the six

The immediate cause for American entry into World War I was the
German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare.

By 1915, the Central Powers consisted of
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes changes in the lives of Mexican Americans during World War I?
Political instability in Mexico caused many Mexicans to relocate to the United States.

In order to build the Panama Canal, the United States
lent covert assistance to free Panama from Columbia.

After the explosion of the battleship Maine, a U.S. naval board of inquiry blamed the sinking on
a mine.

Herbert Hoover emerged from World War I as one of the nation’s most admired men because of his leadership of the
Food Administration

A lasting legacy of America’s participation in World War I was
woman suffrage

Which of the following world leaders was absent from the Versailles Treaty negotiations?
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin of Soviet Russia.

The “Great Migration” refers to
African Americans moving from the South to the North during the war.

In its major initial contribution to the war effort of World War I, the United States
used armed convoys to secure Allied shipping against submarine attack.

Which of the following contributed to America expanding its markets into Latin America and Asia in the 1890s.
The Panic of 1893

Which of the following statements accurately describes the state of American military preparedness in 1898?
The navy was better prepared than the ground forces.

In his “Fourteen Points” speech to Congress in early 1918, Woodrow Wilson articulated which of the following postwar goals?
freedom of navigation on the seas
establishment of a multinational organization to guarantee mutual protection of political and territorial rights
the right to national self-determination

The Open Door Notes called for
equal access for all countries seeking to trade with China.

The greatest irony of America’s involvement in World War I was that it fought for democracy
with a racially segregated army.

What changes occurred in American trade with the allies and the Central Powers between 1914 and 1916?
Commerce with the Allies rose nearly fourfold, whereas commerce with the Central Powers dwindled to an insignificant trickle.

The Teller Amendment promised that the United States
The Teller Amendment promised that the United States

In the late 1800s and early 1900s, which nation’s growing power in East Asia surprised Europe and the U.S.
Japan

The American victory at San Juan Hill in Cuba can be credited largely to
four African American U.S. regiments.

The Influence of Seapower upon History was written by
Alfred Thayer Mahan

Theodore Roosevelt’s strategic thinking about U.S. foreign policy was shaped, in part, by his
belief in the duty of the “civilized” countries of the world to police and subdue “backward” peoples.

In the guerrilla war that followed the conquest of the Philippines
the conflict far exceeded the ferocity the war just concluded with Spain.

The first woman in Congress who voted against going into World War I was
Jeanette Rankins

President McKinley and the Republicans jumped at the chance to hold the Philippine Islands because
it provided the United States with a major foothold in the western Pacific and access to Asian markets.

By 1915, the Allied Powers consisted of
Great Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and Italy

The outbreak of World War I was the culmination of a European crisis that began when a Bosnian recruited by Serbian terrorists assassinated the heir to the throne of
Austria-Hungary

When Woodrow Wilson became president in 1913, he
vowed that the U.S. would not seek further territorial gains by conquest.

The battle in the Senate over the Treaty of Versailles centered around Article X, which was
a section of the League of nations’ covenant that called for military action.

In the guerrilla war that followed the conquest of the Philippines,
the conflict far exceeded the ferocity the war just concluded with Spain.

When Willian McKinley became president in 1897 and had to deal with the rebellion in Cuba, he
took a tougher stance against the Spanish than Cleveland had taken.

Which of the following is properly matched
Committee on Public Information–George Creel

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the Red Scare of 1919-1921?
A series of bombings in 1919 led Americans to associate all radical or dissident political groups with violence.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes consumer spending during the 1920s?
Installment buying boosted consumerism.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes American business in the 1920s?
The two hundred largest corporations controlled almost half of the national non-banking wealth.

Harding campaigned on the platform of returning to “normalcy,” which meant
a strong probusiness stance and conservative cultural values.

