Combo Psych FINAL !!!

An insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference.
Psychoanalysis
A psychoanalytic technique in which clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible.
Free association
In therapy, the phenomenon that occurs when clients start relating to their therapists in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives.
Transference
Application of the principles of learning to direct efforts to change clients’ maladaptive behaviors. (learning theory, observational, classical & operant conditions)
Behavior therapy
A behavior therapy used to reduce clients’ anxiety responses through counterconditioning. (a dog ex)
Systematic desensitization
A behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response.
Aversion therapy
An insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs.
Cognitive therapy
An insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy. Therapist doesn’t ask questions, just letting a client to express a situation)
(Carl Rogers) Client-centered therapy
Medications that relieve tension, apprehension, and nervousness.
Antianxiety drugs
Medications used to gradually reduce psychotic symptoms, including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions.
Antipsychotic drugs
Medications that gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of a depression.
Antidepressant drugs
Lithium drugs are for threat a
bipolar disorder
What is the ECT stands for?
Electroconvulsive therapy
A biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions.
ECT
A shock therapy used by doctors when nothing else works. Only in extreme cases with major disorder.
ECT
A common side effect of ECT is:
temporary or permanent memory loss for the events leading up to the ECT session.
Most therapists today identify their approach or orientation as:
electic
The ultimate goal of rational-emotive therapy is for clients to:
learn to recognize and dispute their irrational beliefs in a wide variety of situations.
Typically, a psychiatrist holds a(n):
medical degree and may prescribe medications, electroconvulsive therapy, and other medical procedures in treating mental and emotional disorders.
Vivian’s psychologist is using systematic desensitization to help Vivian overcome her phobia of driving over bridges. As one of the steps in the process of systematic desensitization, Vivian’s psychologist has her:
create an anxiety hierarchy.
Psychologists are using virtual reality technology:
to create computer-generated images that can be used in systematic desensitization therapy.
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are all examples of:
a category of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, abbreviated SSRIs.
The first antipsychotic medications:
effectively reduced hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Valium, Librium, Xanax, and other similar antianxiety medications:
act quickly and reduce the physical and emotional feelings of anxiety in about an hour.
One potential problem with the first (or typical) antipsychotic medications was that they:
could produce muscle tremors, rigid movements, and other disruptions in normal motor movements.
Typically, a clinical psychologist holds a(n):
academic doctorate and has had extensive training in psychological testing and evaluation, psychotherapy, and the prevention of mental and emotional disorders.
The process of learning a new conditioned response that is incompatible with a previously learned response is called _____ and is based on the principles of _____.
counterconditioning; classical conditioning
The use of psychological techniques to treat psychological problems is to _____ as the use of medical techniques to treat psychological problems is to _____.
psychotherapy; biomedical therapy
The basic assumption of behavior therapy is that:
adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are learned.
In the 1920s, the famous case of Little Albert demonstrated that:
unhealthy emotional responses, such as irrational fears, can be the result of classical conditioning.
In client-centered therapy, the therapist usually strives to be:
nondirective, genuine, and accepting.
Freud’s theory of personality stressed the idea that:
early childhood experiences provide the foundation for later personality development.
For the last several weeks, Cheryl has been responding to her therapist with hostility during her sessions of psychoanalysis. Cheryl often responds similarly to her parents, especially her mother. Cheryl is probably unconsciously experiencing:
transference
Electroconvulsive therapy, abbreviated ECT, involves:
a brief burst of electricity to the brain that induces a seizure.
Dr. Whittaker is a psychotherapist who tells each of his patients the following: “You think that you’re unhappy because of all the dreadful things that have happened to you. I’m here to show you that your unhappiness is really due to your thinking that all the things that have happened to you are dreadful!” Based on this statement, which type of psychotherapy does Dr. Whittaker practice?
cognitive therapy
Client-centered therapy was developed by:
Carl Rogers
Bipolar disorder, which is also often referred to as manic depression, is most commonly treated with a medication called:
lithium
According to Freud, dream images, memory lapses, inadvertent slips of the tongue, and accidents:
provide glimpses of unconscious conflicts.
According to Aaron Beck’s cognitive therapy, people who suffer from depression:
have developed a negative cognitive bias that distorts their perceptions of events and situations.
A psychotropic medication is a drug that:
alters mental functions, alleviates psychological symptoms, and is used to treat psychological disorders.
A key difference between a self-help group and group therapy is that:
self-help groups are typically organized and led by nonprofessionals.
Psychologists who specialize in the treatment of everyday adjustment problems.
Counseling psychologists
Catatonia is characterized by
periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement
Client-centered therapists emphasize the importance of:
enabling clients to feel unconditionally accepted.
The chances for recovery from schizophrenia are considered to be greatest when the disorder develops
rapidly in response to a stressful life situation
The value of light exposure therapy appears to result in part from its influence on people’s
hormones
A psychiatrist has diagnosed a patient as having bipolar disorder. It is likely that she will prescribe
lithium
Jeremy often misinterprets normal bodily sensations such as hunger pangs as symptoms of serious illnesses such as stomach cancer. His experience is most indicative of
hypochondriasis
The effectiveness of psychotherapy shows little if any connection to:
the level of training and experience of the therapist.
One of the key characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder is that
it is difficult to control
The major characteristic of dissociative disorders is a disturbance of
memory
Major depressive disorder is said to occur when signs of depression last at least
two weeks
Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of
an obsession
Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
preventing her from functioning effectively
Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions. His behavior best illustrates
antisocial personality disorder
An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of
a specific phobia
Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman’s behavior is most indicative of
mania
If a therapist tells a client, “Rank order the things that frighten you from least to most,” the therapist is most likely practicing
systematic desensitization
systematic desensitization
This technique is based on the principles of classical conditioning and the premise that what has been learned (conditioned) can be unlearned. Systematic desensitization usually starts with imagining yourself in a progression of fearful situations and using relaxation strategies that compete with anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
The main feature of GAD is excessive and pervasive worry about many everyday life events. This worry is difficult to control, persists for more than 6 months and interferes with daily functioning.
Which of the following best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
social withdrawal
A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
bias our perceptions of the labeled person
Linda’s doctor prescribes medication that blocks the activity of dopamine in her nervous system. Evidently, Linda is being treated with an ________ drug.
antipsychotic
A therapist helps Rebecca overcome her fear of water by getting her to swim in the family’s backyard pool three times a day for two consecutive weeks. The therapist’s approach to helping Rebecca best illustrates
exposure therapy.
Using the Asch procedure, conformity to group judgments would be LEAST likely when
participants are not observed by other group members when giving their answers.
Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student’s abilities?
cognitive dissonance theory
cognitive dissonance theory
The term cognitive dissonance is used to describe the feeling of discomfort that results from holding two conflicting beliefs. When there is a discrepancy between beliefs for behaviors, something must change in order to eliminate or reduce the dissonance.
the fundamental attribution error
Fundamental attribution error is the tendency for people to emphasize certain qualities or dispositions of others rather than giving proper weight to the situational aspects which have brought about a given behavior. A person will conclude that someone else has acted in a certain way because they are that ‘type’ of person.
Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda’s unusual behavior is best understood in terms of
deindividuation
social facilitation
Social facilitation is the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when in the presence of other people. This implies that whenever people are being watched by others, they will do well on things that they are already good at doing and will not do as well on activities that are more challenging to them.
Marilyn judges her professor’s strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates
the fundamental attribution error
When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment. This reaction is best explained in terms of
the just-world phenomenon
When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of
the mere exposure effect
Which of the following strategies would be MOST likely to foster positive feelings between two conflicting groups?
Have the groups work on a superordinate goal.
Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated
the chameleon effect
A store owner charges Black customers more than Hispanic customers for the very same merchandise. The owner is most clearly engaging in
discrimination
Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate
ingroup bias
In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride’s family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of
normative social influence
Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates
social facilitation
People may unconsciously harbor negative racial associations. This best illustrate the subtle nature of
implicit attitudes
implicit attitudes
are generally unacknowledged or outside of awareness
After Mrs. Chanski and her children had helped themselves to free samples of the cookies being promoted in the grocery store, she felt obligated to buy some, even though they seemed unreasonably expensive. Her reaction best illustrates the significance of
the reciprocity norm
the reciprocity norm
refers to responding to a positive action with another positive action, and responding to a negative action with another negative one. This is a very common social norm which says that if I give something to you or help you in any way, then you are obliged to return the favor.
The participants in Philip Zimbardo’s simulated prison study
were so endangered by their role-playing experience that the study was discontinued.
Violent criminals often have diminished activity in the ________ of the brain, which play(s) an important role in ________.
frontal lobes; controlling impulses
Ksana insists that her boyfriend’s car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of
a dispositional attribution
Bart complied with his friends’ request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in
the bystander effect
When Hutu militia began to slaughter the Tutsi in 1994, missionary Carl Wilkens risked his own life to save the lives of others. His actions best illustrated
altruism
Classical antipsychotics block __________ receptors
dopamine
Tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movement of the facial muscles, tongue and limbs
Atypical antipsychotics target _______________
dopamine and serotonin receptors
Boimedical therapy
Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system; only offered by psychiatrists
Psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
Conventional antipsychotics
Remove a number of positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia, like agitation, delusions and hallucination.
Atypical antipsychotics
Remove negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia, like apathy, jumbled thoughts, concentration difficulties, difficulty in interacting with others.
Antianxiety Drugs
Control anxiety and agitation and depress central nervous system activity
Antidepressants
treat depression; elevate arousal and mood with norepinephrin and serotonin
Mood-stabalizing medications
lithium
Electroconvlsive Therapy
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; stimulate or suppresses brain activity; used to treat depression and produces no side effects
Deep-brain stimulatioin
excite neurons that inhibit negative emotion thinking
Psychosurgery
irreversible surgical altering of behavior
lobotomy
procedure used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients by cutting the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the brain
Social psychology
scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution theory: we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition
, A teacher may wonder whether a child’s hostility reflects an aggressive personality (dispositional attribution) or is a reaction to stress or abuse (a situational attribution)
Attitudes
A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events.
Conformity
Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Normative Social Influence
Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection.
Informational Social Influence
The group may provide valuable information, but stubborn people will never listen to others.
Social Loafing
Tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually.
Deindividuation
Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Scapegoat Theory
Prejudice provides an outlet for anger [emotion] by providing someone to blame
Just-World Phenomenon
The tendency to believe the world is just, and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Psychotherapy
involves an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a mental patient.
Biomedical therapy
uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient’s nervous system curing him of psychological disorders.
free association
The patient lies on a couch and speaks about whatever comes to his or her mind.
Interpersonal psychotherapy
a variation of psychodynamic therapy, is effective in treating depression. It focuses on symptom relief here and now, not an overall personality change.
Client-centeredtherapy
a form of humanistic therapy:
The therapist listens to the needs of the patient in an accepting and non-judgmental way.
Counter conditioning
a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors.
It is based on classical conditioning and includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning.
Systematic Desensitization
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli commonly used to treat phobias.
Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning procedures enable therapists to use behavior modification, in which desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired behaviors are either unrewarded or punished.
Beck’s Therapy for Depression
Beck believes that cognitions such as “I can never be happy” need to change in order for depressed patients to recover. This change is brought about by gently questioning patients
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
Single-trauma patients
Imagine traumatic scenes
Therapist triggers eye movements
Allows client to unlock and retrieve frozen memories
Light Exposure Therapy
Used to treat seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Expose the client to bright light
Light influences arousal and hormones/mood?
Anxiety
high arousal of FUTURE events; more physical symptoms than worry
Worry
negative thoughts in anticipation of future events
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Key characteristic is worry
Excessive
Difficult to control
Restlessness
Fatigue
Difficulty concentration
Irritability
Muscle tension
Sleep disturbance
Panic Disorder
Key characteristics of PD:
Recurrent panic attacks
Recurrent concerns about having panic attacks
Social Anxiety Disorder
Key characteristics:
Irrational persistent fear of social situations
Fear of negative evaluation specifically
Specific Phobias
Irrational persistent fear of specific object or situation (e.g., insects, heights, flying)
OCD
Persistent thoughts that are intrusive and cannot get rid of AND/OR
Repetitive behaviors person feels driven to perform
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Experiencing or witnessing of trauma
Re-experiencing of trauma (nightmares, thoughts, flashbacks)
Avoidance of similar situations or people
Increased anxiety
Antonio is an 18 year old undergraduate student that has been having problems sleeping at night for the past year. He spends most of the time in bed worrying about bad things that might happen. When awake, he cannot control his worry over every little thing. For example, he frequently worries about being on time, losing his friends, getting bad grades, making his parents angry, whether people like him, his appearance, whether he will find a romantic partner in college, whether he will graduate on time, about jobs after graduation….
GAD
Major Depressive Disorder
Key characteristic:
At least one major depressive episodeMajor depressive episode:
5 or more of the following in a 2-week period:
Depressed mood
Anhedonia (loss of capacity to
experience pleasure)
Eating problems
Sleeping problems
Motor activity
Fatigue
Self-worth
Concentration
Death

Dysthymic Disorder
Chronic depressed mood (at least 2 years)
Bipolar 1
At least one manic episode with or without depressive episode
Bipolar II
At least one major depressive episode with some manic symptoms
Mania
Overexcited
Hyperactive
Wildly Optimistic
The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders
All behavior arises from nature AND nurture
Dissociative Disorder plus Dissociative Identity Disorder
Multiple personality; DID has not been found in other countries.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Formerly known as psychopath or sociopath
Lack of conscience
Somatoform Disorder
Symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause
Conversion Disorder
Anxiety presumably is converted into a physical symptom
Schizophrenia
Literal translation “split mind”. A group of severe disorders characterized by:
Disorganized and delusional thinking.
Disturbed perceptions.
Inappropriate emotions and actions.
Social and functional deficits.Positive symptoms: the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized or delusional talking) not present in healthy individuals
Negative symptoms: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies) present in healthy individuals

Chronic/process schizophrenia
When schizophrenia is slow to develop, recovery is doubtful. These patients usually display more negative symptoms.
Acute/reactive schizophrenia
When schizophrenia rapidly develops, recovery is better. These patients usually show more positive symptoms.
A trained therapist who uses psychological techniques to assist someone to overcome excessive anxiety would generally
be best described as a
psychotherapist
Schizophrenia is a disorder that is MOST likely to be treated with
biomedical therapies
Sigmund Freud introduced a form of psychotherapy known as
psychoanalysis
Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help patients
become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.
Psychoanalytic interpretation is designed to promote
insight
Which form of therapy is most likely to be described as expensive and time-consuming?
psychoanalysis
Humanistic therapists are most likely to
emphasize the importance of self-awareness for psychological adjustment
Which approach emphasizes the importance of providing patients with feelings of unconditional positive regard?
client-centered therapy
Client-centered therapists are most likely to
restate and seek further clarification of what clients say during the course of therapy
Repeatedly introducing people to things they fear and avoid is most characteristic of
exposure therapies
Systematic desensitization involves the use of
progressive relaxation
Virtual reality exposure therapy is most likely to prove effective in the treatment of
phobias
To treat nail biting, one can paint a patient’s fingernails with a nasty-tasting nail polish. This procedure best illustrates
aversive conditioning
In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?
a token economy
Mr. Quinones, a fifth-grade teacher, gives a blue plastic star to each student who achieves a high score on a math or
spelling test. At the end of the semester, students can exchange their stars for prizes. Mr. Quinones’ strategy illustrates
an application of
operant conditioning
Teaching people to stop blaming themselves for failures and negative circumstances beyond their control is of most
direct concern to ________ therapists
cognitive
Natasha claimed that her failure to get A’s in all her courses meant she was incompetent. Her therapist calmly
challenged this assertion, commenting, “By your mental calculations, well over 90 percent of all students are
incompetent!” The therapist’s response was most typical of a ________ therapist.
cognitive
Cognitive therapists are most likely to emphasize that emotional disturbances result from
self-blaming and overgeneralized explanations of bad events.
The belief that no person is an island is the fundamental assumption of
family therapy
Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy indicates that
clients are generally satisfied with the effectiveness of therapy.
Clients’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are often misleading because clients
often need to convince themselves that they didn’t waste their money on therapy
Therapists’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are likely to be misleading because
clients typically emphasize their problems at the start of therapy and their well-being at the end of therapy
Which phenomenon refers to the tendency for extraordinary or unusual events to be followed by more ordinary events?
the placebo effect
Students who receive unusually low scores on their first psychology test can reasonably anticipate ________ scores on their second psychology test
somewhat higher
The best psychotherapy outcome studies are randomized clinical trials comparing treatment groups with ________
groups
control
Which of the following is a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies?
meta-analysis
Statistical summaries of psychotherapy outcome studies indicate that
no single form of therapy proves consistently superior to the others
Increasingly, insurer and government support for mental health services requires
evidence-based practice
Which of the following has been demonstrated to provide relief for those who suffer from seasonal affective disorder?
light exposure therapy
Three benefits attributed to all psychotherapies are
hope, a new perspective, and a caring relationship
Because she mistakenly thought that completing a diagnostic test was a therapeutic treatment for her anxiety disorder,
Mrs. Shyam felt considerable relief for several weeks following the test. Mrs. Shyam’s reaction best illustrates
the placebo effect
Immigrants from Asia would most likely experience difficulty as clients of American psychotherapists who emphasize
the value of
individualism
Which therapeutic specialists are most likely to have received a Ph.D. degree in psychology?
clinical psychologists
A physician who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders is called a
psychiatrist
Although Dr. Anderson uses systematic desensitization for the treatment of phobias, he prescribes antianxiety drugs as
well. It is most likely that Dr. Anderson is a
psychiatrist
The double-blind technique involves
a procedure in which neither patients nor health care staff know whether a given patient is receiving a drug or a
placebo.
