History: President Roosevelt and Fiscal Decisions

What Characterized the period of Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover Described as a New Era in 1920?
A Freewheeling economy and a heightened sense of individualism
America’s return to a peacetime economy in 1920 and 1921 was marked by
a 20% unemployment rate, the highest to date
In its effort to creat prosperity at home the Harding administration supported
high tariffs to protect American businesses
President Harding’s administration was characterized by
scandals that touched many members of his administration
President Calvin Coolidge’s economic policy included
reductions in government regulation of business
What did the presidential election of 1924 in which Coolidge defeated JOhn W, Davis and La Follette reveal about the priorities of American voters?
The election results revealed voters lack of support for labor unions the regulation of business and the protection of civil liberties
Harding’s most ambitious foreign policy initiative was
establishing a balance naval power among Britian France Japan and Italy
What was the purpose of the Dawes Plan which was instituted in 1924?
Plan cut Germanys annual reparations payments in half and initiated freash American loans to Germany
Which industry formed the keystone of the American economy in the 1920s
The automobile industry
The outcome of the shift toward repetitive assembly line work and specialized management divisions in 1920 was
a tremendous increase in business producitivity and overall efficiency
Who was responsible for the creation of welfare capitalism in the 1920s, and why did they use it?
Businesses created welfare capitalism to encourage workers’ loyalty to the company.
What did the authors of Middletown conclude from their study of life in a small midwestern town in the 1920s?
C) The United States had developed a culture in which everything hinged on money.
Which relatively new industry in the 1920s linked the possession of material goods to the fulfillment of spiritual and emotional needs?
D) Advertising
Which element of the American economy during the 1920s lay at the heart of its fundamental lack of stability?
C) Consumption
Many Americans in the 1920s view Sigmund Freud’s pioneering work in the psychology of the unconscious as
a justification for impulsive behavior.
In the United States, the flapper of the 1920s represented
D) a challenge to women’s traditional gender roles.
Which of the following statements exemplifies President Harding’s stance on prohibition in the 1920s?
B) Liquor flowed freely in the White House during his administration.
Which of the following statements describes the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921, which gave federal assistance to states seeking to reduce high infant mortality rates?
D) It was the high point of women’s political influence in the 1920s.
One factor that diluted the influence of women in politics in the 1920s was
A) the lack of unity around the issues, which diminished women voters’ impact.
During the 1920s, most American women who worked had
B) office and sales jobs.
The image of the new woman in American society in the 1920s
C) was felt by all women, even those who believed in traditional gender roles.
22. When black veterans of World War I returned home from their deployments, they found
C) race riots and economic hardship.
23. Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association urged black Americans in the 1920s to
B) rediscover their African heritage and take pride in their own culture and achievements.
24. Which of the following describes the outpouring of African American literature and art in New York City in the 1920s?
D) The era in which African American literature and art flooded New York was known as the Harlem Renaissance.
25. The rapid growth of radio in the United States between 1922 and 1929 was funded by
D) advertisers, who wanted to reach prospective customers in their own homes.
26. What did popular culture and consumer goods have in common in the 1920s?
D) Both were mass-produced and mass consumed.
27. Which of the following statements describes professional baseball in the 1920s?
D) The game attracted players and spectators from the working class.
28. In the 1920s, Knute Rockne and Red Grange were associated with
C) college and professional football.
29. In 1927, Charles Lindbergh became the first person to
B) fly nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean.
30. One result of the loosening of the traditional bonds of community, religion, and family in the United States in the 1920s was
C) the emergence of youth as a distinct social class with their own culture.
31. For which group of Americans did authors Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, William Faulkner, and Sinclair Lewis speak?
C) Critics of American anti-intellectualism and materialism
32. During the 1920s, rural Americans perceive cities as
B) the sources of vice, religious threats, and other assaults on traditional values.
33. The purpose of the immigration laws of the 1920s, including the Johnson-Reed Act, was to
B) place strict limits on immigration.
34. What did the outcome of the Sacco and Vanzetti trial suggest about the United States in the 1920s?
D) Antiforeign hysteria was rampant in many areas of American life.
35. What accounted for the reemergence of the Ku Klux Klan in the United States in 1915?
A) The widespread belief that blacks, immigrants, radicals, feminists, Catholics, and Jews threatened traditional American values.
36. Which of the following describes the Ku Klux Klan of the mid-1920s?
D) The KKK had a strong influence on politics in California, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Texas.
37. The central issue addressed by the highly publicized Scopes trial of 1925 was
B) the legality of the teaching of Darwin’s theory of evolution in Tennessee.
38. How did Americans respond to Alfred E. Smith’s candidacy for president in 1928?
C) As a symbol of all they feared—Catholicism, immigration, cities, and liberal attitudes
39. Which words from President Herbert Hoover’s 1929 inaugural address would turn out to be ironic in light of events during his presidency?
A) “Given a chance to go forward with the policies of the last eight years, we shall soon with the help of God be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nation.”
40. When Herbert Hoover took office in 1929, he brought to the presidency
A) modern ideas about how businesses should operate.
41. Which of the following characterized the U.S. economy when Herbert Hoover moved into the White House in 1929?
A) There was a huge disparity in wealth between rich and poor.
42. Among the first signs of economic distress in the United States in the mid-1920s was
D) a slowdown in new construction and in automobile sales.
43. The fundamental cause of the Great Depression in the United States was
B) problems in the American and international economies.
44. What did President Hoover do to offer a solution to the human problems of the depression in 1929?
A) He instituted a voluntary recovery plan, protective tariffs, and some government intervention, including public works projects and small federal loans to states.
45. The purpose of the President Hoover’s Reconstruction Finance Corporation, created in 1932, was to
C) lend money to endangered American banks, insurance companies, and railroads.
46. By the early 1930s, unemployed workers were responding to the Great Depression by
C) becoming increasingly outraged and turning toward militant forms of protest.
47. Which group was hardest hit by the Great Depression?
D) The unemployed, tenant farmers, and sharecroppers
48. How did the Great depression affect the American family in the 1930s?
C) It created resentment among men, who lost their jobs more often than women did.
49. The Hoover administration responded to the World War I veterans who asked for the immediate payment of their pension or bonus
A) by ordering the U.S. army to forcibly evict them from their camp on the edge of Washington, D.C.
