ADA 2250B

In 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the FDA
Had no authority to regulate tobacco products

Per capita sales of cigarettes in the US began to decline
After the 1964 Surgeon General’s report

In July 2011, the nicotine vaccine NicVax was
Found to be no better than placebo

The biggest health concern for users of smokeless tobacco has been
Cancer of the mouth, pharynx, & esophagus

In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention & Tobacco Control Act
Authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products in specific ways

The FDA has regulated nicotine content of cigarettes since 1964

In 1993, the Environmental Protection Agency declared that
Second hand smoke is a known carcinogen that increases lung cancer risk

Annual “smoking attributable mortality” in the US is estimated at

New battery-powered electronic cigarettes (I.e., tobacco-less nicotine delivery systems) are quickly becoming one of the largest US exports

Tobacco use became popular in European culture because
It was associated with wealth and status

The early history of coffee included a 1674 pamphlet from England titled
The Women’s Petition Against Coffee

Caffeine is thought to relieve headaches because it is
A vasoconstrictor

In 1970’s, Americans drank more coffee than any other nonalcoholic beverage product. By 2009,
Americans drank approximately twice as many gallons of soft drinks s compared to coffee

A 12oz Pepsi or Coke contains more than Vivarin tablet

The largest exporters of coffee to the U.S. are
Columbia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Mexico

A single species of tea bush is the basis for traditional green, black, and oolong tea

One important determinant of the behavioral effects of caffeine is
Whether the person is a regular user

Drinking 5 or more cups of coffee per day
Doubles the risk of a heart attack

Most regular brewed teas have about how much caffeine per cup?
40-60 mg (about 1/2 the amount of coffee)

_____is prescribed to asthma sufferers because it relaxes bronchial passages

Because of the way the FDA reviews and approves OTC drugs,
Various brands of a given type of remedy usually contain the same few active ingredients

SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) is a dietary supplement that has some research support for its possible use in treating

The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act increased the FDA’s control over dietary supplements

What dietary supplement ingredient has been tested for its ability to improve memory in Alzheimer’s disease, but has produced only small and unreliable improvements in published research
Ginkgo biloba

The heartburn drug Prevacid was recently moved from prescription only to OTC

The evidence indicates that many dietary supplements enhance male sexual performance

Besides analgesia, another important effect of aspirin is as a(n)
Antipyretic (reduces fever)

Suppose you had a fever, a headache, and a swollen knee. Which medication would be most appropriate to treat all three symptoms?

The main proposed use for St John’s wort has been treating depression

Many of the capsules, piles, and powders that look like drugs and that consumers think of as drugs are actually classified by the FDA
Food products

One thing that apparently contributed to the spread of opium smoking in China was
A 1644 edict from the emperor forbidding tobacco smoking

The textbook says that opioid withdrawal is similar to
A bad case of intestinal flu

Although pain relief is now the major medical use for opioids, they have been used to save many lives (especially in underdeveloped countries) because of their ability
Treat diarrhea

Heroin first became popular among opioid abusers In the 1970’s, due to returning Vietnam veterans

Papaver somniferum is the scientific name for
The opium poppy

The two major active chemicals in opium are
Morphine and codeine

Naloxone, nalorphine, & naltrexone are examples of
Opioid antagonists

In 1898, Bayer laboratories marketed diacetylmorphine tablets under the brand name

At the current time, most of the heroin in the US originates from poppy fields in
Colombia & Mexico

One of the major issues facing physicians today is that patients are taking enough prescription opioids to manage their pain

The PCP experience differs from LCD and mescaline experience in that PCP users
Report more changes in body perception

Which of the following most accurately described recent psilocybin research
The acute effects of mystical experiences

Many terms have been used for hallucinogens. The term entheogen has been used for those drugs thought to create spiritual or religious experiences

The anticholinergic plant with a forked root that is mentioned in the bible is

During the 1950’s, one US government agency that conducted research with LSD was the
Central Intelligence Agency

A close relative of LSD, d-lysergic acid amide, is found naturally in
Morning glories and Hawaiian baby woodroses

The red and white speckled mushroom that has been associated with an early Christian cult as well as with other religion the world is
Amanita muscaria

The combination of two plants, one containing harmaline (an MAO inhibitor), was original indigenous cultures in South America and is called

Psilocybe Mexicana and Psilocybe cubensis are examples of
Hallucinogenic mushrooms