Antipsychotic drugs have proved helpful in the treatment of
schizophrenia
Which of the following treatments is most likely to be used only with severely depressed patients?
drug therapy
Surgically cutting the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain is called
a lobotomy
Antidepressant drugs, a fresh perspective on his problems, and a strong therapeutic alliance all contributed to helping
David recover from a major depressive disorder. An integrated understanding of David’s recovery process is best
provided by
a biopsychosocial approach
Aerobic exercise, adequate sleep, light exposure, and social engagement are important components of
therapeutic life-style change
The psychologist who developed the inkblot test was
Rorschach
After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg’s reaction most clearly illustrates:
learned helplessness
In suggesting that the mind is like an iceberg, Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the:
unconscious
Martin is optimistic, impulsive, excitable, and restless. In terms of the Eysencks’ basic personality dimensions, he would be classified as:
unstable-extraverted
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of:
conscientiousness
According to Freud, the defense mechanism that underlies all others is:
repression
Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of:
social influence
The trait of optimism is most closely related to a strong sense of:
personal control
You have just taken a test that involved answering pages of questions about your characteristic behavior. You probably responded to
a self-report personality inventory
In assessing a client’s personal growth, Carl Rogers measured the correspondence between:
ideal self and actual self
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the:
ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized
Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she can’t have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she can’t have the things that she wants immediately. According to Freud’s view of the personality, Cari’s personality appears to be dominated by
her id
Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates:
an internal locus of control
A student who is quite honest turns in a paper of another student as his own. When accused of dishonesty, he says “nowadays everybody cheats in school, but I’m always honest.” The student is using which type of defense mechanism?
projection
Veena gets poor grades no matter how hard she studies, so she has simply given up studying. Veena’s behavior most clearly reflects:
learned helplessness
According to Freud’s theory, the ego:
is the executive part of personality
Callie just gave birth to her sixth daughter. Unconsciously, she resents the baby’s birth and wishes the infant would have died during delivery. However, when she cares for her infant she showers her with exaggerated care and affection. According to Freud, Callie may be unconsciously dealing with her hostile feelings toward her new baby using the defense mechanism of
reaction formation
Id is to pleasure principle as
ego is to reality principle
Searching for identity by fulfilling needs is basic to the theory of
Fromm
According to Freud, the unconscious is:
the thoughts, wished, feelings, and memories of which we are largely unaware.
Freud emphasized that unresolved childhood conflicts often lead to:
fixation
Roberto tends to focus on people and things around him and is outgoing, talkative, and friendly. Jung would refer to Robert as an
extravert
According to Freud, children develop unconscious sexual desires for the parent of the opposite sex during the ______ stage.
phallic
When Professor McKay nervously began teaching a university class for the first time, he overestimated the extent to which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates:
the spotlight effect
Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates:
self-serving bias
Adler is to individual psychology as Jung is to
analytical psychology
A boy’s sexual desires for his mother and feelings of hostility toward his father constitute what Freud called:
the Oedipus complex
In class, the psychological definition of personality is one’s reaction to the environment as determined by
one’s perception of the environment
When anthropologists compare ancient artifacts from South America, Europe, and Australia they often find similarities among the images that are depicted. Based on Jung’s analytical psychology, some of these apparent similarities may stem from
the collective unconscious
Paula expects that diligent study will enable her to earn good grades on her tests. Paula’s belief best illustrates:
an internal locus of control
Celine recently had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient by unfamiliar religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to:
Jung
Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for:
self-actualization
Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology, which focuses on topics such as:
optimism
A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as:
free association
Alfred Adler stressed what in his personality theory?
striving for superiority
Daryl is taking a personality test in which he is shown a series of simple scenes. He is supposed to tell a story about what is happening in each scene and suggest what the characters are feeling. The test that Daryl is taking is the
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
In explaining why Cole is deceitful and has a tendency to lie, a psychologist who held a strong behavioral view towards personality development would consider Cole’s
previous learning experiences and his history of reinforcement
Howard sets extremely high standards for both himself and others. He tends to be rigid and inflexible and rarely allows himself to enjoy life. Freud would probably conclude that Howard is dominated by
his superego
A high school junior admires a movie star and follows the star’s life on the screen and in the newspapers, experiencing the same emotions as the star would. The student is using what type of defense mechanism?
identification
Ten-year-old Benjamin is often nervous about bringing report cards home to his parents. Although his parents say they love him, he feels that they only really love him when he obtains excellent grades in school. Based on the theory developed by Carl Rogers, Benjamin perceives his parents’ affection as
conditional, and he is likely to develop incongruence in his self-concept
Freud suggested that pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones as we progress through various:
psychosexual stages
Whenever Wanda is denied anything by her husband, she pouts and gives him the silent treatment. This immature way of dealing with reality can be referred to as
regression
Esteban has a job that pays well, and he recently moved to a neighborhood where there is little crime. Lately, he finds that he is thinking seriously about finding the right person to settle down with, and raising a family. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, at this point in time Esteban is most likely motivated by
belongingness and love needs
Because she is often rejected by her parents, Sally mistrusts other people and treats them with hostility, which leads to their rejection of her. This cycle of rejection, mistrust, hostility, and further rejection illustrates what is meant by:
reciprocal determinism
Personality is best defined as an individual’s:
characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
A young man explained that he did poorly on his exam because his eyes hurt, the test was unfair, and he did not feel the subject was important anyway. The young man is using what type of defense mechanism?
rationalization
Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysenck’s basic personality dimensions she would be classified as:
unstable-introverted
Which theory proposes that faith in one’s world view is used to defend against a deeply rooted fear of death?
terror-management theory
The perception that one’s fate is determined by luck reflects:
an external locus of control
Which perspective most clearly emphasizes the interactive effects of internal personal factors and external environmental occurrences on human behavior?
social-cognitive perspective
Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least 4 hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best college teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of:
achievement motivation
The eating of non-nutritive substances is the definition of which eating disorder?
pica
Juan is a CEO of Hoola-Hoops, Inc. He sees his employees as lazy, untrustworthy creatures with no interest in their work. Thus, he offers a highly structured, heavily supervised work environment. Juan assumes that his employees are primarily motivated by ______ rewards.
extrinsic
Organizational psychologists are most likely to be involved in:
modifying work environments in order to improve employee engagement
A drive is an internal state of
tension that is motivating
When an organism’s weight falls below its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n) ______ in hunger and a(n) ______ in its basal metabolic rate.
increase; decrease
Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to:
cause the rat to become extremely fat
Which of the following is NOT a symptom of anorexia nervosa?
low job or school performance
A body that can store fat has the advantage of possessing:
stored energy
The body’s tendency to maintain a constant internal state is known as:
homeostasis
Which of the following events would most likely cause an animal to overeat and become obese?
destruction of its ventromedial hypothalamus
The fact that some people often ignore their hunger and skip lunch in anticipation of a special dinner is a direct contradiction to the ______ theory of motivation.
drive reduction
Although Cara has been obese for as long as she can remember, she is determined to lose excess body weight with a low-calorie diet. Cara is most likely to have difficulty becoming and staying thin because:
she may have a higher-than-average set point for body weight
Carlos is so friendly that his job supervisors and co-workers often appraise his work skills and performance more positively than is actually warranted. This best illustrates evaluators’ vulnerability to:
halo errors
It is characteristic of robins to build nests. This is an example of:
an instinct
Electrical stimulation of the ______ causes an animal to ________.
lateral hypothalamus; start eating
Santa Claus stops by your house to drop off presents and is feeling very hungry. He sees two cookies on the mantle and quickly devours them. Afterward, he no longer feels a need to eat. What theory of motivation best describes this situation?
drive reduction
Matt is a college sophomore who often becomes so fully absorbed in his course studies that he completely loses his awareness of how long he has been working. Matt’s experience best illustrates:
flow
Breana is telling a story about a character on a TAT card. In her story, Breana focuses on the fact that the character is daydreaming about being away from all the pressures of work and family, and spending quiet time in an isolated location. Breana’s answer suggests that she MOST likely has
a low need for affiliation
Ghrelin, a hormone that influences appetite, is secreted by the:
stomach
Deidre is constantly worried about being fat. In addition, a few times a week, she will eat large quantities of food and then force herself to vomit. As a result, she also suffers from nutritional imbalances, intestinal damage, and dental problems. Deidre is most likely suffering from
bulimia nervosa
Researchers use biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis to understand eating disorders. The social-cultural level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize that eating disorders are influenced by:
mass media standards of appearance
Rudy has been on a strict diet of 1000 calories per day for the last six weeks. He lost considerably more weight in the first three weeks of his diet than in the last three because:
his metabolic rate has decreased
An instinctive behavior is one that is:
unlearned
Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?
arousal theory
Anu has just finished watching a movie about cement mixing that she thought was long and boring. According to the optimal arousal theory of motivation, Anu will most likely __________ next.
do something exciting
Which of the following statements would be the best advice for people who plan to lose weight by going on a restricted diet?
eat simple meals that include only a few different foods
hypothermia refers to:
feeling cold
in a complete sexual response cycle:
the plateau phase immediately precedes orgasm
Stefan is an individual who has a high need for achievement. His boss has three jobs that need to be completed; one job is easy, one job is moderately difficult, and one job is extremely difficult. If Stefan is allowed to choose which of the three jobs he will undertake for his boss, you would expect that Stefan will
choose the moderately difficult job
Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to _________.
need; drive
People sometimes choose a certain career because they want to please their parents. This is an example of a(n) __________ factor as a motivational source.
social
Our sexual attraction toward members of either the same sex or the opposite sex is called our:
sexual orientation
Homeostasis is a state of
physiological stability
New research has linked women’s obesity to their risk of late-life:
Alzheimer’s disease
Kent and Jebreel both ask Danielle out on a date. Kent is very attractive and a lot of fun to be with, but he is also unemployed. Jebreel is older than Kent, has a secure job, and owns his own home; however, Jebreel is quite unattractive and not very much fun. Danielle chooses to go out with Jebreel instead of Kent. The _______ theory of motivation would best predict Danielle’s choice.
evolutionary
The need to master difficult challenges, outperform others, and meet high standards of excellence is referred to as
an achievement motive
The Thematic Apperception Test has been used to assess an individual’s
affiliation motive
The role of learning in motivation is most obvious from the influence of:
incentives
Lauren and Curtis both spend six hours per week studying for their botany course. Lauren is concerned that if she doesn’t study she will fail the course; Curtis is concerned that if he doesn’t study he won’t earn the highest grade in the class. In this example
Lauren is motivated by a fear of failure, and Curtis is motivated by a need for achievement
Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by _______ needs.
belongingness
The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of:
boredom
When a rat’s blood sugar level decreases, the ____________ hypothalamus releases the hunger-triggering hormone _________.
lateral; orexin
Royce is telling a story about a character on a TAT card. In his story, Royce focuses on the character’s anxiety as she prepares a speech that will be presented in front of her classmates. He indicates that the character has spent a great deal of time worrying whether the speech may alienate some of her friends. Royce’s response to this TAT card suggests that he most likely has
a high need for affiliation
Imagine you are a male three-spined stickleback (a fish). You come across a nest of unfertilized three-spined stickleback eggs and you can’t help but do a particular dance and then go ahead and fertilize the eggs. Which theory of motivation accounts for your behavior?
instinct
An incentive is a(n):
positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Developing assessment tools for selecting and placing employees is of most direct relevance to:
personnel psychology
When meeting job applicants, employers often discount the influence of varying situations on applicants’ behaviors and presume that what they observe applicants do and say reflects the applicants’ enduring personality traits. This most clearly contributes to:
the interviewer illusion
The reason many anorexics have dental problems is from:
purging
According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are prompted to satisfy our need for ______.
food; love
Herb’s mother tells him to eat his oatmeal, which he dislikes, or gets a spanking. He is faced with what type of conflict?
avoidance-avoidance
Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents Schachter’s two-factor theory?
my shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire
For purposes of lie detection, investigators have most commonly made use of a(n):
polygraph
Scott is taking a course in American History, and his professor has given all the students in the class a choice between completing a in-class final exam that will count for 60% of their final grade, or writing a 25-page term paper that will count for 60% of their final grade. As Scott considers which of these two options he will choose, he is facing
an avoidance-avoidance conflict
The process by which we perceive and respond to events that threaten or challenge us is called:
stress
The concept of relative deprivation refers to the perception that:
one is worse off than those with whom one compares oneself
Although stress does not create cancer cells, it may affect their growth by suppressing the activity of:
T lymphocytes
The facial expressions associated with particular emotions are:
the same throughout the world
Researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips. This finding best serves to support the:
James-Lange Theory
The theory of emotions that believes bodily changes and emotions occur simultaneously is
Cannon-Bard
Primates at the top of the social pecking order are less likely to contract coldlike viral infections than those with lower social status. This best illustrates the value of:
perceived control
As Erica watched the televised drawing of the lottery numbers, she realized she had the winning combination. If her heart starts to race at the same instant that she feels euphoria over winning the lottery, Erica’s response pattern would lend support to
the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
As people experience negative emotions:
the right prefrontal cortex becomes more electrically active
Religiously active people have ________ socially supportive relationships and ________ healthy life-styles than those who are not religiously active.
more; more
The catharsis hypothesis refers to the idea that:
anger is reduced by aggressive action or fantasy
Ten distinct and basic emotions were identified by:
Caroll Izard
Tatiana just finished entering her 10-page term paper into one of the computers in the University’s computer lab. She clicks the “save” command, and the computer unexpectedly locks up. When she reboots the computer she discovers that all but the first two pages of her term paper have been lost. At this point in time Tatiana is most likely experiencing
frustration
The two-factor theory of emotion was proposed by:
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer
The method of reacting to stress in which the person protects themselves from psychological harm is called
defense orientation
Imagine that an individual has taken medication that has lowered his or her overall level of autonomic arousal. If this person reports less intense emotional experiences, it would provide some support for
the James-Lange theory of emotion
Megan is looking at the ballot form for a citywide referendum and trying to decide whether or not to support the proposed change. If the referendum passes there will be better services available for all the city residents, but it will also mean that residents will pay increased property taxes. As Megan tries to decide whether to support the proposed referendum, she is facing
an approach-avoidance conflict
Conflict occurs when a person
must choose between two or more alternatives
Electronically recording, amplifying, and displaying information regarding subtle physiological responses is called:
biofeedback
Frustration is usually felt in situations where
something blocks out plans or hinders your progress toward a goal
Rosemary recently married her high school sweetheart, and they moved into a wonderful new condominium. A week after the move, Rosemary was offered a job that she had been hoping she would get. At this point in time, Rosemary can’t imagine being any happier. According to Holmes and Rahe, Rosemary is likely to be experiencing
a high level of stress
Dr. Gouin believes that getting a promotion at work or getting married is just as stressful as losing a job or getting a divorce. Dr. Gouin’s beliefs are most like those of
Holmes and Rahe
Schachter’s concept of emotion stresses that
both bodily arousal and our interpretations of the arousal play a role in emotion
During World War II, promotion rates in the U.S. Air Corps were so rapid for the group as a whole that many individual soldiers in this military branch were unhappy about the speed at which they were promoted. Their unhappiness is best explained in terms of the:
relative deprivation principle
Which of the following is a method or way in which a stressful situation could be perceived as less stressful?
all of the above
In describing the two dimensions of emotion, fear is to terror as anger is to:
rage
walking home from work late one night, Jaydra suddenly hears footsteps behind her. Her heart pounds, her muscles tense, and her mouth goes dry. These body responses are activated by her _________ nervous system.
sympathetic
Demands or expectations to behave in a certain way define the notion of
pressure
The adaptation-level phenomenon refers to the tendency for our judgments and events to be heavily influenced by our:
previous experiences
The sympathetic nervous system is to the parasympathetic nervous system as ______ is to ______
inhibition of digestion; acceleration of digestion
Matt has been experiencing severe stomach aches and his physician strongly recommends that he enroll in an anger-management class. The physician has probably diagnosed Matt’s stomach aches as a(n) ______ illness
psychophysiological
A young person is faced with the problem of whether or not to stop smoking cigarettes. He knows that smoking will probably cause some type of injury to his health, and so he does not wish to continue smoking. He also knows that most of his friends smoke and will give him a hard time if he does try to quit. He is faced with what type of conflict?
approach-avoidance
The GSR is usually considered to be
a general measure of autonomic arousal
Which theory states that emotion results from the cognitive labeling of our physiological arousal?
two-factor
The first phase of the general adaptation syndrome is:
alarm
The results of the experiment in which college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with either a euphoric or an irritated person support the idea that:
our experience of emotion depends on how we interpret bodily arousal
Which brain structure has been found to be especially important in learning to fear specific objects?
amygdala
The closing of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle is known as:
coronary heart disease
As the three children approached the house that everyone claimed was haunted, Yvette was apprehensive, Mackenzie was afraid, and Jayme was terrified. Robert Plutnik would suggest that these three children were
experiencing different intensities of the same primary emotion
As a psychologist employed by a medical school, Dr. McNerney specializes in research on the causes of stress and on the effectiveness of various techniques for coping with stress. Dr. McNerney is most likely a(n) ______ psychologist
health
People are most biologically predisposed to learn to fear:
spiders
Some paralyzed humans have learned to bring their blood pressure under conscious control by means of:
biofeedback
According to Arnold’s theory of emotions, what is the correct order of events in which emotions develop in real life?