1. Florence Owens and her children traveled through California in the 1930s to
B) plant, cultivate, and harvest crops in the state’s agricultural fields.
2. What was the Federal government’s response to the 1936 crisis at the pea pickers camp in Nipomo, California?
A) The government sent 20,000 pounds of food to the camp.
3. What was Franklin Roosevelt’s political experience before he won the presidential election of 1932?
C) He had served as President Wilson’s assistant secretary of the navy and as governor of New York.
4. In order to win the presidential election in 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had to
D) unite Democrats from the Northeast, South, and West.
5. What was the name of President Roosevelt’s signature program?
D) The New Deal
6. What made the election of 1932 particularly historic?
C) Franklin Delano Roosevelt won 57 percent of the popular vote, and Democrats swept both houses of Congress.
7. To what was President Roosevelt referring when he said, “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself”?
D) The terror caused by the depression
8. What was the three-part goal of Roosevelt’s New Deal?
C) Relief, recovery, and reform
9. Which woman became the New Deal’s unofficial ambassador in 1933?
D) Eleanor Roosevelt
10. What belief lay at the foundation of Roosevelt’s New Deal?
D) Capitalism held the solution to the nation’s economic crisis.
11. The Emergency Banking Act of 1933 strengthened American banks by
D) releasing federal funds to bolster the banks’ assets.
12. Which of the following describes the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation?
B) It guaranteed bank customers that the federal government would reimburse them for deposits if their bank failed.
13. What strategy did President Roosevelt use to restore America’s confidence in government and the private banking system?
B) Roosevelt broadcast his reassuring fireside chats on the radio.
14. What was the name of the agency President Roosevelt established in 1933 to provide direct relief to more than four million households?
A) Federal Emergency Relief Association (FERA)
15. The purpose of the Franklin Roosevelt’s Civilian Conservation Corps was tov
B) give young men government jobs conserving natural resources.
16. What was the purpose of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) program that began in 1933?
B) The TVA helped supply jobs and power to impoverished rural communities.
17. The New Deal made significant improvements in the quality of life in rural America by
D) providing electricity to rural communities through the Rural Electrification Administration.
18. How did the Agricultural Adjustment and Farm Credit Acts of 1935 aim to help American farmers?
C) The acts paid farmers not to grow crops and provided long-term credit on mortgaged farm property.
19. What made it impossible for the National Recovery Administration (NRA) to regulate business effectively?
B) The codes written by industry leaders tended to serve the interests of corporations only.
20. Opponents of the New Deal included business leaders and
A) some labor leaders.
21. What event dealt the final blow to the National Recovery Administration in May 1935?
B) The Supreme Court ruled that the agency was unconstitutional.
22. In 1936, the Supreme Court supported agricultural processors and distributors when it ruled against the
D) Agricultural Adjustment Act.
23. Why didn’t southern tenant farmers benefit from the programs developed by the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Commodity Credit Corporation, and the Farm Credit Act?
C) Landlords controlled the distribution of the benefits and denied benefits to many of their tenants.
24. Where did migrant workers seeking to escape the chronic drought of the Dust Bowl typically look for work in the 1930s?
A) California
25. Father Charles Coughlin, an opponent of the New Deal, placed the blame for the nation’s economic crisis on
B) Communists, bankers, and capitalists.
26. Dr. Francis Townsend and Huey P. Long both opposed the New Deal, calling instead for
A) the redistribution of income through taxation.
27. In 1935, when President Roosevelt had the congressional majorities to support him, he began to
C) enact major new social welfare programs.
28. Which New Deal agency employed artists, musicians, actors, journalists, academics, poets, and novelists?
B) Works Progress Administration
29. The purpose of the National Labor Relations Act, or Wagner Act, when it was enacted in 1934, was to
A) create the National Labor Relations Board and guarantee workers the right to organize.
30. The Wagner Act helped which of the following unions to mobilize organizing drives in major industries?
B) The Committee for Industrial Organization
31. In 1937, disgruntled workers at the General Motors plant in Flint, Michigan, acted on their grievances by
C) staging a sit-down strike.
32. What was the outcome of the strike at Republic Steel outside Chicago in 1937?
D) Strikers halted their organizing campaign after the police attacked and killed ten of them.
33. The framers of Social Security agreed to fund the program
B) with tax contributions from workers and their employers.
34. The Social Security Act of 1935 provided
A) old-age pensions, grants to states for dependent mothers and children, and unemployment insurance.
35. What impact did New Deal programs have on the average national unemployment rate during the 1930s?
C) The programs reduced the average unemployment rate, but it remained high, at about 17 percent, through the 1930s.
36. Why did Roosevelt fail to push for more ambitious reforms for black Americans?
B) He could not afford to lose the support of southern Democrats for his New Deal agenda.
37. Which of the following describes the experiences of Mexican Americans during the 1930s?
D) Thousands of Mexican Americans were deported, many with their American-born children.
38. What was the outcome of the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act on Native Americans?
C) It restored Indians’ right to own land communally and have greater control over their own affairs.
39. By 1935, how did many American radicals—including Communists and socialists—respond to the New Deal?
D) They had begun to support the New Deal’s relief programs and its encouragement of labor unions.
40. Franklin Roosevelt perceived the election of 1936 as a contest between
A) the heirs of Alexander Hamilton and the heirs of Thomas Jefferson.
41. What accounted for Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s landslide victory in the 1936 presidential election?
C) The New Deal’s extreme popularity among American voters
42. President Roosevelt’s plan to remove judicial obstacles to New Deal reforms in his second term of office
B) was popularly known as court packing.
43. President Roosevelt’s plan for enlarging the Supreme Court
A) became unnecessary when four conservative judges retired.
44. To change the economy in 1937, President Roosevelt
B) cut funds for relief projects and decreased deficit spending.
45. What was the outcome of President Roosevelt’s fiscal decisions in 1937?
C) The country suffered a recession.
46. In his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, John Maynard Keynes argued that
A) government intervention is needed in bad economic times to pump enough money into the economy to revive production and increase consumption.
47. The goal of the New Deal’s Farm Security Administration, created in 1937, was to
B) help tenant farmers become independent landowners.
48. Which of the following statements describes the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938?
C) It set standards for wages and hours.