LSD is considered to be the most potent psychoactive agent known to man because
It produces effects at such low doses

Which of the following did NOT occur in the late 1960’s and through out the 1970’s in the US
Marijuana use among high school students reached an all-time low

The American public began to take interest in the new drug menace known as marijuana
After aNew Orleans newspaper in 1926 associated its use with the crime

The 70 chemicals that are known to be unique to the cannabis plant are called

The 1944 LaGuardia report of the New York Academy of Medicine concluded that “those who have been smoking marihuana for a period of years….”
Showed no mental or physical deterioration

Rimonabant is currently available as an anti-body agent. What is the primary mechanism of action?
CB1 receptor antagonist

In a study of heart rate changes following smoked marijuana with 4 percent THC or 20 mg oral THC
The peak effects were similar, but smoking produced a faster onset of the effects

Hashish refers to
Pure cannabis resin

CB1 receptors are found mainly outside the brain in immune cells

The Marijuana Tax Act, the first federal law regulating cannabis, was passed in 1937

The abuse potential of THC
Seems to be very low

When applied to a drug, the word ergogenic means “energy-producing”

Use of substances to enhance performance in athletic competition has been traced back to ancient Egyptians, early Greeks, and the Aztecs

Some beta 2 antagonists sold for treating asthma have been used by athletes as ” no steroidal anabolic agents”

An ideal body fat range for a healthy male is
14 to 20 percent

We have had scientific evidence of the effectiveness of amphetamines in enhancing athletic performance for about 50 years

It has been difficult to do double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on the effects of steroids because
They produce detectable psychological effects

College athletes who want to avoid failing a drug test
Have to be very careful, because there are more than 3,000 products containing banned substances

In the 1800’s, the French cycling team endorsed Marianis “wine for athletes” that contained
A cocaine

Some body builders are trying to appear not only big & strong, but also lean. This is sometimes referred to as looking
Cut, ripped, or shredded

One ingredient in dietary supplements was banned by the FDA in 2004 after a Major League Baseball pitcher died from heat stroke after using it. The ingredient was

One of the top programs on SAMHSA’s list of effective prevention programs is DARE

Teaching parenting skills and doing family interactions exercises are components of effective parent and family prevention programs

The social influence model was first developed in a prison setting with former heroin users

The ad campaign above the influence targets which age group

Beginning in1986, the federal government launched a massive campaign based on anti-drug policies, locker searches, etc to promote
“Drug-free” schools

The Montana Meth Project, an ad campaign that exaggerates the effects of methamphetamine, has been shown to clearly reduce methamphetamine use

Out-of-school peer programs include peer influence approaches, as well as
Peer participation programs

The most consistent feature of workplace drug prevention programs has been
Random urine testing

The social influence model grew out of a 1976 paper describing a successful prevention approach aimed at
Cigarette smoking

Which of these was not discussed as an effective family-based drug prevention approach
Providing urine test kits to parents

Moderate doses of dronabil can be used to reduce the symptoms associated with marijuana withdrawl

CBT may be ineffective for long-term methamphetamine users because of the many cognitive deficits caused by the drug

Although no medication has yet received FDA approval for treating cannabis dependence, one has shown effectiveness in relieving cannabis withdrawal symptoms. That medication is
Oral THC

Motivational enhancement therapy has as its goal
Helping the user move to another “stage of change”

Both drug agonist (substitution) and antagonist treatments are included in the ______phase of treatment

The substance that accounted for the most admissions in the Treatment Episode Data Set from 2009 was

The “therapeutic workplace” is an example of what approach to drug treatment
Contingency management

Which of theses is NOT an FDA approved form of nicotine replacement therapy
Nicotine water

The only kinds of medication approved for use in smoking cessation are various forms of nicotine replacement therapy, like nicotine patches and gum

There is no documented cocaine withdrawal syndrome

A client with heart failure develops an increase in preload. Which mechanism contributes to this increase? a. A reduction in sympathetic stimulation b. Stimulation of coronary baroreceptors c. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system d. Arterial vasodilation and subsequent increase in …

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Neurogenic bladder definition Incontinence, overfilling or incomplete emptying of the bladder. Due to the disruption of the central or peripheral nervous system linked to bladder function. may interfere with; bladder filling, perception of voiding & fullness, & bladder emptying. Neurogenic …

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