perception, appraisal, bodily changes, emotions, actions
People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of:
anger
If intense fears of specific objects disrupt people’s ability to cope, they are said to experience:
phobias
During a state of emotional arousal, the adrenal glands release ________ into the bloodstream
norepinephrine
What is the most common form of hallucination in the schizophrenic?
hearing voices
Chantel’s four children were killed in an automobile accident, which Chantel survived. When police questioned her about the events surrounding the accident, Chantel is unable to remember anything. She remembers getting into her car to drive her children to school, and she remembers her trip by ambulance to the local hospital, but everything in between is a complete “blank.” IN this case, Chantel’s symptoms are MOST consistent with
dissociative amnesia
Which of the following disorders is more common among men than women?
antisocial personality disorder
Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn’t know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from a(n):
generalized anxiety disorder
Behavior that does not coincide with cultural norms may be considered to be
deviant
For the past month Lawrence seems to have lost interest in most of his normal activities. He feels irritable, and he has had difficulty sleeping. He also finds that he has difficulty making decisions. Lawrence’s symptoms are MOST consistent with those seen in
major depressive disorder
Etiology refers to the
apparent cause of a condition
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the _______ of inappropriate behaviors, and negative symptoms are the ________ of appropriate behaviors
presence; absence
After Charles Darwin began suffering panic disorder, he lived in relative seclusion and traveled only in his wife’s company. His panic disorder was apparently accompanied by:
agoraphobia
Among schizophrenia patients, the fluid-filled areas of the brain are:
abnormally large and the thalamus is abnormally small
Dysthymic disorder is to _________ as cyclothymic disorder is to ______
major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder
Three months ago, Sheldon’s 7-year-old daughter was killed when a car swerved out of control and hit her as she waited to cross the street. As the police told Sheldon about the accident he felt everything start to go black, and then he found he couldn’t see at all. Since then he has been to a number of specialists, but none of the specialists can find anything wrong with his visual system. Sheldon’s pupils respond normally to light, and there is activity in the visual cortex when images are presented. Still, Sheldon claims that he cannot see anything. In this case, Sheldon’s symptoms are MOST consistent with
conversion disorder
Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of
post-traumatic stress disorder
Several weeks after being fired from a job he had held for more than 20 years, Landon awoke one morning in a state of bewildered confusion. He had little sense of who he was and even failed to recognize his wife. Landon’s experience is most indicative of:
dissociative disorder
Dopamine overactivity appears to be most clearly related to:
hallucinations
Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is:
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
A post-traumatic stress disorder is considered to be a(n) ________ disorder
anxiety
Which of the following terms refers to the future course of a condition or illness?
prognosis
Free-floating anxiety is MOST characteristic of
generalized anxiety disorder
Using DSM-IV guidelines, two different clinicians are likely to give a specific patient the same diagnosis. This indicates that the DSM-IV is:
reliable
According to the medical model, psychological disorders are:
sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured
If individuals expect someone labeled as mentally ill to be hostile, they may act in unfriendly ways that provoke that person to respond with hostility. This illustrated the dangers of:
self-fulfilling prophecies
Of those who talk of suicide, _______actually attempt suicide. Of those who attempt suicide, __________ succeed in completing the act
only a few; only a few
“Gradually developing” is to “suddenly developing” as _______ schizophrenia is to _______ schizophrenia
chronic; acute
One of the positive symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia includes:
hallucinations
Insanity is a legal status indicating that
a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness
A feeling that “things are not real” and that there is little awareness of time and place is called
depersonalization
In regard to psychological disorders, prevalence refers to
the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time
Dr. Underhill is reviewing the records from a patient who has just been referred tor treatment. He is carefully considering the symptoms that have been documented, and is attempting to identify the type of psychological disorder the individual is most likely to have. Dr. Underhill is currently focusing on
diagnosis
The study of the incidence and distribution of mental or physical disorders within a population defined the discipline known as
epidemiology
A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often:
bias our perceptions of the labeled person
Judicial systems are responsible for making decisions regarding:
insanity
Manuel is extremely shy and is so easily embarrassed when he is with other people that he often misses his college classes just to avoid social interactions. Manuel appears to suffer from a(n):
social phobia
The disorganized schizophrenic used to be called the:
hebephrenic schizophrenic
In a study by David Rosenhan (1973), researchers were admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be “hearing voices.” This study best illustrated the negative effects of:
diagnostic labels
Rats who received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from:
classical conditioning
jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from:
schizophrenia
A therapist claims that Luke’s irrational fear of snakes results from repressed childhood feelings of hostility toward his own father. The therapist’s interpretation reflects a _______ perspective.
psychoanalytic
Sophie takes over 40 different vitamins and herbal remedies each day to keep herself in top physical health. Recently she had some severe dizziness, but her family doctor assured her that it was just a minor ear infection that would clear up in a few days. Sophie is concerned because she is sure the ear infection is the sign of something much more serious, such as a brain tumor, and she has made appointments with three different specialists to have more testing done. In this case, Sophie’s symptoms are MOST consistent with
hypochondriasis
If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to:
the medical model
Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the:
amygdala
Abby was watching a documentary on some of the horrors of the Vietnam War. Even when she saw soldiers being blown up after stepping on land mines, she showed no emotional reaction or response. In this case, Abby is displaying symptoms of
blunted or flat affect
Cooper is an auto mechanic at a local garage. However, he is convinced that his phone line is tapped and all the rooms in his house have listening devices planted, so that the enemy agents can learn all his secret conversations. He never takes the same route to work two days in a row, to prevent the enemy agents, from following him and learning where he works. In this case, it appears that Cooper is experiencing
delusions of persecution
Matt is restless and often jumps out of his seat or interferes with ongoing class activities in response to the sound of outside traffic. Matt most clearly exhibits symptoms of:
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Learning theorists have suggested that compulsive behaviors are:
reinforced by anxiety reduction
A physical ailment that results, in part, from psychological factors without any accompanying physical basis is referred to as
a somatoform disorder
In terms of neurotransmitter levels, depression is associated with:
low norepinephrine levels and low serotonin levels
A schizoid personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by:
a detachment from social relationships
Damian has brief attacks of overwhelming anxiety in which his heart pounds and he can’t control his breathing. He never knows when the next attack is going to occur. In this case, Damian’s symptoms are MOST consistent with
panic disorder
George Fredric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of:
bipolar disorder
Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa’s symptoms are most likely to be relieved by _______ drugs
antipsychotic
electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT):
involves the use of electric shock to produce a cortical seizure and convulsions
Kayla has a psychological disorder, and her doctor has prescribed an MAO inhibitor to reduce the severity of Kayla’s symptoms. In this case, Kayla’s therapist is MOST likely treating her for
depression
The use of the anxiety hierarchy in systematic desensitization allows for the
gradual approach to the feared object
Dr. Nenning is a psychotherapist who is extremely supportive of all his clients. He encourages his clients to talk about their concerns, and he often acts as a sounding board, restating and clarifying the themes that come to the surface as his clients speak freely about their concerns and problems. Dr. Nenning appears to be
a client-centered therapist
Cognitive therapies have achieved especially favorable results in the treatment of:
depression
Which of the following biomedical treatments provides some of the benefits of ETC without triggering seizures or memory loss?
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
Which of the following statements best represents the approach of a COGNITIVE therapist in treating a chronically anxious client?
“Let’s see if we can identify the irrational thoughts that are producing your anxiety.”
Beth is so terrified of snakes that even walking on sidewalks covered with earthworms after a rain storm makes he feel anxious. Her behavioral therapist has been helping Beth overcome her fear by having her work through an anxiety hierarchy while she maintains a state of deep relaxation. In this case, her therapist is using
systematic desensitization to help Beth overcome her fear of snakes
Deinstitutionalization means that
whenever possible, the mentally ill should be treated at community-based facilities that emphasize outpatient care
Which drugs are designed to depress central nervous system activity?
antianxiety drugs
In which form of therapy is unwanted behavior systematically associated with unpleasant experiences?
aversive conditioning
A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who:
uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches
The study of the effect of drugs on mind and behavior is called:
psychopharmacology
Eartha has been experiencing mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions. Her parents schedule an appointment with a therapist to find out if there is something she can take to reduce her symptoms. In this case, the doctor will MOST likely prescribe
Thorazine
Which of the following psychologists is MOST likely to deal with the most severe mental health problems?
clinical psychologist
Mario recently started seeing a therapist. At the start of each session, Mario lies down and starts talking about anything that comes to mind. He often rambles, and he sometimes thinks that the things he describes seem trivial or silly, but his therapist encourages him to say whatever comes into his mind. This therapeutic technique is common among therapists who use
a psychoanalytic approach in therapy
SSRIs are prescribed to:
elevate arousal and mood
Inflated estimates of the value of antidepressant drugs are in large part due to the fact that patient recovery often results from:
the placebo effect
Antipsychotic drugs have proved helpful in the treatment of:
schizophrenia
Which of the following is a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies?
meta-analysis
What do psychoanalytic, client-centered, and cognitive therapies have in common?
they all stress insight into the self
Generally speaking, the majority of clinical psychologists describe themselves as using
an eclectic approach to therapy
Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of:
depression
Long term use of certain antipsychotic drugs can produce involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs. This menacing condition is known as:
tardive dyskinesia
Which psychosurgical procedure was designed to calm uncontrollable emotional or violent patients?
lobotomy
Which drug sometimes helps patients exhibiting negative symptoms of schizophrenia such as apathy and withdrawal?
Clozaril
Mr. Gotanda mistakenly believed that a single intake interview in which he simply described his numerous symptoms to a therapist was a treatment for his distress. His immediate relief from many of his symptoms following this session best illustrates:
the placebo effect
Mary has a psychological disorder, and her doctor has prescribed a drug from the benzodiazepine family to reduce the severity of Mary’s symptoms. In this case, Mary’s therapist is MOST likely treating her for
an anxiety disorder
Xanax would most likely be prescribed in order to help:
Jerome overcome feelings of nervous apprehension and an inability to relax
Rogers named his technique “client-centered therapy” to emphasize his belief that
clients should play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy
When Murli told his therapist, “I came to see what you could do for me,” the therapist responded, “It sounds like you’re feeling you need some help. Am I right?” The therapist’s response illustrates the technique of:
active listening
Mr. McCardle’s excessive feelings of helplessness and despondency are periodically interrupted by episodes in which he experiences extreme feelings of personal power and a grandiose optimism about his future. Which drug would most likely be prescribed to alleviate his symptoms?
lithium
Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists:
tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy
Jimmy has been in psychotherapy for several months, but during the last few sessions he has been distracted and inattentive. When his therapist asks him to describe any dreams he has had recently, Jimmy insists that he doesn’t remember any of his dreams. According to Freud, Jimmy’s behavior may be a sign of
resistance
Many self-help groups have emulated the use of _______ by Alcoholics Anonymous.
a 12-step strategy
Which of the following therapies are mainly intended to eliminate symptoms rather than alter personality?
behavior and drug therapies
The theoretical difference between a clinical psychologist and a counseling psychologist is that
the clinical psychologist specializes in the treatment of mental disorders; the counseling psychologist specializes in the treatment of everyday adjustment problems
Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?
cognitive therapy
Leslie has been feeling depressed for a number of weeks. She thinks she may need to see a therapist to help her overcome her depressions, but she doesn’t want to see anyone who is going to dwell on her childhood and try to work through any problems she experienced years ago. She wants to see someone who will focus on direct treatment of her current symptoms. In this example. it appears that Leslie is looking for a therapist whose approach to treatment would be classified as
biomedical therapy
Repeatedly introducing people to things they fear and avoid is most characteristic of:
exposure therapies
According to Beck, which types of thought processes tend to produce depressions?
drawing negative conclusions about one’s personal worth based on insignificant events
Lithium is often an effective _____ drug.
mood-stabilizing
Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for:
enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own
Jenna is afraid of speaking to a large audience. Her therapist suggests that prior to a speaking engagement she should reassure herself with comments like, “Cheer up, Jenna. You know what you’re talking about and your topic is really interesting!” This approach to reducing Jenna’s fear most clearly illustrates:
stress inoculation training
Psychoanalytic interpretation is designed to promote:
insight
Which approach would attempt to minimize psychological disorders by working to reduce the incidence of child abuse and illiteracy in society?
preventative mental health
Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug that reduces paranoia and hallucinations by:
dampening responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli
Prozac is an antidepressant drug that partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of _______ from synapses.
serotonin
Clive is a clinical psychologist and his sister Grace is a psychiatrist. The main difference between these two professionals would be the fact that Clive would
have a degree in psychology, while Grace would have a medical degree
Steve is the manager of a local store. His management style involves keeping strict control over what his employees are doing. Steve always makes sure everyone is working at what he has decided they should be doing. What type of leader is Steve?
authoritarian
You’ve just been awarded a full scholarship for next year, which you perceive as confirmation of your superior intellectual ability. According to Weiner’s model, you are making an _____ attribution about your success.
internal-stable
In Asch’s studies of conformity, subjects
indicated which of three lines matched a “standard line” in length
Mr. Ignatenko thinks that most unemployed people are to blame for their own misfortune. His belief best illustrates a potential consequence of:
the just-world phenomenon
Gender identity refers to:
the sense of being male or female
Ever since he lost his job because he was constantly late for work, Richard has become increasingly hostile toward the “government bureaucrats who are leading the country toward bankruptcy.” Richard’s increasing prejudice is best explained in terms of:
scapegoat theory
Which of the following social influence techniques involves getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed?
lowball technique
Montel, a white university student, is on academic probation for poor grades. Ever since he received notice of his probation, Montel has become increasingly hostile toward racial minority students and staff on campus. His increasing hostility can best be explained in terms of:
the scapegoat theory
In the local group to which Tom belongs, he finds that he is only able to talk with the leader of the group. Later, he finds that everyone in the group can only talk with the leader and no one else in the group. What type of communication pattern best describes the type of group that Tom is in?
wheel type
In 1963, President John F. Kennedy announced to the then Soviet Union that the United States would discontinue all atmospheric nuclear tests. The Soviet’s positive response to this conciliatory gesture illustrated the potential value of:
GRIT
According to the fundamental attribution error, actors tend to attribute their own behavior to _____ factors, and observers tend to attribute the behavior of others to _______ factors.
situational; personal
Diffusion of responsibility often plays an important role in the:
bystander effect
The text defines social psychology as the scientific study of how people _______ one another.
think about, influence, and relate to
Altruism is best described as:
behaving unselfishly to enhance the welfare of others
Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of:
self-disclosure
Steve belongs to an organization set up by the recreation department in his community, which attempts to bring together people of the community for a variety of social events. The group puts on a number of activities and dances during the year for anyone who wants to join the group. The group is basically made up of young singles in the community, but anyone is free to join. Which of the following terms describe Steve’s group?
interaction and inclusive group
When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not expected to. Waldo’s behavior best illustrates the importance of:
gender roles
The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as:
companionate love
You were presenting a talk to a group of people considered experts in the field you were talking about. Which of the following would be the best to do in convincing them of your argument?
present both sides of the argument
When Armen first heard the hit song “Gotta Love It,” he wasn’t at all sure he liked it. The more often he heard it played, however, the more he enjoyed it. Armen’s reaction illustrates:
the mere exposure effect
Obedience is a form of compliance in which people change their behavior in response to
direct commands
Lewis has agreed to proofread a long legal brief that Trudy has written, even though he doesn’t really like Trudy. Lewis knows that he will not receive any additional pay for his extra work, and he thinks that proofreading is one of the most boring jobs there is. However, after the legal brief is finished, Lewis decides that proofreading isn’t such a bad job after all; he feels that at times he actually enjoyed the exacting work. The change in attitude that Lewis has experienced can best be explained using
cognitive dissonance theory
Prejudice is to discrimination as
attitude is to action
The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:
assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.
People at a prom, a wedding reception, or a Walk for the Arts would be considered what type of crowd?
an expressive crowd
Which theory suggests that altruistic behavior is governed by calculations of rewards and costs?
social exchange theory
After Manny’s father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires. His action is best explained in terms of the:
frustration-aggression principle
Six-year-old Ezra believes that boys are better than girls, while 5-year-old Arlette believed that girls are better than boys. Their beliefs most clearly illustrate:
ingroup bias
After the Greenway family accepted their neighbor’s invitation to Thanksgiving dinner, Mrs. Greenway felt obligated to invite the neighbors to Christmas dinner. Mrs. Greenway’s sense of obligation most likely resulted from:
reciprocity norm
Mr. Eskenazi frowns when his son cries but hugs his daughter when she cries. Mr. Eskenazi’s contribution to the gender-typing of his children would most likely be highlighted by:
social learning theorists
After Ravi lost the student election for president of his high school class, he spread false rumors intended to spoil the newly chosen president’s reputation. Ravi’s behavior is best explained in terms of the:
frustration-aggression principle
People tend to prefer a(n) _______ photograph of themselves and a(n) _________ photograph of a close friend.
mirror-image; actual
Mike is a member of a committee set up by the school board. Mike’s main concern with the activity of the group is that everyone in the group has a chance to state his or her view of the issue at hand. Anytime there is a problem between the members of the committee, Mike has been the one to reduce the tension. Everyone likes Mike, even though he has no official leadership position in the group. What type of leader is Mike?
emotional
A situation in which the individual pursuit of self-interest leads to collective destruction is known as:
a social trap
Gender differences in verbal fluency are consistent with evidence that part of the:
frontal lobes is thicker in women than in men
After their country was ravaged by a series of earthquakes, two bitterly antagonistic political groups set aside their differences and worked cooperatively on effective disaster relief. This cooperation best illustrates the importance of:
superordinate goals.