49. What occurrence proved that opposition to the New Deal had increased by the end of 1938?
C) Republicans gained seven seats in the Senate and eighty in the House in the congressional elections.
1. Franklin Roosevelt modeled his own vision of international relations on the guiding principles of
D) Woodrow Wilson.
2. During the 1930s, the tide of fascism, militarism, and violent nationalism that most concerned the United States rose in
C) Italy, Japan, and Germany.
3. A reluctant isolationist, President Roosevelt believed during the 1930s that
D) free trade was necessary for America’s domestic prosperity.
4. The goal of Franklin Roosevelt’s good neighbor policy was to
A) form a less belligerent, more cooperative relationship with Latin America.
5. What factors made it possible for Latin American dictators such as Anastasio Somoza and Fulgencio Batista to gain and maintain power?
B) Somoza and Batista had private support from U.S. businessmen and tacit support from the Roosevelt administration.
6. What was the conclusion of the Nye committee’s 1933 report on World War I?
B) The greed of American munitions makers, bankers, and financiers was responsible for the nation’s entry into World War I.
7. The objective of the Neutrality Act of 1937 was to
B) prevent increasing American involvement in European affairs.
8. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade of 1936 was
C) a group of Americans who enlisted to fight with the Spanish Republicans against the Nationalist rebels in Spain.
9. Which of the following occurred as a result of the Nazi-Soviet treaty of nonaggression in August 1939?
A) Hitler’s invasion of Poland
10. What event sparked the beginning of World War II?
D) Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939
11. The Maginot Line of World War II was
C) a concrete fortification that separated much of France from Germany.
12. What was the significance of the Battle of Britain in 1940?
A) The British victory handed Hitler his first major defeat.
13. The purpose of the Lend-Lease Act of 1941 was to
B) make arms, munitions, and other supplies available to Britain.
14. President Roosevelt justified the proposed Lend-Lease Act in January 1941
C) by citing the need to defend freedom of speech, freedom to worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear, and other ideals.
15. In the Atlantic Charter in August of 1941, the United States and England agreed to
C) protect the freedom of the seas, free trade, and the right of national self-determination.
16. In the Tripartite Pact of 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan agreed to
A) form a defensive alliance among imperial powers.
17. The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, was part of the Japanese plan to
A) knock out a significant portion of American naval bases in the Pacific.
18. What was the immediate consequence of the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941?
B) Congress endorsed President Roosevelt’s call for a declaration of war.
19. President Roosevelt authorized the roundup and internment of all Americans of Japanese descent in 1942 because
B) a large number of people believed that Japanese Americans were potential sources of espionage and subversion.
20. About how many soldiers and sailors served in the U.S. armed forces by the end of World War II?
C) 16 million
21. How many American women saw combat duty during World War II?
D) 0
22. Which of the following statements describes the relationship between American ethnic minorities and the armed forces during World War II?
C) They fought in large numbers in the armed forces despite discriminatory treatment.
23. Which group was forced to train in segregated camps, live in segregated barracks, and serve in segregated units during World War II?
A) African Americans
24. Who headed the War Production Board, which set production priorities and pushed for maximum output during World War II?
C) Business leaders who were paid almost nothing for their efforts
25. How did American labor unions respond to the production demands of World War II?
D) Labor unions granted the government’s request that they pledge not to strike.
26. Japanese admiral Isoroku Yamamoto’s fundamental military strategy after the attack on Pearl Harbor was to
C) quickly conquer and secure Japan’s targets, before the United States could mobilize its manpower and resources.
27. During the Bataan Death March of 1942,
B) Japanese soldiers forced U.S. and Filipino soldiers to march sixty-five miles to a concentration camp.
28. The naval battles in the Coral Sea and at Midway Island signaled to the American military that
D) Japanese domination of the Pacific was weakening.
29. What technological development ultimately led Hitler to withdraw the infamous U-boats from the North Atlantic?
C) Radar detector
30. At their meeting in Casablanca in January 1943, Allied leaders Roosevelt and Churchill
C) announced that they would accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of Germany and Italy.
31. What was the significance of the U.S and British landing in Sicily in July 1943?
D) The landing marked the end of Mussolini’s fascism.
32. Which of the following describes the majority of American women who entered the labor force during World War II?
A) They were primarily single women.
33. Women who remained at home contributed to the American war effort by
A) planting Victory Gardens of home-grown vegetables.
34. The Double V campaign called for both victory in the war and victory for
C) African Americans fighting racial prejudice at home.
35. President Roosevelt responded to A. Philip Randolph’s plans to organize a march of 100,000 on Washington, D.C., in 1941 by
B) authorizing the Committee on Fair Employment Practices.
36. What did African Americans who migrated to take jobs in defense industries experience in their new locations?
C) Widespread racial violence
37. What did Congress’s elimination of the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1942 and 1943 indicate?
B) The increasing strength of the conservative coalition
38. What explained the reluctance of the United States to accept Jewish refugees from Nazi oppression?
A) Anti-Semitism
39. Why did the United States fail to act on reports of Hitler’s genocidal atrocities?
B) The American public and its officials believed the reports were exaggerated.
40. The Allied assault against the German army on the beaches of Normandy on June 6, 1944, is commonly known as
B) D Day.
41. As the Allies closed in on him in December 1944, Hitler ordered a desperate counterattack through Belgium known as
D) the Battle of the Bulge.
42. In February 1945, the Big Three met at Yalta to discuss
A) postwar self-determination for the people of Eastern Europe.
43. Who succeeded President Roosevelt in the White House after his death on April 12, 1945?
B) Harry Truman
44. How did American casualties in Europe in World War II compare to Soviet casualties?
D) The United States had about 136,000 casualties and the USSR had 9 million.
45. What occurrence made April 30, 1945, a turning point in the war?
C) Adolf Hitler killed himself in his underground bunker.
46. What was demonstrated during the six-month battle to force the withdrawal of Japanese forces from Guadalcanal in February 1943?
B) It would be extremely costly and difficult to defeat Japan.
47. The capture of Okinawa in 1944 was especially crucial to Allied forces because
B) they planned to make it the launching site for an attack on the Japanese mainland.
48. The primary mission of Japanese kamikaze pilots was to
C) defend Okinawa from U.S. troops.