At the time of the stock market crash in 1929, which sector of the American economy was in the worst shape?
agriculture

Which of the following steps was not taken by the Hoover administration in its attempts to counter the Great Depression?
Providing direct federal relief for unemployed Americans

What was a major weakness of the economy of the 1920s?
The lack of credit
The soaring cost of farm products
The unequal distribution of wealth

Following the stock market crash of October 1929
many of the middle class who had not speculated in the stock market lost thier life savings when banks failed.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes U.S. foreign policy during the 1920s?
The U.S. actively sought to facilitate American economic expansion abroad.

The flapper, as an icon of American culture, represented
the emancipated woman of the 1920s.

A major impact of advertising and mass media in the 1920s and later was the
sense that all American were affluent and buying newly available consumer products.

Governor Alfred E. Smith, the Democratic presidential candidate in 1928
was the first major-party presidential candidate to reflect the aspirations of the urban working class.

Which of the following saw the greatest amount of improvement in the 1920s?
Industrial output

Which of the following is not associated with Marcus Garvey?
Jazz Music

A major scandal in Harding’s administration named after the national oil reserves it involved was
Teapot dome

In the 1920s, jazz
the tremendous growth of cities from immigration and rural migration.

The concept that championed black racial pride and cultural identity in the 1920s was known as the
Harlem Renaissance.

The chief political virtue of Calvin Coolidge, who became president on Harding’s death in 1923, was his
image of unimpeachable morality, which dissociated him from the scandals of the Harding administration.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the Scopes “monkey trial” of 1925?
The trial quickly became a media circus.

During World War I, the National War Labor Board supported all of the following except
the right of war workers to strike.

Margret Sanger is most famous for supporting
Birth Control

The rejuvenated Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s
targeted Catholic and Jewish immigrants as well as African Americans.

Welfare capitalism emerged in the 1920s in part
to stop unionization.

Which of the following statement most accurately characterizes women’s political participation during the 1920s?
Women did not vote as a bloc.

In what way did the U.S. government change immigration restrictions in the 1920s?
The National Origins Act of 1924 set immigration quotas at 2 percent of each nationality as measured by the 1890 census.

Which of the following was the most grievous attack on civil liberties?
The Palmer raids

African Americans who served in World War I returned home to find
discrimination and race riots.

As secretary of commerce under Warren Harding, Herbert Hoover
supported expansion of the federal government through voluntary cooperation with business in the public interest.

All of the following items became part of middle-class consumer culture in the 1920s except
television.

In 1924, the Democratic Party convention
showed that the party was deeply split between rural and urban interests.

Which of the following statements does NOT accurately characterize the struggle of organized labor from 1919-1929
Congress passed legislation making it much more difficult for workers to join labor unions.

The New Deal’s greatest legacy is that it
expanded federal presence both in the economy and people’s lives.

The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
reversed the Dawes Severalty Act and promoted tribal self-government.

President Roosevelt differed from President Hoover in
his personal charisma and willingness to experiment.

During the 1932 presidential campaign, Franklin Roosevelt promised
bold, persistent experimentation.

All of the following marked the early years of the Great Depression except
double-digit interest rates.

Deciding that Roosevelt had not done enough to alleviate suffering, Francis Townsend called for
an old-age revolving pension plan.

Hoover was hated during the Depression, partially because of the public perception that he
was insensitive to people’s suffering and was a “do-nothing” president.

Which American ideal caused many Americans to blame themselves for their plight?
The self made man

In 1934, the Liberty League was organized by
business leaders and conservative Democrats who opposed New Deal reforms.

Between 1935 and 1943, the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
put unemployed workers directly on the federal payroll.

Which of the following New Deal projects was not involved in conservation.
NIRA

In the 1936 presidential election, Franklin D. Roosevelt
Won by a landslide

In Roosevelt’s second term, New Deal legislation passed scrutiny by the Supreme Court more easily because
the retirement of several elderly conservative justices and their replacement by liberal justices altered the Court’s position on New Deal legislation.

In the Bonus Army incident in Washington (1932), federal troops
fired on the assembled veterans and burned their encampment.

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was
established to curb stock market fraud and abuses.

Schecter v. United States struck down the NRA because it said the NRA
illegally regulated commerce within individual states.