An expectation that people will help those who depend on them is known as the:
social-responsibility norm
David, Roger, Ian and Keith were debating whether the Hoopsters or the Dunkers were the better basketball team. When they started their debate all four friends thought the Hoopsters were slightly better, but after an hour they have now come to the conclusion that the Hoopsters are so much better that they will probably take the division title. The process that would best explain the strengthening of opinion that occurred in this example would be
group polarization
Which of the following social influence techniques involves getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later?
foot-in-the-door technique
Maya has always preferred individual assignments to group projects, because she finds that she can accomplish more when she works on her own. The process that would best explain why Maya accomplishes less when she works as part of a group is
social loafing
Only when experimental participants were informed that a woman was raped did they perceive the woman’s behavior as inviting rape. This best illustrates that victim-blaming is fueled by:
hindsight bias
Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of:
human responsibility
Haley thinks Keith’s silence indicates that he’s angry, so she avoids talking to him. Unfortunately, Keith thinks Haley’s quietness signifies that she’s angry and wants to be left alone. This situation best illustrates:
mirror-image perceptions
Research on physical attractiveness indicates that:
babies prefer attractive over unattractive faces
Denying a person equal social treatment based on his or her group membership defines
discrimination
Just hearing someone reading a neutral text in a sad voice creates “mood contagion” in listeners. This best illustrates:
the chameleon effect
Kirstie’s boss asks for input about ways the company can improve its current advertising campaign. However, every time an employee offers a suggestion that differs from the plan that the boss has sketched out, the suggestion is ignored completely. In this case, it is likely that the group that is supposed to improve the company’s advertising will experience the effects of
groupthink
Orville thinks his girlfriend derives more benefits from their relationship than he does, even though he contributes more to the relationship. Orville most clearly believes that their relationship lacks:
equity
In Milgram’s research on obedience, what was the teacher’s perception of what would happen when the learner made a mistake?
the learner would receive a shock
Phoebe saw the passenger in the seat across the aisle suddenly slump forward in her seat. While the other passengers looked around for a flight attendant, Phoebe immediately started to administer CPR. In this case, Phoebe’s actions are the opposite of what would be expected based on
the bystander effect
When Stacey’s husband has had a frustrating day at work, he is easily irritated and sometimes screams at her. According to Freud, when Stacey’s husband yells at her, he is employing the defense mechanism known as
displacement
Andre is very organized and efficient but also very anxious and tense. Which two of the Big-Five personality terms best describe Andre?
conscientious; neurotic
Drive reduction theory has the greatest difficulty explaining the behavior of
going to a horror movie for the thrill of it
Which of the following statements about polygraphs is most accurate?
polygraphs can detect emotionality that accompanies lying some of the time, but with a high error rate
Duncan just had an unpleasant encounter with his chemistry instructor. As he walks angrily away, he notices that his heart is pounding rapidly and he is perspiring. As he passes a mirror he notices that his face is also beet red. Duncan’s __________ system is responsible for this reaction.
sympathetic nervous
Darlene is always helping people, even when it involves a potential cost or risk to herself. She has no expectation that she will be rewarded for her actions. Darlene might be described as highly
altruistic
Becci is extremely afraid of snakes. Her therapist puts her in a room full of snakes and doesn’t allow her to leave for several hours. When Becci leaves the room, she is no longer afraid of snakes. Becci’s therapist helped her overcome her snake phobia through the use of __________, which is a technique used by _________ therapists.
flooding; behavioral
Twenty-year-old Elton inherited a predisposition to depression and was brought up by a manic-depressive mother. Until now, Elton has avoided depression, but according to the diathesis-stress model, he may develop depression if he
encounters very stressful events
Which of the following characteristics would be most likely to be exhibited by a person with narcissistic personality disorder?
exaggerated self-importance
Tilda took a personality test on Friday and learned that she was high on extraversion and agreeableness. On Monday, she tool a different form of the test and found that she was high on extraversion and agreeableness. This personality test is based on the _______ theory of personality and is high in _____.
trait; reliability
According to the James-Lange theory, the conscious experience of emotion _______ physiological arousal; according to the Cannon-Bard theory, the conscious experience of emotion ________ physiological arousal.
follow; coincides with
Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents Schachter’s two-factor theory?
my shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire
Gini has been diagnosed with major depression. Anti-depressant drugs have not been effective, and she has threatened to commit suicide on several occasions. Which of the following therapies would her psychiatrist most likely try next to help alleviate Gini’s condition?
ECT
Hayden is at Subway, and he overhears a group of friends at a table talking about why people are innately afraid of snakes. One guy says it is because we inherit memories from our ancestors but that we are not consciously aware of these memories. Everyone laughs at him. Hayden turns to their table and says, “I’ve heard of that theory. It’s known as
the collective unconscious
Mr. Boyd is having trouble with students in his seventh grade science class getting along with each other. He decides that if they work on a science project together to present to the entire middle school, they will cooperate and get along because of their larger shared goal. Mr. Boyd is trying to create a ______ for his students.
superordinate goal
According to Freud, if conflicts at any given psychosexual stage are unresolved, the
person will be unconsciously preoccupied with the area of pleasure
Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents the James-Lange theory?
I’m afraid because I’m shaking
Which of the following is commonly used to treat the symptoms of bipolar disorder?
lithium
Kris is taking the TAT test. She looks at a picture and says, “The woman in the picture is trying to solve a problem at work. She is thinking hard. She knows if she thinks about it long enough, she’ll be able to figure it out.” This response reflects _______ motivation.
achievement
Schachter’s two-factor theory of emotion suggests that we distinguish between the experience of different emotions on the basis of
our interpretation of the situation
Patrick and Amanda are team leaders in a small organization. Patrick does not supervise his team very closely, is always asking for team members’ ideas, and is very concerned about people’s feelings and job satisfaction. Amanda, however, supervises her team very closely, gives direct orders without asking members’ opinions, and does not encourage a lot of discussion among team members. Patrick is a(n) __________ leader, whereas Amanda is a(n) ________ leader.
person-oriented; task- oriented
Deidre is constantly worried about being fat. In addition, a few times a week, she will eat large quantities of food and then force herself to vomit. As a result, she also suffers from nutritional imbalances, intestinal damage, and dental problems. Deidre is most likely suffering from
bulimia nervosa
One problem with the common-sense view of emotions, the James-Lange theory of emotions, and the Cannon-Bard theory of emotions, is that all three fail to consider the role of
cognitive interpretations in the experience of emotions
Dilbert has many traits that help him succeed at his job as an engineer. He is organized, efficient, dependable, thorough, and productive. According to the Big Five model of personality, Dilbert is high in ______ and low in _______.
conscientiousness; openess to experience
Kristine and Nicole are seeing therapists for their psychological problems. Kristine constantly thinks that she is stupid and worthless, and sometimes she has thoughts of killing herself. Nicole cleans her house so much that she doesn’t have time to do anything else; she realizes that her house is already clean, but she can’t help herself. Their therapists are most likely treating Kristine for her ________ and treating Nicole for her ________.
obsessions; compulsions
Leon is intrinsically motivated to wash his neighbor’s car. Accordingly, he expects his neighbor to give him
nothing
Roland was hungry, so he went to McFood Place. But when he got in line, he realized he didn’t have any money. He saw a woman set her french fries down on a table, then walk away. Roland quickly grabbed the fries and left. According to Freud, Roland’s actions were driven by his ______, which operates on the _____ principle.
id; pleasure
Randolph is playing badminton, a task he is particularly good at. Soon, a crowd gathers to watch him play. Randolph ends up having one of the best badminton games of his life. His improved performance is a result of social
facilitation
When Lani has an unpleasant task to complete, such as writing a term paper, she sets up rewards for herself. When she completes her outline, she watches TV for one hour. When she completes the rough draft, she spends an evening relaxing with her friends. When she finished the final draft, she goes to the mall and purchases a CD she has been wanting. The _______ theory of motivation best explains Lani’s behavior.
incentive
Spencer is about to be evaluated at his job, when he wakes up Monday morning and finds he is paralyzed and cannot go to work. On Friday evening, Spencer is miraculously able to walk again, yet the following Monday he is once again paralyzed. Spencer is most likely suffering from ______ disorder.
conversion
Sylvester suffers from schizophrenia. He has negative symptoms, such as never feeling pleasure; he also has positive symptoms, which could include all of the following except
multiple personalities
Raul often vascillates between days of unbridled exuberance and a feeling that he can “take on the world” to days when he cannot drag himself from bed to go to class. According to the DSM, Raul most likely has a(n) ________ disorder.
mood
Research on the role of the amygdala in the modulation of emotion has focused mainly on which of the following emotions?
fear
Dr. Noonan believes that psychological disorders are the result of unresolved unconscious conflicts from childhood. For example, she believes that panic attacks occur when a person’s instinctual impulses become too overwhelming. Dr. Noonan believes in the _______ approach to psychopathology.
psychodynamic
As Tevin walked into the strange house, the lights suddenly went out and he heard a loud groan off to one side. Based on the common sense view of emotions, Tevin should report
I am trembling because I am afraid
Which of the following is not considered to be an anxiety disorder?
dissociative disorder
According to Schachter’s two-factor theory of emotion
the experience of emotion depends on autonomic arousal and your cognitive interpretation of that arousal
You are a space alien who wishes to conquer the earth. You use a special ray gun that makes humans immobile by making them too fat to move. Your ray gun should __________ in the hypothalamus
destroy the ventromedial nucleus
Discrimination is the _______ component of a prejudiced attitude.
behavioral
Ezekiel asks, “Mom, may I eat a hot fudge sundae with extra whipped cream?” When his mother replies that he may not, Ezekiel then asks if he may eat one cookie. Ezekiel is using the ___________ strategy fro gaining compliance
door-in-the-face
A psychologist at a mental health center was confused about how to diagnose a client. Which objective personality test might the psychologist administer to help develop a diagnosis?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Vendela believes she did poorly on her driver’s exam because she was too busy with other responsibilities to practice enough. However, she believes the other low scorers did poorly because they are bad drivers. Vendela’s reasoning demonstrates the
actor-observer bias
Part of client-centered therapy consists of the therapist treating the client as a valued person, regardless of what they say or do. Approval is not necessary, but acceptance without judgement is. Which of the following therapist attitudes does this describe?
unconditional positive regard
Winston has been taking neuroleptics for several years, and he now suffers from an irreversible disorder of the nervous system that involves uncontrollable, repetitive movements of the body and face. Winston probably began taking neuroleptics to treat his ______, but the drug led to the disorder known as _______.
schizophrenia; tardive dyskinesia
The James-Lange theory of emotions focuses on the ______ determinants of emotions.
physiological
Which of the following is the primary pattern of sexual response?
excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Kerry and Riamsalat dated a couple of times, but Kerry wasn’t too interested and hadn’t called Riamsalat for over a month. However, when she received a birthday card from Riamsalat in the main, she called him and decided to ask him out. This change in Kerry’s attitude was probably due to
the reciprocity norm
Your therapist is helping you to overcome irrational thoughts you have developed. Specifically, he asks you to complete “homework” to help you challenge your false beliefs. Your therapist likely adheres to the principles of _______ therapy.
Beck’s cognitive
At about age four, Bart begins to find his mother Marge quite sexually attractive. He feels the urge to kill his father Homer, so that he doesn’t have to share his mother. However, Bart fears that Homer might get angry and retaliate against him. According to Freud, Bart is experiencing the _______ complex, which occurs during the ______ stage of development.
Oedipus; phallic
Phani’s therapist asks her to report everything that comes to mind no matter how trivial or bizarre it may seem. Phani’s therapist is using
free association
As Danica saw the headlights coming directly at her through the fog on the highway, her blood pressure rode quickly, and she felt her heart start to race. There reactions are part of
the physiological component in Danica’s emotional experience
Chad can only tune into two stations on his car’s radio. One station plays only country music, while the other station plays disco music. Because Chad hates both types of music he is faced with a(n) ________ conflict.
avoidance-avoidance
Nduta is developing a new test to assess individuals’ personalities. She asks people to draw a picture of their families, and then she interprets the drawing to reflect aspects of the individual’s personality. Nduta’s test is a(n) ________ test of personality.
projective
Leonard suffers from schizophrenia and lives in an institution. One day he walked up to one of the staff members and said, “Humble ports on the window overlook flying dunk myriad nevertheless honcho overload.” Leonard’s speech is an example of
word salad
In the most recent studies on factors affecting conformity, which of the following was found to have the least influence on whether or not a person will conform?
gender
Which of the following is the best example of an action that maintains homeostasis?
shivering to generate body heat when you are cold
Dr. Schwartz is a humanistic psychologist. There are many things that he believes about his clients. Which of the following is not one of them?
their behavior is motivated by sexual or aggressive drives
Yaveen is writing a paper criticizing the humanistic approach to personality. What is the best title for his paper?
How Naive, romantic, and Unrealistic! Is everyone really innately good?
Which of the following is most likely to be used in the modern biological treatment of a mental disorder?
drugs
In a tug-of-war competition, Teniel pulled much harder on the rope when competing as an individual than when she competed as a member of a team. This phenomenon is known as
social loafing
Claudia has not left her house in ten years. If she steps on the front porch she becomes so uneasy that she has to return inside. Claudia is most likely suffering from _______, which is a(n) _______ disorder.
agoraphobia; anxiety
According to drive reduction theory, an imbalance in homeostasis creates a(n) ______, to which the brain responds by creating a psychological state called a(n) _______.
need; drive
Mario tells his therapist, “I am so confused about what area I want to major in.” His therapist says, “So, you seem to be having trouble deciding what to study.” Mario’s therapist used
reflection
Sally goes to Lucy for psychotherapy. In Lucy’s office, Sally relaxes and says whatever comes to her mind. She also describes her dreams, and Lucy offers interpretations. Lucy claims that these methods help Sally become aware of her unconscious mind. Lucy is most likely a ________ psychotherapist.
psychodynamic
Being able to play basketball at the skill level of Michael Jordan is very rare. Thus, Michael Jordan might be viewed as abnormal from the ______ approach to defining abnormality.
statistical infrequency
Most tests using the deviation IQ set the mean at
100 points and the standard deviation at 15 points
Simon cringes every time he hears a dentist’s drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist’s office. In this example, cringing in the waiting room is
a conditioned response
Christine has been following the state lottery for over a year, and she has a record of the number of times every number has been selected. She is ready to invest $1000 in lottery tickets with the same six-number combination on each ticket. She is going to choose the six numbers that have occurred the least frequently in the last year because she is sure they will be picked eventually. In this case, Christine is showing evidence of
the gambler’s fallacy
Jerome is 8 years old and has been determined to have a mental age of 10. What is Jerome’s IQ?
125
In Serena’s law class they are discussing high-profile cases, and when they get to the O.J. Simpson case, Serena suddenly has a vivid memory of watching the white Bronco driving slowly down the freeway. She feels like she can recall every detail of that night, right down to the snacks she and her roommate were eating. This would be an example of
a flashbulb memory
Proactive interference occurs when
previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information
Destry recently completed the Artistic Reasoning Test (ART) for the third time in four months. The first time he took the test, his score was near the middle of the scale. The second time, he scored near the top of the scale; but for the most recent test, he scored near the bottom of the scale. Destry’s scores for this test indicate that the test
has low reliability
Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in loss of memory for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of
retrograde amnesia
The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
extinction
At the preconventional level, the child decides if things are good or bad (moral) on the basis of whether they
bring punishment or reward
Robert knows how to say “red” but when his cousin asks him to name the colors of the cars that drive past their house, he says red for the red cars, the blue cars, the green cars, and the black cars. Robert’s use of this word illustrates
overextension
Your psychology professor asks you for the name of the individual who started the behavioral approach to the study of psychology. To answer this question correctly, you need to rely on your
semantic memory
The longest stage of prenatal development is the
fetal stage
A pigeon learns to peck at a disk lighted green to receive reinforcement, but not at a disk lighted red. This means that, for the pigeon, the color of the disk is
a discriminative stimulus
A student’s organized set of expectations about how a college professor is supposed to act is an example of a
schema
When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
is weaker than the previously conditioned response
Mary takes a course in which she is tested every two weeks. Her studying falls off right after a test, followed by a gradual increase to a rapid rate of studying as the next test approached. Her studying conforms to the typical pattern of responding maintained on
fixed-interval schedules
The Flynn effect is the finding that
performance on IQ tests seems to be rising steadily and consistently over time
An essay exam is most similar to the ______ method of measuring retention.
recall
Stimulus discrimination is to stimulus generalization as reinforcement is to
punishment
When groups of subjects of differing age are compared at a single point in time, the study is called a
cross-sectional study
Mrs. Potter asks Malik if he wants his sandwich in one piece, or cut into two pieces. Malik’s answer suggests that he
does not yet understand conservation
The technique used to teach animals complex tricks, such as teaching pigeons to play ping-pong, is
shaping
Dave is reminiscing about the first car he owned in high school and how he felt the first time he drove it through town. This is an example of
episodic memory
Noam Chomsky contended that
there is an inborn biological propensity that guides language learning
The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
punishment weakens behavior, while negative reinforcement strengthens behavior
In relation to age, which of the following does NOT belong with the others?
