seems to promote
Dr. Genscher believes that most psychological disorders result from chemical imbalances. In her work as a therapist, Dr. Genscher is most likely to make use of
After discontinuing heavy use of an antianxiety drug, Angela experienced increased anxiety and difficulty sleeping. Angela was experiencing symptoms of
The risk of suicide is greatest when people
begin to rebound from their depression
Episodes of depression that consistently begin in the cold winter months and end with the onset of spring are indicative of
seasonal affective disorder.
By boosting serotonin, antidepressant drugs stimulate the growth of neurons in the
People who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing
According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured.
One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is
an expressionless face.
People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for schizophrenia.
North America; February
Schizophrenia is said to be chronic when
it develops slowly.
Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for
Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that
there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.
Compulsive hand washing often increases in frequency because it relieves feelings of anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on compulsive behaviors.
Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of
an anxiety disorder.
In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are
more intense and less prolonged.
Luke suffers from acrophobia, a fear of high places. Luke’s therapist suggests that his reaction to heights is a generalization of the fear triggered by a childhood playground accident in which he fell off a jungle gym. The therapist’s suggestion highlights the influence of
Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn’t know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from
generalized anxiety disorde
Ron is a 22-year-old mechanic who suffers from claustrophobia. The most effective way to treat Ron’s problem would involve ________ therapy.
Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of
A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is
Empathic understanding of the patient’s subjective experiences is a major goal of a
Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for
enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.
One good alternative to antidepressant drugs is
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are frequently prescribed for the treatment of
Which of the following procedures is most likely to result in some memory disruption?
In promoting therapeutic lifestyle change, Stephen Ilardi and his colleagues note that human brains and bodies were designed for physical activity and
Lithium is often an effective ________ drug.