A severe recession occurred in 1937 and 1938 when Roosevelt, Congress, and the Federal Reserve
cut spending and attempted to balance the budget.

What was Franklin Roosevelt’s attitude toward the federal government providing welfare payments to the unemployed?
He found it distasteful, preferring to provide jobs over cash subsidies.

The Grapes of Wrath and Okies are most directly associated with
the Dust Bowl

For southern black sharecroppers, the New Deal’s AAA often meant that
blacks were pushed off their land

Roosevelt’s initial response to the Supreme Court’s declaring the NRA, the AAA, and other New Deal legislation unconstitutional was to
attempt to pack the court with his own men.

The Emergency Banking Act of 1933
prevented all banks from reopening until treasury inspectors could examine their books and ascertain that they had sufficient cash reserves.

Senator Huey “Kingfish” Long from Louisiana was one of Roosevelt’s largest threats with his
Share Our Wealth plan.

Harold Ickes and Bernard Baruch were
two of Franklin Roosevelt’s chief advisers.

New Deal administrators wanted to redefine the relationship between artists and the community through what became known as
Art for the millions.

An effect of the Great Depression was
that unemployment was double for black men vs white men and triple for black women vs white women.

The single largest New Deal project in the West was the construction of the
Grand Coulee Dam.

What was done to disable Francis Townsend’s support?
Creation of the Social Security Administration

The first action F. Roosevelt took to help the crisis was to
declare a bank holiday that allowed only sound banks to reopen.

Roosevelt’s Democratic coalition included which of the following groups?
Organized labor
White southerners
African Americans

The New Deal program most applauded by union labor was the
National Recovery Act.

The protest that caused the biggest blow to Hoover’s popularity was the
Bonus Army

The Scottboro case
was a clear example of a legal system that was biased against blacks in the south.

A failure of the Social Security Act was that it
did not include national health insurance.

Which of the following statements accurately describes rationing during World War II?
Most Americans complied with rationing

In the United States, World War II brought all of the following changes except
ending legalized, racial segregation.

The Neutrality Act of 1935 and its 1936 and 1937 amendments
required belligerent nations that wanted to buy nonmilitary goods from the United States to pay in cash and supply their own shipping.

Which of the following is properly matched?
Lend-Lease-allowed the distribution of arms and equipment to nations whose defense was vital to the security of the United States

Which of the following nations was not overrun by Germany in June 1940?
Soviet Union

The Battle of the Bulge
was the final offensive launched by the Germans in Belgium in December 1944.

Which of the following was characteristic of fascist governments in the 1930s and 1940s, especially Nazi Germany?
Authoritarian dictatorships
Militaristic governments
Promoting racial superiority

Which of the following is true of discrimination in the armed services during World War II?
The military segregated African Americans and assigned them menial duties.

When Japanese troops occupied the northern part of French Indochina in fall 1940, the United States
restricted trade with Japan, including fuel and scrap metal vital to Japan’s war effort.

Which of the following is not an enduring legacy of World War II?
The practice of integrated military units

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes U.S. politics during World War II?
Congress narrowed Roosevelt’s call in 1944 for a second bill of rights program to include only veterans.

The massive Allied invasion of Europe was code-named
D-Day.

All of the following were examples of the racial overtones of World War II except
kamikaze attacks

The two main American military commanders in the Pacific theater during World War II were
Douglas MacArthur and Chester W. Nimitz.

Henry J. Kaiser was
dubbed the “miracle man” for revolutionizing the production of naval vessels during the war.

Which of the following is correctly paired with his or her activity during World War II?
A. Philip Randolph-threatened to head a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination

The greatest civil rights abuse(s) during the war was (were)
the internment of Japanese aliens and Japanese Americans.

All of the following steps were taken by FDR and Congress between 1939 and 1941 to prepare the United States for the possibility of war except
starting a massive government propaganda campaign to encourage Americans to support U.S. involvement in the war.

All of the following are true regarding the forced relocation and incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II except
the Supreme Court ruled the policy unconstitutional in 1944, after fear of a Japanese attack had subsided.

The advertisement represents which of the following?