autonomy versus shame
Pavlov found that meat powder placed on a dog’s tongue will make the dog salivate. In Pavlov’s terms, the meat powder is
an unconditioned stimulus
Omar’s wife conceived a baby seven days ago, and does not yet know she is pregnant. His wife’s pregnancy is currently in the
germinal stage
Mark is listening as his roommate lists 14 things that they need to buy for their apartment before the end of the week. Based on George Miller’s research into the capacity of short-term memory, if Mark doesn’t write the items down as he hears them, he is MOST likely to remember
between 5 and 9 items from the list
When the word “jar” is changed to the word “jars,” the number of
phonemes and morphemes are both increased
Females developing wider hips and males developing facial hair are examples of
secondary sexual characteristics
Eduardo’s mother always wore Chantille perfume, and when she would hug him or hold him close he could smell that scent. Today, whenever he catches a whiff of Chantille perfume, it makes him feel calm and relaxed. The learning process that could best account for Eduardo’s response to the scent of Chantille perfume is
classical conditioning
Elisa is entering survey data from adult males in a research study. One respondent has listed his height as 6 feet 5 inches, but the occupation is hard to decipher. Elisa thinks it might be basketball player or bank president. She decides to enter basketball player as the occupation. In this case, Elisa
probably relied on the representativeness heuristic to make her decision
The connotation of a word consists of
its emotional overtones and secondary implications
If you tend to persist in using the same problem-solving strategy time after time, you are evidencing
a mental set
Negative reinforcement involves
the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
As Kayla was introduced to the seven members of the committee who would be interviewing her for a scholarship, she silently repeated all the names to herself, in order. Kayla was using
rehearsal to temporarily store the names in short-term memory
An algorithm is
a methodical procedure for trying all possible solutions to a problem
According to Skinner, children learn a language
through imitation, reinforcement, and shaping
Test norms allow you to convert your raw score on a test into _____ score, which indicated the proportion of people who scored below your obtained score.
a percentile
A child who successfully completes stage 1 of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development will acquire
optimism and trust toward the world
Suzanne is 10 months old, and her older brother has been playing peek-a-boo with her for the past ten minutes. At first, Suzanne was really excited each time her brother uncovered his face, but now she seems bored and uninterested, and she barely responds when her brother says, “boo.” In this example, Suzanne is showing evidence of
habituation
Conrad’s economic professor tells the class that the next exam will cover Chapters 5 through 7 of their text. The day of the exam, the professor accidentally photocopies the exam from the previous semester, which includes a number of questions from Chapters 8 and 9. In this case, the students might reasonably argue that the exam
had poor content validity
Adan has been trying to recall the name of the musical artist who released the song that was #1 when he was 14. Adan feels somewhat frustrated because he is certain he knows the artist’s name, but she just can’t seem to recall it at this moment. Adan is experiencing something referred to as
the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Escape conditioning is maintained by
negative reinforcement
Roland is an architect who can design dream homes based on vague ideas and images that his clients bring to him. According to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Roland is likely to score high in which of the following?
spatial intelligence
Three-year-old Johnny used to say “mikk” when he wanted a drink of mile. Now he is able to say “milk” quite clearly. In this instance, Johnny has made a gain in his use of
phonemes
Craig is being introduced to the members of the fraternity he has just joined. There are 15 members who he has not met before, and once the introductions are over, he finds he can only remember the names of the first three people and the last two people he was introduced to. He can’t recall the names of any other members. The memory difficulty that Craig is experiencing is consistent with
the serial position effect
According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, someone who is efficient at processing information and who performs well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning and logical-mathematical abilities, should score high in
analytic intelligence
In convergent thinking, one attempts to
narrow down a list of alternatives to solve a problem
Francis has applied for admission to a computer science program, and one of the requirements for admission is the completion of a test that measures sequencing skills and abstract reasoning skills. Her score on this test will be a major factor in the decision about whether to admit her to the program. In this case, the test that Francis is scheduled to take would be classified as
an aptitude test
A child who uses “wented” as the past tense of the verb “to go”
is using a general rule in an irregular case where it does not apply
The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between identical twins reared apart is lower than that between identical twins reared together suggests that
environmental factors can have an influence on intellectual development
Often new situations and experiences have characteristics in common with situations or events that people have encountered in the past. In these types of situations, people can often respond appropriately by using the process Piaget referred to as
assimilation
The correlation between a group’s scored on an industrial aptitude test and actual performance on the industrial job would describe the test’s
criterion-related validity
The sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error is called
insight
Conventional thinking in moral development bases morality (right or wrong) on
society’s laws
Andre is demonstrating a new computer program to his roommate. As he shows his roommate how to open the application and create a file, Andre is largely relying on his
procedural memory
Trust and optimism are to Erikson’s trust versus mistrust stage as ______ is to Piaget’s sensorimotor period.
object permanence
Semantics is the component of language concerned with
understanding the meaning of words and word combinations
_______ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
retroactive interference
Based on Charles Spearman’s view of intelligence, individuals who excel in
one academic area are likely to excel in most academic areas.
Mercedes takes her 1-year-old son, Justice, to visit a day-care center where she plans to enroll him. Justice eagerly explores the playroom as long as Mercedes is present. When his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms, Justice becomes somewhat upset, but when Mercedes returns, he quickly calms down. This is the type of interaction you might observe between a child and a parent who
share a secure attachment relationship
According to Skinner, a stimulus is a reinforcer if it
increases the probability of the response that produced it
The greatest number of deaths in Africa today results from:
AIDS
Rush hour traffic is to an upset stomach as blank is to blank:
stressor; stress reaction
Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as blank personalities:
Type A
Research on taste aversion in rats led to the discovery that suppression of the immune system can be influenced by:
classical conditioning
The interdisciplinary field that integrates and applies behavioral and medical knowledge to health and disease is:
behavioral medicine
Friedman and Rosenman referred to relaxed and easy going individuals as blank personalities
Type B
Hans Selye referred to the body’s response to stress as:
the general adaptation syndrome
Physical illnesses, such as hypertension and some headaches, that are not caused by an organic disorder but instead seem linked to stress are referred to as blank illnesses:
psychophysiological
Because of poverty, unemployment, and overcrowding, residents of urban ghettos are especially likely to experience:
high blood pressure
The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the:
immune system
Rats that received electric shocks were unlikely to develop ulcers if the:
shocks were systematically associated with the delivery of appetizing food
The growth of new brain cells in mice has been found to be promoted by:
aerobic exercise
Lewis has suffered from acute stress for years. He is presently learning to relax with a device that provides him with information about changes in tension in his forehead muscles. Lewis’ case illustrates the use of:
biofeedback
What is the most noticeable nicotine withdrawal symptom?
insomnia
Although John has been obese for as long as he can remember, he is determined to lose excess weight with a special low calorie diet. John is likely to have difficulty losing weight while dieting because:
fat tissue can be maintained by fewer calories than can other body tissues
A rewarding consequence of cigarette smoking is that it reduces:
sensitivity to pain
Although Cara has been obese for as long as she can remember, she is determined to lose excess body weight with a low calorie diet. Cara is most likely to have difficulty becoming and staying thin because:
she may have a higher-than-average set point for body weight
Smokers and nonsmokers have been found to differ in a gene that influences responses to:
dopamine
During which phase of the general adaptation syndrome are organisms best able to physically cope with stress?
resistance
Rats that received electric shocks were unlikely to develop ulcers if the
rats could control the termination of the shocks
Acupuncture, aromatherapy, and homeopathy are forms of
complementary and alternative medicine
While taking a difficult test, Cindy’s muscles tense and her heart pounds. These physiological responses are
stress reactions
Feeling liked and encouraged by intimate friends and family has been found to promote
stronger immune functioning
Using emotional, behavioral, or cognitive methods to alleviate stress is known as
coping
Heart disease and depression may both result when chronic stress triggers
persistent inflammation
Elderly nursing home residents tend to decline faster and die sooner than they would otherwise if they lack
perceived control
A perceived loss of control is associated with __ epinephrine levels and __ lymphocyte activity.
increased; decreased
Genuine illnesses that are caused by stress are called __ illnesses.
psychophysiological
Allergic reactions and arthritis are caused by
an overreactive immune system
During meditative relaxation, a part of the __ lobe involved in focused attention is __; active than usual.
frontal; more
By attacking the body’s own tissues, an overly reactive immune system is most likely to cause
arthritis
To study how stress and healthy and unhealthy behaviors influence health and illness, psychologists and physicians created the interdisciplinary field of
behavioral medicine
People have been found to suffer fewer health problems following the death of their spouse if they
communicate their painful feelings of loss to close friends
People tend to use emotion-focused coping rather than problem-focused coping when they
believe they cannot change a stressful situation
Optimists are more likely than pessimists to experience
perceived control
AIDS is caused by a __ infection spread primarily through __.
viral; the exchange of bodily fluids
The subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to the prevention and treatment of illness is known as
health psychology
Psychologists defines stress as
the process by which we appraise and respond to threatening or challenging events
Which form of treatment has claimed to correct imbalances of energy flow at identifiable points close to the skin?
acupuncture
T lymphocytes are formed in the
thymus
Evidence suggests that __ may foster neurogenesis
aerobic exercise
The secretion of stress hormones
draws energy away from immune activity
The natural disappearance of a disease is called
spontaneous remission
The risk of coronary heart disease is increased by
high blood pressure
Prolonged daily hassles such as unemployment and overcrowding are likely to promote
reduced production of lymphocytes
Research has indicated that rats become more vulnerable to ulcers when exposed to __ shock.
uncontrollable
Volunteers who participated in an eight-week course of meditation training exhibited increased levels of the __ activity associated with positive emotions.
left hemisphere
In the 1920s, Walter Cannon discovered that stress produced an outpouring of __ into the bloodstream.
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Whether a health care treatment is mainstream medicine or an alternative medicine depends on whether the treatment has been
scientifically validated as effective
Trying to reduce stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor is most characteristic of
emotion-focused coping
A diminished sense of self, space, and time is most likely to be associated with
meditative relaxation
In a study of Type A heart attak survivors, Friedman and his colleagues found that the most effective technique for preventing recurrent heart attacks was
relaxation training
After being told that his parents have just been involved in a serious automobile accident, Bill is likely to experience an outpouring of
epinephrine
People who laugh a lot have exhibited a lower incidence of
heart disease
To alleviate the stress of losing her job, Alicia enrolled in a work retraining program that led to full-time employment. Alicia’s behavior best illustrates
problem-focused coping
A stressor is a(n)
environmental event that threatens or challenges us
Which of the following was NOT mentioned in the text as a potential health benefit of exercise?
Exercise improves functioning of the immune system
Aerobic exercise is an effective way to
lower the blood pressure reaction to stress
Jon, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Jon most likely experiencing?
alarm reaction
Walter Cannon observed that a variety of stressors trigger
a fight-or-flight reaction
Oxytocin is a stress-moderating hormone released by
breast feeding
To alleviate the stress of long work hours, Phara has arranged a more convenient work schedule with her employer. Phara’s behavior best illustrates
problem-focused coping
Although stress does not create cancer cells, it may affect their growth by suppressing the activity of
T lymphocytes
It has been suggested that a coherent worldview may contribute to the stress protection associated with
the faith factor
The emotional bonding and mutual support that survivors of natural disasters provide to one another best illustrates
the tend-and-befriend response
A psychologist would most likely use biofeedback to provide clients with information about their
muscle tension
People tend to use emotion-focused coping rather than problem-focused coping when they
believe they cannot change a stressful situation
Which of the following BEST explains why stress heightens vulnerability to bacterial and viral infections?
Stress hormones suppress the productio of lymphocytes
Anger is the toxic core of
the Type A personality
Research has demonstrated that as a predictor of health and longevity, religious involvement
rivals nonsmoking and exercise
Physical and emotional responses to threatening and challenging events are referred to as
stress reactions
Religiously active people have __ socially supportive relationships and __ lifestyles than those who are not religiously active.
more; healthier
The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are
alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion
One person, alone in a house, dismisses its creaking sounds and experiences no stress; someone else suspects an intruder and becomes alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of
stress appraisal
To study how stress and healthy and unhealthy behaviors influence health and illness, psychologists and physicians created the interdisciplinary field of
behavioral medicine
Research on physical attractiveness indicates that men are more likely than women to:
judge members of the opposite sex as more attractive if they have a youthful appearance.
Norman Triplett observed that adolescents wound a fishing reel faster in the presence of someone working simultaneously on the same task. This best illustrates:
social faciliation
On which of the following tasks would the presence of observers be least likely to lead to better and faster performance?
solving a crossword puzzle
Katya donated money to a religious charity in order to boost her own feelings of self-esteem. Jennifer failed to contribute to the same charity because she was fearful of running out of money. Differences in their altruistic behavior are best explained in terms of:
social exchange theory
The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another’s behavior is called:
fundamental attribution error
Group polarization refers to:
the enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through group discussion.
A dispositional attribution is to ________ as a situational attribution is to ________.
personality traits; assigned roles
Ksana insists that her boyfriend’s car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of:
dispositional attribution
Laura’s husband died three years ago, but she is still depressed. Her therapist suggests that she is really angry at her husband for abandoning her. The therapist’s interpretation reflects the ________ perspective.
psychoanalytical
Sheen is usually animated and talkative when he is with his girlfriend, but he is often quiet and reserved at home. He actively participates in many classroom discussions but frequently seems reluctant to talk with friends at the campus coffee shop. According to Walter Mischel, Sheen’s behavior should lead us to question the consistency of:
personality traits
Thaddeus will play a violin solo at his school tomorrow. Which of the following will be true of his musical performance?
It will be good if his physiological arousal during the performance is moderate.
When students perceive the arousal that accompanies test-taking as energizing rather than debilitating, they experience much less anxiety. This is best understood in terms of the:
Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating?
cognition
Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called:
heuristics
Our schemas often influence the form in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to appreciating the importance of:
memory construction
A mnemonic device is a:
memory aid
Automatic processing occurs without:
conscious awareness
Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parents’ cars. This best illustrates the importance of:
observational learning
After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
extinction
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:
palvov
Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children most clearly differ in:
temperant
Low birth weight is a known risk factor for:
dissociative identity disorder
Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from:
hallucinations
As a therapist, Dr. Cioffi often uses systematic desensitization. She also considers active listening to be an invaluable therapeutic tool, and she frequently makes use of free association. Dr. Cioffi’s therapeutic approach would best be described as:
eclectic
Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd’s belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie:
drug therapy
Melissa is fearful of men and refuses to go out on dates. Her therapist suggests that she is fearful because she was sexually abused by her father when she was young. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
learning
The vicious cycle of depression is often initiated by:
stressful life experiences
The symptoms of ________ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of ________.
antisocial personality; schizophrenia
Which of the following is a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies?
meta-analysis
According to the social-cognitive perspective, women are more vulnerable to depression than men because they are more likely to:
sense a lack of personal control over their lives.
Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne’s therapeutic approach would best be described as:
eclectic
An abnormal shrinkage of cerebral tissue is most likely to be associated with:
schizophrenia
Brenda has never cheated on a psychology test, but she often does so on chemistry tests. She recently stole some merchandise from a local store, but she also returned a lost billfold along with $28 to its rightful owner. Walter Mischel would have suggested that this pattern of behavior should make psychologists more cautious about emphasizing the consistency of:
personality traits
Which of the following tests characteristically describes personality in flattering terms?
myers-briggs type indicator
Compared to gay men, lesbian women are:
Lack of body fluids is to thirst as ________ is to ________.
need; drive
Myra has such low self-esteem that she typically expects critical comments about her appearance and behavior. Myra’s behavior best illustrates the dangers of:
confirmation bias
If both depressed and nondepressed individuals receive similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression, it suggests that the test:
is not valid
People told that a chemical in the air is projected to kill 10 out of every 10,000 people feel more frightened than if told the fatality risk is one-tenth of 1 percent. This best illustrates the importance of:
framing
For a moment after hearing his dog’s high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog’s yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates ________ memory.
echoic
The tendency for distributed study to yield better long-term retention than massed study is known as:
the spacing effect
Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:
modeling
Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote:
survival
An allergy attack triggered by the sight of plastic flowers best illustrates the process of:
generalization
Perceptual adaptation refers to the:
perceptual adjustment to an artificially displaced visual field.
Identical twins are most likely to share a similar prenatal environment if they share the same:
placenta
Studies of identical twins who had been reared apart most clearly highlight the importance of ________ in personality development.
genetic predispositions
The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the:
myelin sheath
People with high self-esteem are less likely than those with low self-esteem to:
succumb to conformity pressures.
Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to:
work persistently at difficult tasks
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of:
self determination
Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of:
social influence
As personality descriptions become more positive, the Barnum effect becomes stronger. This best illustrates:
self-serving bias
Research on self-perception indicates that most people:
view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others.
Bruce wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for some of his wife’s habits. According to Freud, Bruce’s ________ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires.
ego
An individual who perceives an internal locus of control would most likely show signs of a:
strong ego
Veena gets poor grades no matter how hard she studies, so she has simply given up studying. Veena’s behavior most clearly reflects:
learned helplessness
The best indicator of a person’s level of optimism is his or her:
attributional style.
Short segments of surgeon-patient conversations were filtered to make the speech unintelligible while preserving its intonation, pitch, and rhythm. Listeners’ ability to use this limited information to accurately assess which surgeons had been sued illustrated the potency of the surgeons’:
expressive style
Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from:
psychological processes
Freud would have suggested that an excessive fixation is most likely to contribute to:
regression
Learned helplessness is most likely to promote:
pessimism
Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken belief best illustrates:
self serving bias
Most late adolescents perceive themselves as less vulnerable than their peers to the AIDS virus. This best illustrates:
unrealistic optimism
Which of the following tests characteristically describes personality in flattering terms?