49. Why did American scientists begin to develop a superbomb in 1942?
D) They didn’t want the Germans to develop one first.
50. The United States dropped a second atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki only three days after the attack on Hiroshima
D) because Nagasaki was the center of Japan’s wartime military and government operations.
1. One factor that aroused Soviet suspicions of the Western Allies during World War II was
D) the Western Allies’ long delay in opening a second front in Western Europe.
2. By 1947, the intense rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States was called
B) the Cold War.
3. What impact did World War II have on the Soviet Union?
D) World Ward II killed more than twenty million Soviet citizens, and weakened the country’s economy.
4. Joseph Stalin’s primary goal after World War II was to
C) ensure friendly governments on its borders in Eastern Europe.
5. What allowed the United States to emerge from World War II as the most powerful nation in the world?
C) It had both a monopoly on atomic weapons and expanded production capacity.
6. The first instance of Soviet expansionism after World War II was in
A) Poland and Bulgaria.
7. Why did Joseph Stalin feel that U.S. foreign policy after World War II was hypocritical?
B) Americans were demanding democratic elections in Eastern Europe but supporting friendly dictatorships in Latin America.
8. The Allies divided Germany in 1946 because
A) they could not agree on the country’s future.
9. What did British prime minister Winston Churchill suggest about the Soviet Union in his iron curtain speech of 1946?
C) Its suppression of the popular will in eastern and central Europe had isolated those regions from the free world.
10. Who was the author of the 1946 rationale for a hard-line U.S. foreign policy of containment?
D) Career diplomat George F. Kennan
11. The U.S. government’s policy of containment was first implemented when President Truman asked Congress to send military and economic missions and $400 million in aid to
C) Greece and Turkey.
12. What message did President Truman emphasize when he presented the domino theory to Congress in 1947?
A) He warned that if Greece fell to the rebels, confusion and disorder might well spread throughout the entire Middle East.
13. European nations used most of the funds provided by the American Marshall Plan of 1948 to
B) stimulate their economies and buy American products.
14. In February 1948, while Congress debated the Marshall Plan, the Soviet Union was
C) staging a coup and installing a Communist regime in Czechoslovakia.
15. How did President Truman respond to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin in 1948 and 1949?
A) He ordered the airlifting of more than two million tons of goods to West Berliners.
16. Why did President Truman approve the development of a hydrogen bomb in 1949?
C) The United States had confirmed that the Soviets had detonated an atomic bomb.
17. The National Security Council was established to
A) advise the president on defense planning.
18. The purpose of the National Security Act of 1947 was to
C) place oversight of all branches of the military under the secretary of defense.
19. The peacetime military alliance created by the United States, Canada, and Western European countries to deter attacks from the Soviet Union was the
B) North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
20. The Central Intelligence Agency was established to
C) gather information relevant to the national defense and to perform any functions and duties related to intelligence affecting the national security.
21. In the post-World War II era, the term third world was used to refer to
D) those outside the Western and Eastern blocs that had yet to develop industrial economies.
22. The purpose of President Truman’s Point IV Program was to
B) provide technical aid to developing nations.
23. What occurred with the flight of the Chinese Nationalists from China in 1949?
D) The People’s Republic of China was established.
24. How did the U.S. government respond to the fall of the Nationalist government in China?
D) The United States refused to grant official recognition to the Communist government and aided the exiled Nationalists.
25. How did the collapse of the Nationalist government in China influence American actions in Asia in 1949?
A) The focus of U.S. foreign policy shifted to Japan.
26. The United States ended its official occupation of Japan after World War II
B) in 1949, as soon as it was clear China would not become an American economic center in Asia.
27. What was President Truman’s initial response to the Israeli declaration of statehood in 1948?
B) Truman quickly recognized Israel and pledged to make its defense a cornerstone of U.S. policies in the Middle East.
28. Which of the following were the most serious domestic problems facing the United States immediately after World War II?
C) Inflation and labor relations
29. The purpose of the Employment Act of 1946 was to
A) formalize the U.S. government’s responsibility for keeping the economy healthy.
30. In the post-World War II economy,
C) women’s earnings saw significant decline.
31. Which of the following describes the pattern of labor strikes in the United States in 1946?
B) Labor strikes increased public exasperation with and hostility toward unions.
32. Which of the following was among the factors responsible for the postwar economic boom in the United States?
A) War-torn countries’ spending on American products
33. The GI Bill help to boost the U.S. economy after World War II
B) with the provision of job training, education, and low-interest home loans.
34. How did the experience of World War II influence African American veterans returning from overseas?
C) Serving in World War II increased their resolve to fight racial injustices in the United States.
35. What impact did the Cold War have on race relations in the United States?
B) It heightened American leaders’ sensitivity to the national importance of racial issues.
36. The executive order President Truman issued in 1948 during his reelection campaign was designed to
D) desegregate every aspect of the American armed services.
37. How did President Truman’s efforts to advance the cause of blacks’ civil rights compare with those of previous presidents?
B) They were bold and forward looking.
38. The founding of the American GI Forum in 1948 and subsequent efforts by Mexican Americans to challenge their segregation in public schools demonstrated
A) the growing mobilization of Mexican Americans in the Southwest.
39. What was the outcome of the congressional elections of 1946?
B) Republicans captured Congress.
40. Which of the following describes the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act over Truman’s veto in 1947?
A) The Act was a huge blow to American labor.
41. What accounted for Harry Truman’s victory in the presidential election of 1948?
C) Broad support for his foreign policy and the popularity of New Deal reform led to Truman’s victory.
42. Congress rejected a number of President Truman’s Fair Deal proposals, including
D) civil rights measures and federal aid to education.
43. Which of these men was the most infamous crusader against communism after World War II?
C) Joseph R. McCarthy
44. During the anti-Communist scare of the late 1940s and early 1950s,
B) federal employees were investigated, people were blacklisted, and homosexuals were harassed.
45. U.S. military action in Korea in 1950 was triggered by
A) The invasion of South Korea by troops from Communist North Korea.
46. Why did U.S. policymakers support a non-Communist South Korea?
D) They believed South Korea was key to the revival of the Japanese economy and crucial to U.S. defense strategy in Asia.
47. Which of the following describes President Truman’s decision to deploy 1.8 million troops in the Korean War without a formal declaration of war from Congress?