Mother, when will you stay home again?

Rosie the Riveter

Which is true of the America First Committee?
Its intent was to keep the nation out of war.

The “cash-and-carry” provision of the 1937 Neutrality Act stated that
belligerents could buy nonmilitary goods from the United States under certain conditions.

According to the textbook, the most decisive American factor in determining World War II’s outcome was
the immense production of war material and other needed supplies.

A Progressive-era reform that was undermined by the government’s action during World War II was
antitrust prosecution.

All of the following governmental precedents were established in the United States during World War II except
the creation of a professional, all volunteer military.

Which of the following is properly paired?
War Production Board-oversaw the conversion of industry to military manufacturing

After the Japanese invaded China in 1937, President Roosevelt
urged peace-loving nations to “quarantine” Japan and other aggressors.

The Nye Committee report stated that
war profiteers had maneuvered the nation into World War I for financial gain.

The turning point of World War II in Europe came when the
Soviets halted the German advance at Stalingrad in the winter of 1942-43.

The principles of freedom of the seas, national self-determination, and collective security were reiterated in
the Atlantic Charter.

What did President Roosevelt call “a date that will live in infamy”?
Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor

Executive Order 9066
allowed for the forced relocation of Japanese Americans on the West Coast to detention camps.

The GI Bill of Rights provided
education, medical care, pensions, and mortgage loans to veterans.

Harry S. Truman was nominated as Roosevelt’s vice presidential running mate in 1944 because
Vice President Wallace was considered to be too liberal by many party leaders.

Korematsu v. United States legitimized the
forced internment of Americans of Japanese descent into relocation camps.

From the American perspective, what precipitated the cold war?
The most significant impact of the Korean War was that, throughout the remainder of the cold war

Which of the following parts of Truman’s Fair Deal actually earned congressional approval?
The Social Security program was extended.

When the Chinese Communists defeated the Nationalists in 1949, the United States
State Department was accused of “losing” China by conservative critics.

The Soviet “sphere of influence” in Eastern Europe was affirmed by the
Yalta Agreement.

When the United States joined Canada and Western Europe to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949, it
was the first peacetime military alliance the nation had entered into since the American Revolution.

Which of the following is true about life in the United States during the cold war?
Tension over communism abroad fostered a period of domestic repression and fear at home.

A result of the Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift, the coup in Czechoslovakia was the creation of
NATO.

The National Security Council’s (NSC) 1950 document known as NSC-68 held that
the United States must significantly increase its defense spending.

Which of the following was not part of the Fair Deal agenda?
The Korean War

To forestall economic difficulties, which could foster the rise of communism throughout Europe, the United States gave nearly $13 billion to a European recovery program nicknamed the
Marshall Plan.

Which of the following is least related to the other four?
Warsaw Pact

Which of the following was not one of the consequences of the cold war in the 1950s?
A prolonged economic recession

Truman’s desire to expand the New Deal was not stymied by the
military-industrial complex.

Germany and its capital city of Berlin were each divided into four zones after World War II. Which of the following did not control one of those zones?
United Nations

The Truman Doctrine was implemented in response to Communist threats in
Greece and Turkey.

During John F. Kennedy’s administration, the Peace Corps
spread American ideals abroad and was intended to show developing countries that there was an alternative to communism.

John F. Kennedy’s policy toward South Vietnam included
increasing the number of American troops on the ground to 16,000 by November 1963.

The most famous symbol of the cold war was
the Berlin Wall.

The creator of containment who enumerated his fears in the “Long Telegram” was
George Kennan.

What was the outcome of the Korean War?
Korea remained divided.

During the Eisenhower administration, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) helped overthrow the government of
Iran

During the Cuban missile crisis
the United States and the Soviet Union came closer to nuclear war than at any other time.

During the late 1940s and early 1950s, the United States and the USSR came closest to war over
The Berlin Crisis

As a moderate Republican, President Eisenhower signed all the following bills that expanded on New Deal programs and ideology except
strengthening the rights of organized labor.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the events surrounding the Suez crisis?
Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and later built the Aswan dam with Soviet assistance.