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Sexually active undergraduate women perceive themselves as much less likely to experience an unwanted pregnancy than other women at their university. This best illustrates:
unrealistic optimism
While attending college, Saeb impulsively and carelessly spends all his time and money on “wine, women, and song.” Freud would have suggested that Saeb shows signs of a(n):
weak super ego
Who is the best example of a Type A personality?
Mara, an irritable, impatient teacher
Rush hour traffic is to an upset stomach as ________ is to ________.
stressor; stress reaction
In Wolfgang Köhler’s experiment, the chimpanzee Sultan retrieved a long stick with a short stick to retrieve a piece of fruit. Sultan was able to reach the fruit as a result of:
insight
Logical, methodical step-by-step procedures for solving problems are called:
algorithms
Stockbrokers who market their services with confidence that they can outperform the market average in picking stocks are especially likely to:
appear credible to their customers
In trying to solve a potentially complicated problem quickly, we are most likely to rely on:
heuristics
A retention of skills and dispositions without conscious recollection is known as ________ memory.
implicit
Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as
the spacing effect
Philippe has just completed medical school. In reflecting on his years of formal education, he is able to recall the names of all his instructors except the fifth-grade teacher who flunked him. According to Freud, his forgetting illustrates:
repression
The serial position effect best illustrates the importance of
rehearsal
Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:
modeling
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:
pavlov
The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.
reinforcement; punishment
The acquisition of a sense of object permanence is most closely associated with the development of:
stranger anxiety
Professor Shankar believes that her students’ most important personal characteristics are those that distinguish them as uniquely different from most other people. Her attitude best illustrates one of the consequences of:
individualism
If a genetic predisposition to fear darkness contributes to reproductive success, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates:
natural selection
A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is:
epinephrine
The emotion of fear is sometimes accompanied by ________ that differ from those that accompany rage.
hormone secretions and finger temperatures
The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the:
immune system
Researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips. This finding best serves to support the:
adaptation-level principle
Researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips. This best illustrates the:
adaptation-level phenomenon
Those who view their work as a necessary but personally unfulfilling way to make money are said to view work as a:
job
Bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporation lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. Research suggests that Bernard’s susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his:
anger
Which of the following best describes task performance?
It is best when physiological arousal is moderate.
Hans Selye referred to the body’s response to stress as:
the general adaptation syndrome
An inexperienced pilot prepares for an emergency landing after her single-engine plane loses power. Her emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by:
increased blood sugar levels
According to the Cannon-Bard theory, body arousal is related to the subjective awareness of emotion in the same way as the ________ is related to the ________.
sympathetic nervous system; cortex
Dr. Ligorano has devoted his professional life to researching the desires and needs that energize and direct behavior. His area of research has obviously been:
motivation
In researching taste aversion in rats, Ader and Cohen discovered that saccharin-sweetened water was a conditioned stimulus for:
the suppression of the immune system
Rabbits fail to react with fear to a signal of impending shock if they have suffered damage to the part of the brain called the:
amygdala
Compared to gay men, lesbian women are:
less likely to engage in promiscuous sex and more likely to enter into a committed long-term love relationship.
Automatic processing occurs without:
conscious awareness
Automatic processing and effortful processing involve two types of:
encoding
After learning that kicking would move a crib mobile, infants showed that they recalled this learning best if they were tested in the same crib. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on recall.
state-dependent memory
Long-term potentiation refers to:
an increase in a neuron’s firing potential.
It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
biological predispositions
After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing drug, people with alcoholism may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This illustrates the importance of ________ in classical conditioning.
cognitive processes
Some of Pavlov’s dogs learned to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and not to other tones. This illustrates the process of:
discrimination
The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep are called
delta waves
Alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more:
fearful
Patients’ negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure can increase their postoperative experience of pain. This best illustrates the importance of:
top-down processing
Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day. This best illustrates the importance of _______ to motor skills.
maturation
Unlike today’s most widely used intelligence tests, the original Stanford-Binet would be most clearly criticized with respect to its:
standardization sample
Business managers are more likely to track the career achievements of those they once hired than the accomplishments of those they once rejected. This best illustrates:
confirmation bias
During the earliest stage of speech development, infants:
make some speech sounds that do not occur in their parents’ native language.
The rock musician was hit with a rotten egg while performing his latest hit song. The fact that you can recognize two different meanings for the word “hit” in the preceding sentence demonstrates the importance of:
syntax
People with opposing views of capital punishment reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effectiveness as a crime deterrent. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever. This best illustrates:
belief perseverance
Although intuition can at times hinder rationality, it is often valuable because it facilitates:
quick decisions
Because Ken is 6’6″, people often mistakenly assume that he must be a member of his college’s basketball team. This mistaken judgment best illustrates the impact of:
the representativeness heuristic.
In order to assess whether intelligence is a single trait or a collection of several distinct abilities, psychologists have made extensive use of:
factor analysis
The indelible memories of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy unduly inflated many people’s estimates of the risks associated with air travel. This best illustrates the importance of:
the availability heuristic
Anika resisted changing her answer to a test question after reminding herself that “it’s always best to stick with your first answer.” Anika’s decision best illustrates the use of:
a heuristic
When her teacher mentioned the arms race, Krista understood that the word “arms” referred to weapons and not to body parts. Krista’s correct interpretation best illustrates the importance of:
semantics
It is very difficult to get someone to change his or her unrealistically negative self-image. This best illustrates the importance of:
belief perseverance.
In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make use of:
prototypes
Andre first became suspicious of his roommate’s honesty while trying to account for his own missing wallet. Although Andre later recalled that he had left his wallet in the glove compartment of his own car, his newly formed doubt about his roommate’s honesty remained as strong as ever. Andre’s irrational suspicion of his roommate best illustrates:
the belief perseverance phenomenon.
Miss Jan De Jong is orderly, neat, fairly quiet, and shy. She enjoys reading in her spare time and belongs to a social club that includes three librarians, nine real estate agents, and eight social workers. A tendency to conclude that Jan must be one of the three librarians would illustrate the powerful influence of:
the representativeness heuristic.
English-speaking children learn to put the object of a sentence last, whereas Japanese-speaking children put the object before the verb. Chomsky suggests that this illustrates a difference in the two languages’:
surface structure
A best example of a category of objects, events, or people is called a(n):
prototype
A 12-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have an IQ of:
75
Our capacity for thinking without language is best illustrated by:
unconscious information processing.
Chunking refers to:
the organization of information into meaningful units.
After attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenly remembered details from others’ traumatic life stories as part of her own life history. This best illustrates the dangers of:
Source amnesia
The process of getting information out of memory is called:
retrieval
When first introduced to someone, Marcel effectively remembers the person’s name by repeating it to himself several times. Marcel makes use of a strategy called:
rehearsal
Automatic processing and effortful processing involve two types of:
encoding
Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parents’ cars. This best illustrates the importance of:
observational learning
The most crucial ingredient in all learning is:
experience
According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by:
external influences
An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of:
successive approximations.
A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.
conditioned
Our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of:
top-down processing
The visually perceived distance between ourselves and an object provides an important cue for our perception of the object’s:
size
In order to test whether newborns can visually discriminate between various shapes and colors, psychologists have made use of the process of:
habituation
When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not expected to. Waldo’s behavior best illustrates the importance of:
gender roles
The prenatal development of the external male sex organs is stimulated by:
testosterone
A random error in gene replication is known as a:
mutation
An infant’s temperament refers most directly to its:
emotional excitability.
Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ________ is to ________.
visual stimulation; auditory stimulation
Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as ________ is to ________.
meaning; imagery
The process of getting information into memory is called:
encoding
Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend’s telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriend’s number. Arnold’s difficulty best illustrates:
proactive interference.
Automatic processing occurs without:
conscious awareness
Our schemas often influence the form in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to appreciating the importance of:
memory construction
During her psychology test, Kelsey could not remember the meaning of the term “proactive interference.” Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of:
automatic processing
When we fall in love, we tend to overestimate how much we liked our partner when we first began dating. This best illustrates the dynamics of:
memory construction
After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of:
retroactive interference
One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally label most of their experiences. This best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires:
semantic encoding
The title of a song is on the tip of Gerard’s tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter’s name. Gerard’s initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by:
retrieval failure
Professor Maslova has so many memories of former students that she has difficulty remembering the names of new students. The professor’s difficulty best illustrates:
proactive interference
Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory.
short term
Hearing the word “rabbit” may lead people to spell the spoken word “hair” as “h-a-r-e.” This best illustrates the outcome of a process known as:
priming
Philippe has just completed medical school. In reflecting on his years of formal education, he is able to recall the names of all his instructors except the fifth-grade teacher who flunked him. According to Freud, his forgetting illustrates:
repression
The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve:
interference
Long-term potentiation refers to:
an increase in a neuron’s firing potential.
Explicit memory is to long-term memory as iconic memory is to ________ memory
short term
Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory?
Ebbinghaus
Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to:
encoding
Tim, a third-grader, learns the sentence “George Eats Old Gray Rats And Paints Houses Yellow” to help him remember the spelling of “geography.” Tim is using:
mnemonic device
Conscious memory of factual information is called ________ memory.
explicit
The self-reference effect best illustrates the value of:
semantic encoding
The serial position effect best illustrates the importance of
rehearsal
Compared to formerly depressed people, those who are currently depressed are more likely to recall their parents as rejecting and punitive. This best illustrates:
mood- congruent memory
A dog’s salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n):
conditioned response
According to Piaget’s theory, during the concrete operational stage, a child is still unlikely to demonstrate:
the ability to think hypothetically.
Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.
detection; interpretation
An evolutionary psychologist would be likely to suggest that human preferences for sweet-tasting foods:
are genetically predisposed
Carl had an unusually low birth weight because his mother failed to eat sufficient amounts of nutritional foods during his embryonic development. This best illustrates:
prenatal environments
American university students are more likely than Japanese university students to describe themselves in terms of their:
academic abilities
Compared to identical twins, fraternal twins are:
less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion
A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.
conditioned
The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.
reinforcement; punishment
Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote:
survival
A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ________ reinforcement.
continuous; partial
According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by:
external influences
A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to go into 20 elevators a day. The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the ________ of the patient’s fear.
extinction
The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called:
discrimination
B. F. Skinner’s work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called:
the law of effect
On Monday, Johnny’s mother gave him cookies and milk after he had played quietly for 10 minutes. On Tuesday, she required 20 minutes of quiet play before treat time, and on Wednesday, the cookies were given to him only after a full half hour of quiet play. Johnny was taught to play quietly for extended periods through:
shaping
Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of:
cognitive processes
By directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lightning signals an impending crash of thunder. This best illustrates:
classical conditioning
The “psychic secretions” that interfered with Pavlov’s experiments on digestion were:
conditioned responses
After recovering from a serious motorcycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a motorcycle but not a bicycle. Gina’s pattern of fear best illustrates:
discrimination
According to the opponentprocess theory, cells that are stimulated by exposure to:
green light are inhibited by exposure to red light.
If Jared watches a nurse give him an injection, he experiences more pain than if he closes his eyes during the procedure and thinks about his favorite food. This illustrates the value of ________ for pain control.
distraction
A stimulating environment is most likely to facilitate the development of a child’s:
neural connections
Elton responds to his daughter’s fistfight with, “Good girls don’t fight!” but when his son has a fistfight he says, “Did you win?!” The role of Elton’s reactions in the gender-typing of his children would be of most direct interest to:
social learning theorists
Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes toward casual sex to the fact that men have ________ than do women.
greater reproductive potential
psychoanalysts would suggest that resistance during therapy supports and maintains the process of:
repression
Mr. Phillips has recently begun to express feelings of hostility and resentment his therapist, who is consistently friendly, caring and helpful. A psychoanalyst would most likely consider Mr. Phillip’s hostility to be an example of:
transference
As a psychotherapist, Dr. Buist does not analyze people’s motives or diagnose the nature of their difficulties because he believes that they are in the best position to diagnose and solve their own problems. Dr. Buist’s position is most characteristic of _____________ therapy
client centered therapy
Cindy suggested that her nail biting might be a symptom of unconscious resentment toward her parents. Her therapist chuckled and said, “No, Cindy, your problem isn’t unconscious hostility; your problem is nail biting.” Cindy’s therapist sounds most like a _________ therapist.
behavior
To treat nail biting, one can paint a patient’s fingernails with a bitter-tasting nail polish. This procedure best illustrates:
aversive conditioning
Mr. Quinones, a fifth grade teacher, gives a blue plastic star to each student who achieves a high score on a math or spelling test. At the end of the semester, students can exchange their stars for prizes. Mr. Quinones’ strategy illustrates an application of:
operant conditioning
Jenna is afraid of speaking to a large audience. Her therapist suggests that prior to a speaking engagement she should reassure herself with comments like, “Cheer up, Jenna. You know what you’re talking about and your topic is really interesting!” This approach to reducing Jenna’s fear most clearly illustrates:
stress inoculation training
Dr. Jackson reinforces depressed patients for their participation in pleasant activities and trains them to take increasingly more credit for the rewards they gain from engaging in these activities. Dr. Jackson’s treatment approach best illustrates:
cognitive behavior therapy
The text defines social psychology as the scientific study of how people _________ one another.
think about, influence, and relate to
Caitlin concluded that her husband was late for dinner because he was caught in heavy traffic. Her conclusion best illustrates:
a situational attribution
Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called:
attitudes
During a recent disaster John witnessed and watched an accident and yet did nothing to provide assistance. He may have rationalized, engaged in denial or transferred his personal responsibility to help in the situation because of what Social Psychologist call the ____________.
bystander effect
Singh’s religious beliefs require that men keep their heads covered at all times, but while living in America he is aware that it is traditional for men to bare their heads when the flag passes by them. He feels conflicted, but decides the disapproving looks are not worth it and removes his hat. Singh’s behavior is an example of which form of social influence?
conformity
Altruism is best described as:
behaving unselfishly to enhance the welfare of others
The presence of many bystanders at the scene of an emergency increases the likelihood that any individual bystander will:
fail to interpret the incident as an emergency
Which following statement is MORE LIKELY to be made by a humanistic psychologist?
Humans have a basic need to fulfill their potentials.
Fifteen year old Mark is trying to figure out what he should do after he graduates from college. According to Erikson, Mark is in the stage of ________________.
identity versus role confusion
Martha is very creative and she enjoys making new and unusual works in her ceramics class. Which of the following Big Five trait dimensions is most closely related to Martha’s level of creativity?
openness to experience
Although Sara was told not to, she ate three cookies before dinner. By choosing to eat the cookies, Sigmund Freud would say, she was following the desires of her _______.
Id
When asked to describe herself, 5-year old Jamie says “My hair is black”. Jamie’s physical description of herself is part of her____________.
self-concept
Strategies used by the ego to prevent anxious or threatening thoughts from entering conscious awareness are called____________.
defense mechanisms
People with unipolar disorders experience ____________; most people with bipolar disorders experience ____________.
depression only; alternating periods of depression and mania
Max worries about everything. He worries about his job, his finances and the economy. You name it and he worries about it. Max could be diagnosed as having a(n) _________________.
generalized anxiety disorder
James is so afraid of snakes that he is unable to leave the house. James is most likely suffering from a(n) ___________.
phobia
A person whose behavior is dominated by irrational thinking, poor reality contact, disturbed emotions, delusions, and hallucinations probably has a(n) ___________ disorder.
schizophrenia
Psychopharmacology involves treating mental disorders with ___________.
medication
A person who continues to take a drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms such as tremors and chills is exhibiting ________________.
physical dependence
Which of the following is an example of systematic desensitization?
Imagining increasingly frightening situations while deeply relaxed
A central goal of psychoanalysis is to ____________.
explore unconscious conflicts
The form of therapy that emphasizes recognizing and changing negative thought patterns is __________ therapy.
cognitive
The DSM is a reference manual for ___________.
diagnosing psychiatric disorders
Ali, a survivor of Hurricane Katrina, continues to have nightmares, flashbacks, and anxiety attacks. Ali is most likely suffering from ___________.
post-traumatic stress disorder
The belief that some distressing physical symptoms made no neurological sense contributed most directly to:
Freud’s interest in unconscious conflicts
Although Garth wants to interact sexually with his girlfriend with his girlfriend, he also wants to avoid premarital sex. Freud would have suggested that both desires might be partially satisfied by Garth’s
ego
Although Eduardo has repressed his own homosexual desires, he is distressed by a false suspicion that many men frequently stare lustfully at his body. According to psychoanalytic theory, Eduardo’s thinking best illustrates:
projection
Shortly after receiving a traffic ticket for speeding, Fred made numerous hostile comments to his wife about the incompetence of women drivers. Fred’s comments illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of:
displacement
Celine recently had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient but unfamiliar religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to
Jung
Morris is hostile, aggressive, and socially destructive. According to Carl Rogers, this behavior pattern results from:
His growth-inhibiting environment
Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are least likely to
Experience defensive self-esteem
Repeatedly checking to see if your stove is turned off is to ______________ as repeatedly thinking you might try to set your own house on fire is to _____________.
compulsion; obsession
Niesha demonstrates seven different personalities that appear to take turns controlling her behavior. Evidence that the same life memories are consciously experienced by all the alternate personalities would most clearly rule out the contribution of ______________ to her disorder
dissociation
Within the last year, Mr. Shangkun has been fired by three different employers because they each discovered that he was stealing money or materials from their companies. Although he feels no remorse for his misdeeds, his outward signs of repentance have dissuaded his former employers from taking him to court. Mr. Shangkun’s behavior is most indicative of:
antisocial personality disorder
Although Mrs. Petrides usually sits passively in a motionless stupor, she sometimes repetitiously shakes her head or waves her arms. She most likely suffers from:
catatonia
The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of
behavioral consistency
The belief that some distressing physical symptoms could not be readily explained in terms of neurological impairments contributed most directly to
Freud’s interest in unconscious conflicts
Free association is central to the process of
psychoanalysis
In suggesting that the mind is like an iceberg, Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the unconscious by having the entire _____ at that level
id
Ego is to id as__is to _____
reality principle; pleasure principle
Katrinka habitually makes nasty, hostile comments about her teachers. Freud would have suggested that her behavior illustrates the powerful influence of the
id
According to Freud’s theory, the ego…
is the executive part of personality
For several months after he lost the job he had held for nearly 20 years, Mr. Ullomi frequently lost his temper and suffered periodic crying spells. His behavior is most clearly an example of
regression
Abdul mistakenly believes that his classmates are unusually hostile. In fact, Abdul is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Abdul’s belief that his classmates are hostile is a
projection
Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?