A) Truman’s action violated the spirit if not the letter of the Constitution.
48. Which of the following describes Truman’s authorization for General MacArthur to lead his troops across the thirty-eighth parallel in Korea?
B) It was the only time during the Cold War that the United States tried to roll back communism by force.
49. In his campaign for the presidency in 1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower emphasized
D) the threat of communism and the need to win decisively in Korea.
50. One consequence of the Korean War was a
C) massive increase in U.S. defense spending.
1. Which of the following describes Eisenhower’s politics of the middle way in the early 1950s?
A) Eisenhower pledged to govern by compromise and consensus.
2. What did anti-Communist zealot Senator Joseph McCarthy do that led to his condemnation by the U.S. Senate?
D) McCarthy conducted televised hearings in which he charged that the U.S. army was full of Communists.
3. What was the Eisenhower administration’s approach to social welfare programs?
C) It allowed the welfare state to grow and the federal government to take on new projects.
4. What was President Eisenhower’s most important and far-reaching domestic initiative?
B) The passage of the Interstate Highway and Defense System Act of 1956
5. President Eisenhower believed the development of nuclear power for domestic purposes should
A) be left in the hands of private enterprise.
6. The three-part program for compensating, terminating, and relocating Native Americans reflected the Eisenhower administration’s commitment to
D) limiting the scope of federal government activity.
7. In the context of President Eisenhower’s policy toward Native Americans, termination meant
C) ending the federal government’s special relationship with the Indians by transferring jurisdiction over tribal lands to state and local governments.
8. One unintended consequence of the federal government’s program to relocate Native Americans was
A) the emergence of a militant pan-Indian movement two decades later.
9. In what direction did Eisenhower, the first Republican to serve as president after the New Deal, take the federal government during his second term?
C) He left the size and functions of the federal government intact.
10. The key to President Eisenhower’s New Look in foreign policy was
B) a smaller conventional army bolstered by strength in airpower and nuclear weapons.
11. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles supported a foreign policy strategy of
B) going to the brink of war to halt the Soviets’ efforts to extend their territory any further.
12. When Hungarian freedom fighters mounted a revolt against the Soviet-controlled government of their country in 1956, the Eisenhower administration
C) did nothing, because Eisenhower was unwilling to risk American soldiers or possible nuclear war.
13. President Eisenhower viewed communism in Vietnam as
C) a force that had to be stopped before it spread to Japan, Taiwan, and the Philippines.
14. Between 1955 and 1961, the United States spent $800 million in South Vietnam, most of it to
B) fund the South Vietnamese army.
15. In the 1950s, the CIA intervened in the internal affairs of
C) Iran, Guatemala, and Cuba.
16. Why did many Cuban people support the uprising led by Fidel Castro against Fulgencio Batista in 1959?
B) Many Cuban people had a strong desire for political and economic autonomy.
17. One of the major difficulties the Eisenhower administration had in negotiating with certain Middle Eastern countries was
A) the tendency of those countries to ask for aid from both the United States and the Soviet Union.
18. The purpose of the Eisenhower Doctrine was to
A) aid any Middle Eastern nation requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism.
19. The United States reacted to the Soviet Union’s successful launch of Sputnik in 1957
B) with a feeling of inferiority about U.S. scientific and technological development.
20. What was the military-industrial complex Eisenhower warned Americans about before he left office?
C) An association between the military and defense contractors to spend more money on increasingly powerful weapons systems
21. The output of American farms increased between 1940 and 1960, while the number of farmworkers
B) decreased by nearly one-third.
22. How did union membership as a percentage of the labor force in the United States change during the 1950s?
C) It peaked at just over 27 percent in 1957.
23. What impact did technological advances have on American industry in the 1950s?
C) They chipped away at the number of jobs in the steel, copper, and aluminum industries.
24. In the 1950s, most employed American women worked in
B) clerical, service, and domestic jobs.
25. Levittown, New York, was
A) an example of the assembly-line approach to producing affordable housing.
26. In most cities during the 1950s, the black population
B) increased by 50 percent as African Americans sought economic opportunities.
27. One reason many Americans moved to the Sun Belt in the 1950s was
D) the move toward an automobile-based society, which made it easier for most people to move south and west.
28. Why were the South and West sometimes referred to as the Gun Belt?
B) The regions had captured the lion’s share of Cold War spending for the production of bombers and missiles.
29. The smog that plagued Los Angeles in the 1950s was the result of
A) sprawling urban and suburban settlements without efficient public transportation.
30. Operation Wetback revealed that most white Americans
B) generally opposed the permanent immigration of Mexicans.
31. Which of the following describes higher education in the United States between 1940 and 1960?
A) It became increasingly available to veterans, the middle class, and African Americans.
32. One cause of the unparalleled material abundance of the United States in the 1950s was
B) a population increase of almost 30 million.
33. In her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan argued that
A) the idealization of domesticity pressured women to seek fulfillment in serving others.
34. Some critics suggested that the reason for renewed interest in religion during the 1950s was
B) Americans’ need for conformity and for social outlets.
35. Between 1950 and 1960, the percentage of American families with television sets grew from less than 10 percent to
D) almost 90 percent.
36. In which of the following ways did television affect U.S. politics in the 1950s?
B) It allowed candidates to appeal directly to voters in their homes, which elevated the importance of politicians’ personal attractiveness.
37. What did Federal Communications Commission chairman Newton Minow call television after he surveyed what it offered to Americans in 1961?
D) A vast wasteland
38. What was sociologist David Riesman’s criticism of American society in his 1950 book The Lonely Crowd?
A) Riesman lamented the growing conformity in American society.
39. How did rock and roll challenge American social and cultural norms in the 1950s?
B) It was sexually suggestive.
40. Why did Alfred Kinsey’s best-selling books Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female provoke a firestorm of outrage in the 1950s?
B) Kinsey refused to make moral judgments on his findings that homosexuality and adultery were not uncommon.
41. The work of 1950s authors Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac was known for
B) rejecting almost every aspect of the mainstream culture.
42. The revolution in the visual arts that began in New York City in the 1950s
D) stressed energy and spontaneity over recognizable forms.
43. The most important changes in civil rights in United States in the 1950s were instituted by
C) ordinary African Americans.
