History test

Who was sentenced to death in a controversial criminal trial?
c. Nicola Sacco

The trial and execution of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti:
d. demonstrated how the Red Scare extended into the 1920s.

What did Calvin Coolidge believe was the chief business of the American people?
d. business

Railroads were to the late nineteenth century what ____________ were to the 1920s.
a. cars

The backbone of economic growth during the 1920s was the increased consumption of:
c. automobiles.

During the 1920s, American multinational corporations:
d. extended their reach throughout the world.

All of the statements about Henry Ford’s “Fordlandia” are true EXCEPT:
a. Fordlandia was a success.

During the 1920s, consumer goods:
d. were frequently purchased on credit.

In the 1920s, movies, radios, and phonographs:
b. helped create and spread a new celebrity culture.

What did Andre Siegfried observe Americans consider to be a “sacred acquisition”?
b. a standard of living

During the 1920s:
a. an estimated 40 percent of the population remained in poverty.

Agriculture in the 1920s:
a. enjoyed its golden age.

Labor unions lost members in the 1920s for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
d. some corporations began to provide employees with pensions and medical insurance.

The Equal Rights Amendment:
b. proposed to eliminate all legal distinctions based on sex.

For the feminist woman in the 1920s, freedom meant:
d. the right to choose her lifestyle.

Which would NOT be considered a characteristic of a flapper?
b. advocated temperance

In their 1929 study, Middletown, Robert and Helen Lynd:
b. argued that leisure activities and consumption had replaced political involvement.

President Harding’s call for a return to normalcy meant:
a. bringing back the Progressive spirit of reform.

The Teapot Dome scandal involved:
d. the secretary of the interior, who received money in exchange for leasing government oil reserves to private companies.

All of the statements about Prohibition during the 1920s are true EXCEPT:
c. Prohibition led to widespread corruption among law officials.

The Scopes trial illustrated a divide between:
d. cultural diversity and nativism.

The Scopes trial of 1925:
b. pitted creationists against evolutionists.

Many forces predisposed Ku Klux Klan members to accept the group’s exclusionary message without much analysis. These forces included all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Coolidge’s economic policies.

The Ku Klux Klan:
b. flourished in the early 1920s, especially in the North and West.

Regarding public education, in 1922, Oregon became the first state to:
b. require all students to attend public school.

The Cable Act of 1922 stated that:
a. American women who married Asian men forfeited their nationality.

The 1924 Immigration Act:
d. set quotas that favored immigration from southern and eastern Europe.

Besides work and school, the most active agents of Americanization during the 1920s were:
d. dance halls, department stores, and movie theaters.

Cultural pluralism:
b. described a society that gloried in ethnic diversity.

Meyer v. Nebraska:
c. overturned a law that stated public schools would instruct classes in English.

Which city was considered the “capital” of black America?
c. Harlem

The Harlem Renaissance:
a. included writers and poets such as Langston Hughes and Claude McKay.

Which issue became the focus of the 1928 presidential race?
b. the fact that Alfred Smith was Catholic

In 1928, Herbert Hoover:
a. won the presidency, primarily because of his sterling reputation and the general, apparent prosperity of the nation.

The Great Depression was caused by all of the following factors EXCEPT:
e. increased government regulation of banking and the stock market.

The Great Depression shaped the lives of Americans in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
e. the America suicide rate declined.

Hoover’s response to the Depression included all of the following measures EXCEPT:
e. a reduction in the size of the army.

The Hawley-Smoot Tariff:
d. had no effect on the economy in 1930.

1. How did the protection of civil liberties become a more important component of freedom in the 1920’s?
• Sharp reaction from Americans against repression of speech, therefore;
o The Civil Liberties Bureau that was founded during WWI was expanded.
o They campaigned to overturn repressive practices and laws that were being used to convict and jail people.
o Freedom of speech was often contradicted with the rights of the individual. For example, there were people who didn’t share in the beliefs of evolution or the Ku Klux Clan, but the freedom to stand up against the government was essential to an individual’s freedom.

2. Discuss the immigration history of the 1920’s and the emergence of cultural pluralism as a characteristic of American democracy.
• Pluralism was the ability for immigrants to be accepted as Americans, but still maintain their own identity, values and religion.
• There were more demands for immigration to enforce restrictions from eastern and southern Europe. (Asian’s were barred from entering the United States)
• Immigrants that were already in the country wanted to maintain their own cultural traditional values (pluralism) rather that become Americanized.

3. In the 1920’s there was a “birth of a coherent concept of civil liberties and the beginnings of significant legal protection for freedom of speech against the government”. How did this come about?
• The courts initially supported the suppression of free speech during World War I and immediately after the war.
• Members of the Supreme Court like Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandice began questioning whether it was an appropriate to suppress speech.
• Supreme Court decisions began to get overturned on convictions and jailing of individuals for just expressing their views.
• The American Civil Liberties Union became a stronger component and were able to defend an individual’s civil liberties.
• The courts began to enforce the Bill of Rights.

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