Carl Jung
Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, expanded Freud’s assumption about
seeking security over insecurity
Tests that present ambiguous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called _____tests.
projective
The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that
only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity
Frida was informed by a professional palm reader, “You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess.” The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader’s insight into her personality best illustrates…
the Barnum effect
The Barnum Effect
individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people.
Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysenck’s basic personality dimensions she would be classified as
unstable-introverted
Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely taking the
Thematic Apperception Test
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Which perspective on human personality emphasizes reciprocal determinism?
social-cognitive
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the trait perspective is to
Allport
According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among
behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events
Learned helplessness is most likely to result from
an external locus of control
Learned helplessness is most likely to promote
pessimism
According to the social-cognitive perspective, one of the vest ways to predict a person’s future behavior is to
observe that person’s behavior in various relevant situations
Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates
the self-serving bias
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
id
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
self-determinism
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by
Carl Jung
Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
openness
Big Five
extroversion, openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness,. agreeableness
Is the MMPI test empirically derived?
Yes
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one’s personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
the Barnum effect
Which perspective most clearly emphasizes influences of traits and situations on human behavior?
social-cognitive perspective
Social-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context
Analena’s refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequences of her superior dietary self-control. It may have started because of the environment at the grocery store or her thinking before get got to the store. This best illustrates the importance of
reciprocal determinism
Sasha believes that the questions on college tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha’s belief most clearly illustrates
an external locus of control
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg’s reaction most clearly illustrates
learned helplessness
Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology, which focuses on topics such as:
optimism
Research on self-perception indicates that most people
view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others
When Professor McKay nervously began teaching a university class for the first time, he overestimated the extent to which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates
the spotlight effect
Mira claims that alcohol dependence is a disease that, like pneumonia or meningitis, can be cured or prevented with proper treatment. Her belief is most clearly consistent with
the medical model
Using DSM-IV-TR guidelines, two different clinicians are likely to give a specific patient the same diagnosis, This indicates that the DSM-IV-TR si
reliable
Anxiety is considered disordered if it is:
frequent and distressing
Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn’t know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from a(n)
generalized anxiety disorder
While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that eh could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from a(n)
panic attack
Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of
an obsession
A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ___________ perspective.
learning/behavioral
Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the
amygdala
Hypochondriasis is characterized by
the misinterpretation of normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
Two or more distinct identities appear to alternately control the behavior of those with:
DID
Several weeks after being fired from a job he has held for more than 20 years, Landon awoke one morning in a state of bewildered confusion. He had little sense of who he was and even failed to recongnize his wife. Landon’s experience is most indicate of
dissociative disorder
Is bipolar disorder classified as a mood disorder?
Yes
Because it is so pervasive, _______is often considered “the common cold” of psychological disorders
depression
Which perspective suggests that depression is a reaction to loss and the internalization of unresolved anger toward parents?
psychoanalytic
Psychoanalysis
Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with
depression
Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from
Schizophrenia
The distinctive features used to identify the three clusters of personality disorders are
anxiety, eccentricity, and impulsivity
An antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
a lack of guilt feelings
Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory trace from out species history as the
collective unconscious
The symptoms of ______ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of ______.
antisocial personality; schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a disorder that is MOST likely to be treated with
biomedical therapies
Mr. Choi’s therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist’s goal best reflects a primary aim of
psychoanalysis
Carl Rogers is known for the development of
client-centered therapy
client-centered therapy/ person-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients’ growth.
Counterconditioning techniques were derived from principles first developed by
Ivan Pavlov
In 1924, Mary Cover Jones reported that 3-year-old Peter lost his fear of rabbits when one was repeatedly presented while he was eating a tasty snack. This episode best illustrated the potential usefulness of
exposure therapies
Systematic desensitization involves
associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli
In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?
a token economy
Token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
The belief that no person is an island is the fundamental assumption of a
family therapy
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
Meta-analysis refers to
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of
depression
Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors are prescrive to
elevate arousal and mood
Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of
depression.
Because Gretchen is afraid of contracting infectious diseases, she compulsively avoids shaking people’s hands or touching doorknobs. Research suggests than an especially effective treatment for her difficulty would involve
behavior therapy
cognitive-behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
Melanie’s therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, Melanie should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and shift her attention to playing a game with her preschool child. This suggestion best illustrates
cognitive-behavior therapy
In programs to treat alcoholism, clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. The therapist is using a technique known as
aversive conditioning
Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne’s therapeutic approach would best be described as
eclectic
Psychiatrists ad psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is
devient distressful distraction
ongoing patterns of behavior that interfere with normal day-to-day life are best characterized as
dysfunction
the conception of psychological disorders as biologically based sicknesses is known as the
medical model
to call psychological disorders “sicknesses” is especially likely to encourage research supporting
medical model
A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to various psychological disorders
identify
In a study by David Rosenhan (1973), researchers wre admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be “hearing voiced.” This study best illustrated the negative effects of
diagnostic labeling
When children are told that certain classmates are leaning disabled, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of these students in the classroom. This bess illustrates the danger of
Self filling process
Episodes of intense dread that last for several minutes and are accompanied by shortness of breath, trembling, dizziness, or heart palpitations are most characteristic of
panic disorder
A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by
unfocused out of control, negative feeling
Frued suggested that for those suffering a generalixed anxiety disorder, the anxiety is
free feeling
In which disorders is a person continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic arousal
Generalized anxiety disorders
Panic attacks are most closely associated with
anxiety attack
Phobias are most likely to be characterized by
anxiety disorders
Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of
allegory phobia
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and actions is called
OCD
Compulsions are best described as
Receptive behaviors
Obsessions ar
offensive unwanted thoughts
Ashley L. is so afraid of spiders that she avoids most outdoor activities and refuses to go to the basement of her house alone. Ashley appears to suffer from a(n)
phobia
A person who has agoraphobia is most likely to
stay close to home
Repeated distressing dreams and intrusive memories of an intensely fearful and life-threatening experience are symptoms most commonly associated with
PTSD
Learning theorists have suggested that compulsive behaviors are
reinforced by anxiety reduction
Experiencing physical symptoms, such as blindness or paralysis, that make no physiological sense is indicative of
conversion disorder
Hypochondriasis is characterized by
always thinking they are sick
Dissociative disorders are most likely to be characterized by
disruptions sensitive of identity
College students were asked to pretend that they were accused murderers. Under hypnosis, they typically expressed a second personality when promoted to do so by the examining psychiatrist. This most strongly suggests that dissociative identity disorder may involve
Roll playing
The major characteristic of dissociative disorders is disturbance of
Memories
What disorders are classified as a mood disorders
Depression, bipolar
The number on reason people seek mental health services is
Feeling of worthlessness are most likely to be associated with
Major depression disorder
Because it is so pervasive, ________ is often consider “the common cold” of psychological disorders
depression
A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by
Feeling of personal
Mania is most likely to be associated with
lost of family, friends and activity
Bipolar disorder is most likely to be characterized by
hopeless and extreme optimism
Internal, stable and global explanations of one’s own failures are indicative of
Petosomissum
The vicious cycle of depression is often initiated by
stressful life situations
False beliefs of persecution that may accompany schizophrenia are called
Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by
disorganized inflagment thinking
Although Mrs. Petrides usually sits passively in a motionless stupor, she sometimes repetitiously shakes her head or waves her arms. she most likely suffers from
catatonia
One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is
expressional phase
Those with narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with
An antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
Definition of Personality
a mostly enduring and unique cluster of characteristics that may change in response to different situations
Psychoanalysis Freud
Theory of personality that attributes to our thoughts/actions to unconscious motives/ conflicts.Ex:Motivated by unacceptable passions, repress, causing conflict. Iceberg Idea.
Id
In Sigmund Freud’s theory, the portion of the personality that contains our instincts and our irrational desires. It is largely unconscious and very demanding. It lives according to the pleasure principle, which is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
Oedipus Complex, Electra Complex
Boys attraction to mother/ Girls attraction to father.
Psychosexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital)
the five developmenal stages that Freud believed were initiated by changes in the id and its energy levels
Free association
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Defense mechanisms
certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstance, According to psychoanalytic theory, the mechanisms used by the ego to prevent conscious awareness of anxiety-producing impulses, thoughts, desires, etc. Examples include repression, regression, fixation, denial, projection, reaction formation, and sublimation.
Carl Jung*
Was a Swiss psychotherapist and psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the extraverted and the introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. HE has many theories, including that of introversion and extraversion, of the complex, the collective unconscious and synchronocity.
Myers-Briggs Type indicator
a personality test that taps 4 characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types, An attempt to sort people according to Carl Jung’s personality types; it has 126 questions. Most people agree with their assigned type, as each trait has strengths. However, though it is widely used for job assessment, it probably is not well-suited for that purpose.
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2), revised in 1980s; objective tests; most widely used object of personality test; originally developed as an aid in diagnosing psychiatric disorders; two versions-adult and adolescent
MMPI-2
TAT
Rorschach Inkblot test given
A projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent’s inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure
Neo-Freudians
Group of psychologists who agree with Freud’s emphasis on the impact of childhood on one’s life, but move away from a sole focus on sex and aggression., Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Erik Erikson
Karen Horney
1885-1952; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends, 1885-1952; Field: neo-Freudian & psychodynamic; Horney claimed that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts. She believed that Penis Envy doesn’t apply to girls, though she did emphasize the conscious and agree with Freud to some extent. She was the 1st femenist in pyschology.
Factor analysis
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score.
Big Five trait dimensions
CANOE, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion
Carl Rogers
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
Actual self & ideal self,
Actual self- the self we truly believe ourselves to be, ideal self- In Roger’s theory of personality, the self a person would ideally like to be.
Alfred Adler
1870-1937; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: basic mistakes, style of life, inferiority/superiority complexes, childhood influences personality formation; Studies: Birth Order
Self serving bias
Tendency to take credit for success & not take credit for failure
Culture and self descriptions
Humanistic Psychologists
Abraham Maslow, carl rogers
Trait theory
A theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS********* (Know this area very well)
Mood, personality, anxiety,
Genetic factors for the disorders
Schizoprenia, twins, parents, siblings stats,
Various Theories regarding the causes of the disorders
Symptoms of the disorders
Treatments for the disorders
Biological factors (i.e. neurotransmitters off-line, etc)
DSM-IV What does it actually evaluate? Criticisms of it??
The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
Reciprocal determinism
Bandura’s idea that though our environment affects us, we also affect our environment
Medical model & view of psychological disorders
Self-fulfilling prophecies
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true., A belief that leads to its own fulfillment
Mental Health Workers are likely to label a behavior as disordered if_________?
ongoing patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions that are deviant, istressful, and dysfunctional
Obsessions
persistent ideas, thoughts, or impulses that are unwanted and inappropriate, causing marked distress
Learning perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person’s or animal’s actions; it includes behaviorism and social- cognitive learning theories.
Biological perspective
Emphasizes genetics, the roles of various parts of the brain, and the structure and function of individual nerve cells.
Psychoanalytic perspective
Freud’s theory of personality development where children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectation. Resolution of conflicts determine psychological adjustment/growt.
Humanistic perspective
An explanation for behavior which suggests that humans strive for self-fulfillment and are motivated by a basic goodness. Developed originally by Carl Rogers.
Trait perspective
An individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his or her personality
Social-cultural perspective
Look at how our thoughts and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures. Emphasize the influence culture has on the way we think and act.
Suicidal Ideation and Alcohol
Thinking about suicide, usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones.
Suicide rates and ethnicity
3x as many females than males attempt, 3x as many men are successful. Latinos have a higher rate than European American youth. AA men are low, and AA women have the lowest suicide rate. Native Americans have the highest rate. LGBTQ ranges from 20-42%. They are 2-3x more likely to commit suicide and constitute 30% of ALL youth suicides.
Gender & depression
depression is far more common among women than men; women may seek help more often than men; submissive nature of some women lends to depression; in men, depression is masked by substance abuse and anger.
Sensing a lack of control & depression
Dissociation
A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
Dissociative Identity Disorder & role playing
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
frontal lobes and murderers
frontal, the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Transference
(psychoanalysis) the process whereby emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another
Cognitive-behavioral therapy
A popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
Systematic Desensitization
A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
Client-centered therapy
A humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger’s beliefs that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
Family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
Eclectic therapists
A therapeutic approach that draws upon principles and techniques representing different schools of therapy
Humanistic therapy
Focuses on removing obstacles that block personal growth and potential
Behavioral therapy
A style of psychotherapy in which the therapist uses the principles of classical and operant conditioning to change the person’s behavior from maladaptive to adaptive
Aversive conditioning
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
A Token economy
Joy earns a gumball sticker for every chore she completes. She puts the stickers on her gumball chart. When the gumball chart is filled, Joy gets to choose a prize out of the prize box. Joy’s parents are using, In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?
Psychiatrists
Physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
Which psychotropic medications can produce symptoms similar to Parkinson’s Disease?
Drugs that affect mental processes. Change brain neurochemistry. Three categories: anti-anxiety drugs, antidepressants, antipsychotics, but can be used cross-category. Most treatments based on trial-and-error rather than specific evidence. Some drugs don’t fall into a category: eg. lithium (bipolar), anticonvulsants (used for seizures but can also help with bipolar).
Regression toward the mean
Effect that occurs when people who score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time and their new score falls closer to the mean (average).
Smith et al. Study (1980) -results of the meta-analysis on the effectiveness of therapy.
Valium
Antianxiety
Who is most likely to profit from therapy??
Antipsychotic drugs
Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
Prozac
(fluoxetine HCl) Depression or anxiety treatment Selective serotonin receptor inhibitor
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Prolonged stress
can be harmful to the hippocampus and can affect memory, Makes a person more susceptible to infections, such as cold and flu, causes tension headaches, contributes to heart disease and stroke, can cause depression
General Adaptation Syndrome –What is it? What are the three phases??
Seyle’s concept that the body responds to stress with alarm, resistance and exhaustion
Cortisol
A stress hormone that releases sugars into the blood, helping to prepare the body to respond to a threat.
Definition of stress
The experience of a perceived threat (real or imagined) to one’s mental, physical, or spiritual well being, resulting from a series of physiological responses and adaptations.
Stress appraisal
the assessment of an event to determine whether its implications are pos, neg, or neutral, One person, alone in a house, dismisses its creaking sounds and experiences no stress; someone else suspects an intruder and becomes alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of:
Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & cortisol do what to artery walls??
Increases cardiac activity, blood pressure, glycogen breakdowna dn increase gblood glucose levels, releases fat in fat tissue
Chronic anger & impact on bodily systems
What effect do chronic anger and depression have on heart disease?, Death-Deferral Phenomenon, Heart disease
Chronic depression & impact on bodily systems
related to brain changes involving serotonin, Persistant feelings of sadness or despair., Depression with symptoms lasting at least two years
Lupus
Men -vs- Women & risks for Men -vs- Women & risks for , 2 Chronic types:discoid lupus erythematous is more mild. Lesions confined to skin and oral cavity. TX depends on severity. One TX is hydrochoroquinine. Some lupus may need premed. Chronic inflammatory disease. multi organ involvement. Affects women 8x more frequently than men and more in black women than white women.
AIDS
(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
Aerobic exercise & Depression
Mildly depressed college students who participated in aerobic exercise program showed marked decrease in depression , compared to those who did relaxation or nothing.
Aerobic exercise & Hypertension
Aerobic exercise & Hypertension , sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety, Abnormally high blood pressure
smoking why people start
teens start if their friends and relatives smoke
Smoking
Activates the Sympathetic Nervous System, increasing heart rate and blood pressure; relaxes the skeletal muscles.
Reward consequence of smoking
Caloric intake & exercise
Lower caloric intake and exercising will help you loose weight
Do diets work
NO. Diet and exercise work (lifestyle)
Dieting
Calorie restricting diets revealed that overall one-third to two-thirds of dieters regain more weight than they lost. However some people do lose weight and maintain the loss. The most effective programs include exercise. Weight cycling or yoyo dieting are dangerous for health. Liquid diets and other low calorie diets can damage the gallbladder
ego
According to Freud, the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle. , (psychoanalysis) the conscious mind
super ego
Freud; “moral watchdog”; governs behavior by reality and morality, often taught by parents, church and/or community; standards develop through interaction; conscience; ego ideal , Develops around the age of 4 or 5, internalizes the values of ones parents and society. Operates according to morality, principle. Demands perfection and serves as ones conscience. Responsible for guilt pride, shame
varenicline
Chantix – smoking cessation. Partial agonist selectively binds nAChR in brain. Sustained release of mesolimbic dopamine (reward pathway).
pseudoparkinsonism
frequently occurs as an adverse reaction to anti-psychotic drugs especially PHENOTHIAZINES, (drug-induced Parkinsonism): reversible syndrome that looks like parkinson’s, Triad of resting tremor, muscular rigidicity and bradykinesia, shuffling gait, slowed cognition, excessive salvation. Symptoms appear 3 to 9 days after initiation of treatment or dose increase. Treatment is anticholinergics
Psychologists
Specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems.