44. The Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) overturned which of the following precedents?
C) Separate but equal established in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
45. How did President Eisenhower ultimately respond to the Arkansas National Guard’s attempts to block the enrollment of nine black students in Little Rock’s Central High School in 1957?
D) He sent army troops to Little Rock to oversee the integration of the school.
46. The Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 can be characterized as
A) symbolic.
47. In what way did the civil rights movement of the 1950s and early 1960s differ from previous efforts to end racial segregation and discrimination in the United States?
C) It involved masses of people who used passive resistance to bring about change.
48. The Montgomery, Alabama, police arrested Rosa Parks on December 1, 1955, because she
B) refused give up her seat on the bus to a white man.
49. The Montgomery bus boycott of 1956 persisted until
C) the U.S. Supreme Court overturned Alabama’s state and local laws requiring segregation on buses.
1. Which of the following factors contributed to John F. Kennedy’s win in the presidential election of 1960?
B) The African American vote and Lyndon Johnson’s strength in the South
2. To eradicate poverty and solve most social problems, President Kennedy believed the United States needed to
A) grow the economy.
3. In the months before his death, President Kennedy had been pursuing initiatives such as
C) programs to attack poverty, grow the economy, and promote civil rights.
4. What did the Warren Commission conclude about the assassination of President Kennedy?
B) Both Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby had acted alone.
5. President Lyndon Baines Johnson brought to the White House
B) enormous skill in persuading and threatening legislators.
6. What made the Community Action Program the most controversial part of the War on Poverty programs?
D) It required the maximum feasible participation of the poor it proposed to help.
7. In the election of 1964,
C) Lyndon Johnson was elected president in a record-breaking landslide.
8. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 mandated that funds for education be distributed
B) based on the number of poor children enrolled in each public school district.
9. The Medicare program provided
A) universal compulsory insurance for the elderly.
10. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 changed U.S. immigration policy by
D) abolishing the national-origins quota system.
11. In 1965, President Johnson became the first president to send Congress a special message on
D) the condition of the environment.
12. What was the outcome of the National Housing Act of 1968?
C) The decision to keep construction and ownership of low-income housing in the private sector
13. What was the end result of Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty?
A) There was not any significant redistribution of total national income.
14. Following the enactment of the Medicare and Medicaid programs in the United States,
C) physicians’ fees and hospital costs escalated dramatically.
15. The Warren Court expanded the Constitution’s promise of equality and individual rights by
B) supporting an activist government.
16. In its 1963 decision in Baker v. Carr, the Supreme Court established the
A) principle of one person, one vote for state and national legislatures.
17. All in all, major decisions from the Warren Court
D) have withstood the test of time.
18. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
B) initially organized peaceful demonstrations using civil disobedience.
19. The Congress of Racial Equality organized the Freedom Rides in 1961 to
D) integrate interstate transportation in the South.
20. The civil rights demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963
A) ended with the police attacking the peaceful demonstrators.
21. At a massive civil rights demonstration in the nation’s capital in August 1963,
B) Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous “I have a dream” speech.
22. The Mississippi Freedom Summer Project of 1964
C) put northern college students to work helping blacks register to vote.
23. How did President Kennedy respond to James H. Meredith’s attempt to enroll at the University of Mississippi?
A) He dispatched federal troops to protect Meredith and allow his enrollment.
24. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was
B) a ban on discrimination, including gender discrimination, in employment.
25. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 transformed southern politics by
B) a ban on discrimination, including gender discrimination, in employment.
26. Why did President Lyndon Johnson’s affirmative action program provoke more controversy than any other civil rights measures?
B) Critics argued that it promoted reverse discrimination.
27. The Civil Rights Act of 1968 addressed racial equality
B) through a ban on discrimination in housing and jury selection.
28. By 1966, the civil rights movement in the United States
C) was no longer committed to nonviolence.
29. Which of the following describes the Nation of Islam in the United States in the early 1960s?
D) The organization called for black nationalism and separatism.
30. By 1966, the principles espoused by Malcolm X had given rise to
D) the black power movement.
31. As the radical chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Stokely Carmichael
A) called for blacks to form their own political organizations.
33. What 1969 event became the most dramatic action taken by militant Indians in the United States?
B) Local Indian activists’ seizure and occupation of Alcatraz Island
34. One important goal of the American Indian Movement in the 1960s was
A) the establishment of survival schools to teach Indian history and values.
40. What was the event that sparked a larger movement to end discrimination against gay men and lesbians in 1969?
A) A police raid at the Stonewall Inn in New York City
41. What factor helped to spark the new wave of feminism in the late 1960s and early 1970s?
D) An escalating number of women performing paid jobs in the workplace
42. In 1966, feminists led by Betty Friedan and others founded
B) the National Organization for Women
43. The radical feminist movement differed from the National Organization for Women and other mainstream feminist organizations in that
D) radical feminists sought fundamental changes in the nation’s institutions.
44. Why were women of color critical of white women’s feminist organizations?
A) White feminists ignored the poverty faced by many minority women.
45. Phyllis Schlafly is most closely associated with
A) the effort to liberalize of abortion laws.
46. Which of the following is an example of the sweeping change forged by feminists in the 1960s and 1970s?
B) The adoption of the Equal Rights Amendment
47. During the Nixon administration, the number of government assistance programs
C) actually grew.
48. Stagflation describes an economy that combines
A) unemployment with inflation.
49. The new environmentalists of the 1970s broadened the agenda of the Progressive-era conservation movement by
A) focusing attention on the ravaging effects of industrial development on human life and health.
50. Out of all protest groups, President Nixon gave the most public support for justice to
C) blacks.
1. President Kennedy criticized the Eisenhower administration’s foreign policy because it
B) included limited defense spending and heavy reliance on nuclear weapons.
2. What occurred in 1961 that heightened fears and provided a rationalization for President Kennedy’s military buildup?
B) Nikita Khrushchev publicly encouraged wars of national liberation in the third world.
3. The objective of the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 was to
D) overthrow Cuban nationalist Fidel Castro’s socialist government .
4. Which of the following describes the Bay of Pigs invasion?
B) The invasion was an unmitigated disaster.
5. East Germany erected a wall between East and West Berlin in 1961 to
A) stop the mass exodus of East Germans to West Berlin.