President Truman’s response to the invasion of South Korea was to
ask the UN Security Council to authorize a “police action.”

In the 1960 election,
Kennedy won by a slim margin; just a few thousand votes could have given the election to Nixon.

The leader of North Vietnam during the late 1950s was
Ho Chi Minh.

The Eisenhower Doctrine was issued in response to difficulties in
Czechoslovakia.

At the Potsdam Conference,
America’s possession of the atomic bomb bolstered Truman to use “tough” methods with the Soviets.

In the years immediately following World War II, Britain’s influence and power in the world began to decline for all of the following reasons except
the United States no longer trusted competent British leadership of world affairs.

What was the outcome of the Korean War?
Korea remained divided.

Which of the following is most directly associated with McCarthyism?
Allegations of communist spies working in the State Department

Modern Republicanism was
a party philosophy that emphasized moderating rather than dismantling the New Deal state.

In 1947, the Truman administration reacted to the growing anti-Communist fervor in the country by
issuing an executive order initiating a comprehensive investigation of all federal employees’ loyalty.

The most significant impact of the Korean War was that, throughout the remainder of the cold war,
even in peacetime, the United States kept a standing army activated.

From the 1860’s to the 1880’s, open-range ranching was feasible on the Great Plains because of
the availability of free land.

The leader of the Sioux warriors who annihilated the forces led by Colonel George A. Custer on June 25, 1876 was
Sitting Bull

William F. Cody, the showman who promoted the idea of a “mythic West,” was better known as
Buffalo Bill

All of the following industries became an important part of the economy of the Great Plains and the far West by 1890 except
Manufacturing

The largest mass executions in American history took place as a result of
The Dakota uprising

“The largest, longest-run agricultural and environmental miscalculation in American History” refers to
Farming on the great plains

The Exodusters were
African American migrants to Kansas in the late 1870’s, fleeing mostly from Louisiana and Mississippi after the end of Reconstruction and the withdrawal of federal protection.

During and after the Civil War, the Republican Congress implemented its economic vision for the United States by doing all of the following except
lowering tariffs on foreign goods

Which president most refashioned America’s Indian policy?
Grant

The last great Indian “battle” was against the Sioux
at wounded knee

All of the following led to the collapse of the cattle boom in Texas except
fierce Indian attacks that decimated the herds and killed many cowboys.

The federal government’s Civil War debt was paid off primarily through
tariff revenue

Following the Sioux victory at Little Bighorn, the United States
pursued the various bands of Sioux until they surrendered.

Which of the following countries first converted to the gold standard?
Britian

Which of the following did not promote settlement of the Great Plains?
Cattle ranchers

In 1867, the United States bought Alaska from
Russia

States and the federal government encouraged railroad building through which of the following ways?
Loans and subsidies
Land grants
Financial assistance

White reformers who created the Indian Rights Association advocated the
assimilation of Indians into white culture.

The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
promoted Indian assimilation.

The agricultural technique known as dry farming
involved deep planting to bring subsoil moisture to the roots and quick harrowing after rainfalls.

In 1872, Congress established ____ as the first national park.
Yellowstone

The dominant northern Plains Indian tribe was the
Sioux

John Wesley Powell, in his Report on the Lands of the Arid Regions of the United States (1878), famously stated that
massive cooperation under government control was the only was farming would succeed on the Great Plains.

In the 1860s and 1870s, Nevada’s Comstock Lode, Colorado’s Rocky Mountains, and the Cour d’Alene region in Idaho were all known for
mining

Late nineteenth-century farms on the Great Plains were much larger than eastern farms because
dry-farming techniques required about 300 acres to support a family farm.

Which of the following was a blow to the agrarian reform movement?
Wabash v. Illinois.

Which of the following is an example of a trade union?
The American Federation of Labor

Which of the following jobs was not generally available to women at the end of the nineteenth century?
corporate manager

The first magazine with over one million subscribers was
Ladies’ Home Journal.

The strike by steelworkers at Homestead, Pennsylvania
resulted from Andrew Carnegie’s desire to eliminate the union.