Multiple Sclerosis (M.S.)
An autoimmune disease in which the body’s natural defenses attack the myelin sheath covering the axons of neurons in the central nervous system. Symptoms include numbness, clumsiness, and blurred vision.
ADHD
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity., ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Panic disorder
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
phobia
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
OCD
A disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with and individual’s functioning.
PTSD
A disorder in which a person has lingering memories, nightmares, and other symptoms for weeks after a severely threatening, uncontrollable event, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Post traumatic growth
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
somatoform disorder
A class of psychological disorders involving physical ailments with no authentic organic basis that are due to psychological factors.
conversion disorder
A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
hypochondriasis
A somatoform disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses.
dissociative disorders
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
dissociative identity disorder
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
mood disorder
A class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes.
major depressive disorder
A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
mania
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
bipolar disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
schizophrenia
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
delusions
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
personality disorder
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
eclectic approach
An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
psychotherapy
An emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
psychoanalysis
A lengthy insight therapy that was developed by Freud and aims at uncovering conflicts and unconscious impulses through special techniques, including free association, dream analysis, and transference.
resistance
In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
interpretation
In Freud’s theory, the technique of providing a context, meaning, or cause for a specific idea, feeling, or set of behaviors; the process of tying a set of behaviors to its unconscious determinant.
psychodynamic therapy
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
insight therapies
A variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses
client centered therapy
A humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger’s beliefs that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
active listening
Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers’ client-centered therapy.
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
behavior therapy
A type of therapy that assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors
counterconditioning
A behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
exposure therapies
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
systematic desensitization
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
aversive conditioning
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
token economy
A system whereby participants earn generalized conditioned reinforcers (e.g., tokens, chips, points) as an immediate consequence for specific behaviors; participants accumulate tokens and exchange them for items and activities from a menu of backup reinforcers.
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
cognitive behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
Murder mind and frontal lobes
Reduced activation in PET scans in frontal lobes, an area of the brain that helps break impulsive, aggressive behavior.
Biopsychosocial roots of crime
Obstetrical complications, poverty equal greater likely hood of criminal offenders. Denmark
Research has indicated that rats become more vulnerable to ulcers when exposed to ________ shock.
Uncontrollable
Primates at the top of the social pecking order are less likely to contract coldlike viral infections than those with lower social status. This best illustrates the value of:
perceived control.
In convincing people that they can accurately assess their personalities, astrologers, palm readers, and graphologists take advantage of:
Barnun Effect
Research on self-perception indicates that most people:
more quickly believe flattering descriptions of themselves than unflattering feedback.
The trait of optimism is most closely related to a strong sense of:
personal control
While driving to work, Pedro hears a radio advertisement for a new restaurant. Throughout the day, the tune associated with the advertisement keeps running through his head. Pedro’s inability to stop thinking about the tune best illustrates the nature of a(n):
obsession
As a psychologist employed by a medical school, Dr. McNerney specializes in research on the causes of stress and on the effectiveness of various techniques for coping with stress. Dr. McNerney is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
health
Although Garth wants to interact sexually with his girlfriend, he also wants to avoid premarital sex. Freud would have suggested that both desires might be partially satisfied by Garth’s:
ego
Analena’s refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequence of her superior dietary self-control. This best illustrates the importance of:
reciprocal determinism
Although World War II air raids were extremely traumatic for those who experienced them, few of these people developed lasting phobic reactions to overhead planes. This fact is best explained from a(n) ________ perspective.
biological
The conception of psychological disorders as biologically based sicknesses is known as the:
medical model
Aversive conditioning involves:
associating unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
Three benefits attributed to all psychotherapies are:
hope, a new perspective, and a caring relationship.
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are called:
SSRIs.
Freud’s techniques and assumptions are most evident in today’s:
psychodynamic therapies.
perceived control
dream analysis
transference
Oral stage
1st stage. First year of life; the errogenous zone is the mouth, primary conflict is teething
anal stage
(1-3 years) Anus is associated with pleasure. Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly. Has two outcomes-anal retentive (obsessions with cleanliness, perfection and control) and anal expulsive (messy, disorganized and dirty)
phallic stage
(psychoanalysis) the third stage in a child’s development when awareness of and manipulation of the genitals is supposed to be a primary source of pleasure
latency stage
(6-12) – sexual feelings repressed; same sex friendships.
genital stage
Freud’s last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of childhood resurface (at puberty) and are often resolved during adolescence).
. During her weekly therapy sessions, Sabrina will often abruptly shift the focus of her attention and lose her train of thought. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates
resistance.
Who emphasized the importance of transference in the therapeutic process?
Sigmund Freud
Client-centered therapists emphasize the importance of
enabling clients to feel unconditionally accepted.
To help Adam reduce his fear of dogs, a therapist encourages him to physically relax and then simply imagine that he is walking toward a friendly and harmless little dog. The therapist’s technique best illustrates
systematic desensitization.
To help Janet overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. This approach to treatment best illustrates
aversive conditioning.
The goal of stress inoculation training is to reduce incapacitating anxiety by encouraging people to say positive things to themselves during anxiety-producing situations. This best illustrates a form of
humanistic therapy.???
Many physicians did not realize that bleeding was an ineffective treatment for typhoid fever until researchers made effective use of
control group
Which of the following factors is NOT a therapeutically effective component of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing?
rapidly moving one’s eyes
The most effective psychotherapists are those who
establish an empathic, caring relationship with their clients
Which of the following drugs is most likely to provide schizophrenia patients with some relief from their auditory hallucinations and paranoia?
Thorazine
Which of the following is a selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor?
Prozac
Patients receive a general anesthetic and muscle relaxant prior to treatment with
ECT
If a patient suffers uncontrollable seizures, physicians can destroy specific nerve clusters that cause or transmit the convulsions. This best illustrates a procedure known as
psychosurgery
Considering the greatest range of factors that may contribute to the process of healing is most clearly facilitated by a ________ approach to therapy.
biopsychosocial
Identifying and eliminating the socially stressful conditions that contribute to psychological disorders is of most central interest to the advocat
preventive mental health.
At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These were replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts were made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of
medical model
A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the
DSM IV TR
Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from
Generalized anxiety disorder
Years after he barely survived a terrorist attack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing signs of
PTSD
5. Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist’s suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.
Incorrect. Please see page 606.
Jeremy often misinterprets normal bodily sensations such as hunger pangs as symptoms of serious illnesses such as stomach cancer. His experience is most indicative of
hypochodria
A sudden loss of memory is a symptom of
a dissociative disorder.
Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from
mood disorder
An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with
mania episode
Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from
delusions
Q1411 Which of the following best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia
?? Incorrect. Please see page 623.
Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce
hallucinations
The relationship between the season of the year in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of ________ in this disorder.
viral infections
Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions. His behavior best illustrates
antisocial personality disorder
that 5 to
12 per
cent of men and 10 to 20 per
cent
of women in the U.S
will suffer major depression episode in lifetime
low levels of mono-amines in the brain could cause depression.
led to the development of monoamine
oxidase inhibitors as the first
class of antidepressants.
Bonnie- angry at boss, takes it out on kids
displacement
maslow- people are motived to achieve self actualization ____ concerned with personal safety and____________ achieving self esteem
AFTER AFTER??
Rogers
Unconditional positive regard
Ecomorph is to endo morph as
thin is to plump
Lie scale on test that those may try to cheat on for personality is
MMPi
most college students think they are less likely to drop out or become alcoholics
unrealistic optimism
dysthmic
depressed mood for most of the day, for at least 2 years in adults, in children and adolescents, symtpoms only need to be present for one year and can manifest as irrtiabiltiy, symptoms nevr absent from 2+ months
fear of water swim in pool 3 x week
exposure therapy
scientific knowledge
After reviewing several research articles, the clinical nurse specialist on a medical-surgical unit rewrites the procedure on assessing placement of a nasogastric tube. What source of nursing knowledge did the nurse use in this situation?
clinical knowledge
refers to the individual nurse’s personal knowledge. Results from using multiple ways of knowing while solving problems during client care provision. Manifested in the acts of practicing nurses and results from combining personal knowledge and empirical knowledge.
scientific method
A logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem
Professor Dockery
behavior medicine
Chidren who memory of parent murder
challende Freud reppression
acquisition
the initial stage of learning something
aversive conditioning
conditioning involving an unpleasant or harmful unconditioned stimulus or reinforcer
avoidance learning
an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring
behavior modification
a systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning
behavioral contract
a written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behavior modification program
behaviorism
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science and (2) emphasizes observabable behavior (not mental processes) that can be objectively measured. Emerged from the pioneering work of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner.
chaining
used to establish a specific sequence of behaviors by initially positively reinforcing each behavior in a desired sequence, then later rewarding only the completed sequence
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Also called Pavlovian conditioning
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
conditioned response
a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
conditioned stimulus
a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response
conditioning
learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment (if this, then that; first this, then that; if not this, the not that)
continuous reinforcement
occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced
cumulative recorder
creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time
discriminative stimuli
cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response
elicit
to draw forth
emit
to send forth
escape learning
an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
evaluative conditioning
efforts to transfer the emotion attached to a US to a new CS
extinction
the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
fixed-interval schedule
the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed interval has elapsed
fixed-ratio schedule
the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses
habituation
an organism’s decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
higher-order conditioning
a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
intermittent reinforcement
occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
latent learning
learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs; it becomes apparent when there is a reson todemonstrate it.
learned helplessness
the feeling of futility and passive resignation that results from the inability to avoid repeated aversive events
learning
any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
negative punishment
taking away a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
negative reinforcement
occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus
observational learning
occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation followed by imitation of others, who are called models
Skinner box
a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
phobias
irrational fears of specific objects or situations
positive punishment
adding an aversive stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
positive reinforcement
occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
preparedness
species-specific predispositions to be conditioned in certain ways and not others
primary reinforcers
events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
punishment
occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response; a process in which behavior is followed by an aversive consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated
reinforcement
occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response; a favorable outcome that strengthens a response tendency
reinforcement contingencies
the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers
renewal effect
if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place
resistance to extinction
occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been terminated
schedule of reinforcement
determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer
secondary reinforcers
events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
shaping
the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
stimulus discrimination
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
stimulus generalization
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
Thorndike’s law
if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened
trial
in classical conditioning, any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli
unconditioned response
an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
variable-interval schedule
the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed
variable-ratio schedule
the reinforcer is given after a variable number of non-reinforced responses
Clinical Psychologists
Psychologists who specialize in the treatment of full-fledged disorders
Psychiatrists
Physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders
Insight Therapies
Therapies that involve verbal interactions intended to enhance a client’s self-knowledge and thus produce healthful changes in personality and behavior
Psychoanalysis
An insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference
Free Association
A technique in which clients are urged to spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings with as little personal censorship as possible
Dream Analysis
A technique for interpreting the symbolic meaning of dreams
Interpretation
A therapist’s attempts to explain the inner significance of a client’s thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors
Resistance
A client’s largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
Transference
A process that occurs when clients start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives
Client-centered Therapy
An insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy
Cognitive Therapy
An insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs
Group Therapy
The simultaneous treatment of several clients
Behavior Therapies
Therapies that involve the application of learning principles to change a client’s maladaptive behaviors
Systematic Desensitization
A behavior therapy used to reduce anxiety responses through counterconditioning
Aversion Therapy
A behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response
Spontaneous Remission
Recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment
Social Skills Training
A behavior therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills and which emphasizes shaping, modeling, and behavioral rehearsal
Biomedical Therapies
Therapies that use physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders
Psychopharmacotherapy
The treatment of mental disorders with drug therapy
Antianxiety Drugs
Drugs that relieve tension, apprehension, and nervousness
Antipsychotic Drugs
Drugs that gradually reduce psychotic symptoms
Tardive Dyskinesia
A neurological disorder marked by chronic tremors and involuntary spastic movements
Antidepressant Drugs
Drugs that gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of depression
Mood Stabilizers
Drugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorder
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
A treatment in which electric shock is used to produce cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions
Mental Hospitals
A medical institution specializing in the provision of inpatient care for psychological disorders
Eclecticism
Involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy, instead of just committing to one system
Deinstitutionalization
Transferring the treatment of mental illness form inpatient institutions to community-based facilities that emphasize outpatient care
Placebo Effects
Occur when people’s expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they received fake treatment
Regression Toward the Mean
Occurs when people who score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time, and their new scores fall closer to the mean
Counseling Psychologists
Psychologists who specialize in the treatment of everyday adjustment problems
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments
Employ varied combinations of verbal interventions and behavior modifications techniques to help clients change maladaptive patters of thinking
Sigmund Freud
Developed a systematic treatment procedure, which he called psychoanalysis (who)
Carl Rogers
The developer of client-centered therapy (who)
Aaron Beck
Noted for his work in the development of cognitive therapy (who)
Joseph Wolpe
The developer of systematic desensitization (who)
Dorthea Dix
One of the early reformers who helped to establish state-funded mental hospitals (who)
Insight
Therapists who emphasize “talk therapy” in treatment employ the _________ approach to psychotherapy
Behavior
Therapists who emphasize the application of learning principles in treatment use the ________ approach to psychotherapy
Insight Therapy
John suffers from chronic anxiety. He tends to worry constantly and is uncomfortable in a wide variety of situations. He decides to seek therapy. John put considerable thought into what he wants to gain from therapy. John believes that is he learns why he is so anxious he will be better able to cope. Based on John’s beliefs, he is most likely to seek a therapist that emphasizes the ____________ approach
Providing a supportive climate for clients
Client-centered therapy emphasizes
Resolve unconscious conflicts
Goals of client-centered therapy include helping clients do all of the following except
The recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses
Psychoanalysis is a therapy that emphasizes
Biomedical Therapy
John suffers from chronic anxiety. He tends to worry constantly and is uncomfortable in a wide variety of situations. He decides to seek therapy. John put considerable thought into what he wants to gain from therapy. John’s primary goal is to simply reduce the level of anxiety and tension he is experiencing Based on John’s beliefs, he is most likely to seek a therapist that emphasizes the ____________ approach
All the diverse approaches
The text uses the term psychotherapy to refer to _______ used in the treatment of mental disorders and psychological problems
Interpretation
Psychoanalysts use _____ to help clients gain insight regarding the unconscious meaning of their free associations and dreams
People with less education; people with more education
Which of the following statements is false? ______ are more likely than ________ to receive psychotherapy
Behavior Therapy
John suffers from chronic anxiety. He tends to worry constantly and is uncomfortable in a wide variety of situations. He decides to seek therapy. John put considerable thought into what he wants to gain from therapy. John believes that if he can learn to calm himself down when he finds himself in anxiety-producing situations (like taking a psychology exam) he will be better able to cope. Based on John’s beliefs, he is most likely to seek a therapist that emphasizes the ____________ approach
Inconsistency between one’s self-concept and reality
Carl Rogers believed that psychological disorders are caused by
Emotion Therapies
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major categories of psychotherapy?
Psychiatrists typically devote less of their time to relatively serious disorders than clinical psychologists
Which of the following statements concerning psychiatrists is false?
Transference
Doris thinks she is in love with her therapist and has begun to respond to him in that way. Doris is displaying feelings and behavior that psychoanalysts refer to as
Free Association
Laura is encouraged by her therapist to talk about absolutely anything that comes to her mind. Over the course of each session as her train of thought wanders, she usually talks about a variety of topics. From time to time her therapists comments on her statements. Laura’s therapist can be best described as using the technique of
Unconditional Positive Regard
No matter what Sam tells his therapist concerning his failures or successes, weaknesses or strengths, spiteful behaviors or good deeds, vengeful feelings or positive emotions, his therapist is very accepting of him as a person. Sam’s therapist is showing him
Resistance
Largely unconscious defensive maneuvers by a client intended to hinder the progress of therapy best describes
Biomedical
Therapists who emphasize altering an individual’s physiological functioning in treatment use the ______ approach to psychotherapy
Psychoanalysis
Freud’s approach for the treatment of psychological disorders is
Antianxiety Drugs
What kind of drugs are Valium, Xanax, Buspar?
Antipsychotic Drugs
What kind of drugs are Thorazine, Mellaril, Haldol?
Thorazine
Which medicine causes Tardive Dyskinesia?
Antidepressants
What kind of drugs are Elavil, Tofranil, Nardil, Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft?

1. Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is A. aggressive, persistent, and intentional. B. selfish, habitual, and avoidable. C. deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional. D. biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change. C 2. Ongoing patterns of …

1. Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is A. aggressive, persistent, and intentional. B. selfish, habitual, and avoidable. C. deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional. D. biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change. C 2. Ongoing patterns of …

1) What is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of abnormal behaviour? A) Psychobiology B) Developmental psychology C) Psychopathology D) Health psychology C) Psychopathology 2) Ellie is a graduate student in psychology at the local university. …

If you wanted a career in which you focus on detecting, assessing, and treating abnormal patterns of functioning, you should look into becoming a: clinical practitioner a student in an abnormal psychological class receives the highest test grade in a …

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