6. President Kennedy’s flexible-response strategy
C) met his demand for a wider choice than humiliation or all-out nuclear action.
7. Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress was created in 1961 to
B) thwart communism by fostering economic growth in developing nations.
8. The Peace Corps was launched by the Kennedy administration in 1961 to
C) allow young Americans to work directly with the people in third world countries.
9. In response to increased U.S. production of ICBMs and the American nuclear buildup in Europe, the Soviet Union
B) stepped up its own ICBM program.
10. Which of the following describes the thirteen-day Cuban missile crisis of 1962?
A) The incident brought the world’s two superpowers perilously close to nuclear war.
11. Why, despite $1 billion in aid and seven hundred U.S. military advisers committed by the Eisenhower administration, was the situation in South Vietnam still so unstable when President Kennedy took office?
A) The South Vietnamese government and army were ineffective, and their corruption and repression alienated their own countrymen.
12. The National Liberation Front in Vietnam was composed of
B) South Vietnamese under the direction of the North Vietnamese army.
13. What was the flaw in American officials’ assumption that the U.S. military’s superior technology and power would defeat the Communist forces in South Vietnam?
A) Their advanced weapons were ill suited to the guerrilla warfare practiced by those forces.
14. The purpose of the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was to
A) authorize the president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attacks against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.
15. What led Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964?
B) Unconfirmed information that North Vietnamese gunboats had fired on two U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin
16. The initiation of Operation Rolling Thunder in February 1965 indicated that
A) the war in Vietnam had become America’s war.
17. Why did President Johnson’s Latin American policy generate a new surge of anti-Americanism in that region in 1965?
C) The United States suppressed an uprising that sought to oust the military dictator of the Dominican Republic.
18. American military officials began calculating their progress in body counts and kill ratios in Vietnam in 1965 because
B) it was impossible to measure military success based on territory seized.
19. The single largest group of U.S. soldiers in Vietnam was made up of
C) poor and working-class Americans.
20. Of the more than 7,500 American women who served in the Vietnam War,
B) most served as nurses.
21. Why did the U.S. military adjust its personnel assignments in Vietnam in 1966?
C) There was a disproportionately high death rate among black soldiers who were serving in Vietnam.
22. By 1968, the Vietnam War had
A) made refugees of nearly 30 percent of the South Vietnamese people.
23. In 1965, the first major protest in the United States against the Vietnam War was organized by
B) Students for a Democratic Society.
24. What was the impact of the American movement to stop the Vietnam War?
C) It brought the war to the center of media attention and severely limited the Johnson administration’s options.
25. Which of the following was one of the practical arguments made by protesters against the Vietnam War?
A) The war could not be won at a bearable cost.
26. In the peace movement during the Vietnam War, the FBI
C) disrupted antiwar work and spread false information about activists.
27. What position did America’s hawks take during the Vietnam War?
A) They called for the Johnson administration to apply more force and win the war.
28. By 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara
B) left the Johnson Administration because he did not think intensified bombings would ever convince the North Vietnamese to give up.
29. As a result of the Tet Offensive of January 1968,
A) the Vietcong and North Vietnamese forces attacked key cities and every major American base in South Vietnam.
30. What made the Tet Offensive an important turning point for President Lyndon Johnson?
C) It underscored the credibility gap between official statements and the war’s actual progress.
31. What did the “Vietnamization” of the Vietnam War in 1968 demonstrate about the United States?
D) The United States now hoped to achieve its objective of a non-Communist South Vietnam by relying more heavily on the South Vietnamese.
32. Shortly after peace negotiations for the war in Southeast Asia began in Paris in May 1968,
B) Senator Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated.
33. Which group instigated a violent demonstration during the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1968?
B) The Weather Underground
34. The 1968 presidential candidacy of George C. Wallace attracted
C) those that were outraged by assaults on traditional values by students and others.
35. How did candidates Hubert Humphrey and Richard Nixon differ on the central issue of the war in Vietnam in 1968?
D) They differed little on the central issue of Vietnam.
36. How did President Nixon and his national security advisor, Henry Kissinger, assess the deterioration of Soviet-Chinese relations?
B) They believed it would reduce the threat the Soviets and Chinese posed to the United States.
37. The U.S. policy of détente with the Soviet Union entailed the United States
D) beginning new discussions with the Soviet Union on arms control and trade.
38. The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) that began in 1969
C) were initiated by President Nixon, who signed the resulting historic agreement in Moscow in 1972.
39. The Arab nations launched an oil embargo against the United States in 1973 because the Nixon administration
D) supported Israel following the Yom Kippur War.
40. From 1969 to 1972, Nixon and Kissinger pursued a four-pronged approach to Vietnam that included
B) the replacement of U.S. forces with South Vietnamese soldiers and American bombs and technology.
41. President Nixon’s unilateral decision to expand the war in Southeast Asia to Cambodia was designed to
A) bomb North Vietnamese sanctuaries there.
42. How did Americans respond to President Nixon’s decision to extend the Vietnam War to Cambodia?
B) They protested, demonstrated, and rioted.
43. Lieutenant William Calley dealt a severe blow to the Nixon administration’s Vietnam policy by
D) massacring more than 400 Vietnamese civilians in the hamlet of My Lai.
44. The Pentagon Papers, which became public in 1971, were
A) a secret government study critical of U.S. policy in Vietnam.
45. What was the final outcome of the Vietnam War in Vietnam itself?
B) North Vietnam occupied Saigon, renamed it Ho Chi Minh City, and the country unified.
46. The War Powers Act of 1973 stipulated that
B) the president had to report to Congress within forty-eight hours of deploying military forces abroad.
47. How did the theory that a communist victory in South Vietnam would cause all of Southeast Asia to fall to communism pan out?
D) The theory proved to be unsound, although Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia all fell within the Communist camp.
48. The returning veterans of the Vietnam War
B) felt betrayed by the government for not allowing them to win the war, and by their countrymen for its lack of support for the war.
49. What 1982 event finally gave Vietnam veterans a measure of public respect for their service?
C) The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was unveiled in Washington, D.C.
50. What was the ultimate impact of the Vietnam War in the United States?
A) The Vietnam War contributed to internal disorder and the downfall of two presidents.
1. Phyllis Schlafly’s agenda in her 1964 book A Choice Not an Echo was to
D) push Barry Goldwater’s presidential candidacy.
2. Which of the following describes the agenda of the new conservative movement of the 1970s?
B) It criticized the government’s intrusion into the individual’s economic life as a hindrance to prosperity and personal responsibility.
3. Richard Nixon’s southern strategy for winning the presidential election in 1968 was to
A) woo white southerners away from the Democratic Party.
4. Some of the most vigorous support for the growing grassroots conservative movement of the 1970s was contributed by
B) middle-class suburban men and women in Sun Belt.
5. As a consequence of court-ordered busing at South Boston High School in 1974,
D) whites boycotted classes and threw rocks at black students.
6. President Nixon saw Chief Justice Earl Warren’s resignation in 1969 as an opportunity to put a
B) more conservative justice on the Court.
7. Strom Thurmond’s and Jesse Helms’s changes in party affiliation signaled that
A) Democrats were losing the solid South.
8. How did President Nixon respond to the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973?
A) Nixon avoided public comment on the issue.
9. Which of the following was a surprising development in the 1972 presidential election?
B) Nixon was popular among southern, Catholic, urban, and blue-collar voters.
10. The Watergate scandal that began in 1972 was triggered by
B) the discovery that Nixon campaign workers had broken into and bugged Democratic Party headquarters in Washington, D.C.
11. Following the 1972 election, Americans learned that President Nixon and his associates had been guilty of
C) using unlawful means to silence critics of the Vietnam War.
12. The resignation of Nixon’s Vice President, Spiro Agnew, in 1973 was spurred by
C) an investigation that revealed he had taken bribes while governor of Maryland.
13. For what crime did the House Judiciary Committee vote to charge President Nixon as one of the grounds for impeachment?
A) Tax evasion
14. After President Nixon resigned from office in August 1974, he
C) was pardoned by President Ford.
15. After President Nixon’s resignation, the Democratic Congress aimed to
B) guard against future abuses of government power.
16. Which of the following factors helped Jimmy Carter win the presidency in 1976?
C) Carter’s distance from Washington, D.C., politics
17. Before winning the presidency, Jimmy Carter’s political experience included
C) serving as governor of Georgia.
18. Which of the following economic developments characterized Jimmy Carter’s presidency?
D) The president was compelled to cut federal spending in order to compensate for rising inflation.
19. To address the nation’s dependence on foreign oil, President Carter established the
A) Department of Energy.
20. After the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear facility in 1979,
B) further development of the nuclear power industry was stalled.
21. What calamity led President Carter to sponsor legislation to create the Superfund?
A) The environmental disaster at Love Canal in Niagara Falls, New York
22. When he took office in 1976, President Carter promised to approach American foreign policy
B) by applying humanitarian and moral principles to foreign policy issues.
23. In 1977, the United States and Panama completed treaties that arranged
A) Panama’s takeover of the Panama Canal in 2000.
24. One of President Carter’s major accomplishments in mediating the political crises in the Middle East was
C) convincing Egypt to recognize Israel and Israel to gradually withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula.
25. President Carter responded to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979
B) by barring U.S. athletes from participating in the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow.
26. Which of the following was among the reasons the Iranian government was hostile to the United States after the shah left the country?
A) The CIA helped to overthrow the Mossadegh government.
27. The American hostages were held in the U.S. Embassy in Teheran by their Iranian captors
D) until the day President Carter left office.
28. What made the election of 1980 so significant?
C) It revealed conservatives had come to dominate the Republican Party.
29. Before he won the presidency in 1980, Ronald Reagan had been
D) a well-known actor and then the governor of California.
30. Which of the following factors was a significant part of Ronald Reagan’s appeal to voters?
C) Reagan’s promise to take government off the backs of the people.
31. The Moral Majority was founded in 1979 by
C) Jerry Falwell, to fight left-wing, social welfare bills.
32. Ronald Reagan was often liked even by those who disagreed with his policies because
A) he was confident, easygoing, and had an optimistic view of America’s past and present.
33. President Reagan’s initial strategy to fix the lagging U.S. economy was to
B) introduce a massive tax cut.
34. What was the ultimate result of President Reagan’s two substantial tax cuts?
A) The tax cuts benefited the wealthy.
35. What was the outcome of the Reagan administration’s decision to deregulate the banking industry?
B) A crisis in the savings and loan industry occurred, which added burden onto taxpayers.
36. President Reagan’s pledge to reduce federal spending resulted in
A) cuts in spending for social welfare programs.
37. In the presidential election of 1984, Walter Mondale’s running mate was
D) Geraldine A. Ferraro
38. Which group symbolized Americans’ celebration of wealth in the 1980s?
D) Yuppies
39. During the 1980s, as Americans’ average personal income increased, how did the level of economic inequality in the U.S. change?
A) Economic inequality also increased.
40. Ronald Reagan’s appointments to the federal court system tended to favor
B) a strict construction of the Constitution that limits judicial power.
41. Despite the antifeminist tone of the Reagan administration, feminists and the administration found common ground in
D) the collection of court-ordered child support payments for single mothers.
43. How did the gay and lesbian rights movement fare during the conservative 1980s?
D) Gay and lesbian rights activism grew during the 1980s, won some victories, and sparked a strong countermovement.
44. What happened to American defense spending under President Reagan?
B) It increased beyond the level of spending during the Vietnam War.
45. Which of the following describes President Reagan’s Star Wars initiative?
B) It surprised Reagan’s advisers and elicited an angry response from critics and the Soviet Union.
46. President Reagan responded to terrorist attacks on Americans around the world by
D) publicly refused to negotiate with the attackers or their sponsors.
47. How did President Reagan respond to the growing black protests against the racist system of apartheid in the country of South Africa in the mid- to late-1980s?
D) Reagan sided with the South African government in the escalating conflicts.
48. What did the Reagan administration do when Congress blocked its efforts to help opponents of the leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua?
A) It acted secretly and illegally to undermine congressional authority.
49. What did the independent prosecutor charged with investigating the Iran-Contra scandal conclude about President Reagan and Vice President George Bush?
C) They had knowingly participated or at least acquiesced in covering up the scandal.
50. What was the status of the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union at the time President Reagan left office in 1989?
D) They had reached their highest level of cooperation since World War II.

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