In the early years of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of immigrants to the United States came from
southern and Eastern Europe.

During the late 1800s, an adult male immigrant from which of the following locations would be most likely to be a skilled worker?
Wales

All of the following are true of travelling salesmen except they
did not emerge until after 1900.

In their efforts to improve working conditions, the Knights of Labor stressed
cooperative factories owned and managed by workers.

The federal government responded to the problem of discrimination agaisnt the Chinese in nineteenth century California by
barring Chinese immigration to the U.S.

The labor movement supported all of the following except
yellow-dog contracts.

What is the most important reason few African American men held factory jobs in 1890?
Factory owners found that they could satisfy most of their labor needs with immigrant workers, so they rejected most black applicants.

The Haymarket incident in 1886
led to the downfall of the Knights of Labor.

The strike at Homestead demonstrated that
by the 1890s, economic power had shifted from workers to large corporations.

The “new immigrants” who entered the U.S. between 1880-1920
often planned on working and saving money for a few years before returning home.

The Chinese came to the U.S.
because of poverty and upheaval in southern China.

All of the following were skilled workers in the 1870s except
domestic servants.

Which of the following most likely would have been a member of the American Federation of Labor?
a printer

Who, among the following, epitomized the American notion that through hard work even a poor immigrant could become tremendously successful?
Andrew Carnegie

After the Civil War, Republican economic policies led to
the dominance of large corporations.

The Supreme Court decision to overturn Granger laws led to the
authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Montgomery Ward and Sears became famous for
mail order catalogs.

Oliver Kelly founded the National Grange or the Patrons of Husbandry which did all of the following except
work with state and national banks to end inflation.

Chinese immigrants to the U.S. in the nineteenth century
faced more severe discrimination than European immigrants.

A result of mass production was that
skilled workers gradually lost their autonomy.

Which of the following authors rejected romanticism and Victorian sentimentality in their works?
Mark Twain
Stephen Crane
Theodore Dreiser
All of the above

Of the 9,000 overseas Protestant missionaries in 1915, the largest percentage of them served in
Asia

Which of the following most transformed women’s role in the “public space”?
Industrialization

In 1916 the largest religious group in the United States was
Protestants.

In the late nineteenth century the American Catholic hierarchy was dominated by
Irish Americans

What else did Women’s Christian Temperance Union chapter do in addition to fighting for temperance?
Set up soup kitchens/ Establish free libraries/ Introduce kindergartens

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes urban leisure in post-Civil War America?
Leisure became a commercial commodity enjoyed outside the home.

Protestant churches that espoused the Social Gospel
taught that Christians should fight for social justice and the public welfare.

In the late nineteenth century
social Darwinist such as William Graham Sumner believed, millionaires were the fittest American.

The National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs was effective in its efforts to improve the life of African Americans because it
focused its attention on community issues such as public health.

By the early 1900s
why did many business leaders encourage their male workers to participate in sports?,To help foster a loyal workforce./To instill a sense of team work./To increase company pride.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes changes in the lives of middle-class American children in the last decades of the century?
A high school education became more common.

The typical American middle-class family in 1900 consisted of husband wife and
four children

The rapid progression of scientific discovery in the decades after the Civil War had brought all of the following scientific understandings by 1910 except
a belief in the big bang theory.

Which national figure was upheld as a model of the Victorian ideal of domesticity in a biography published in the 1870s.
Rutherford B. Hayes

The Gibson Girl of the 1890s personified
the middle-class “new woman.”

P.T. Barnum and his traveling circus successfully promoted commercial domesticity in all of the following ways except
racially integrating seating for his shows, even in in the South.

Which of the following sports was invented by YMCA instructors in the 1890s?
basketball

In the late nineteenth century the Womans’ Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
gave support to demands for woman suffrage; many members believed that only through women’s votes could the liquor traffic be controlled.

All of the following are true of the United Daughters of the Confederacy except
they donated framed copies of the U.S. Constitution to schools across the South

The growth of YMCA in American cities resulted from
Protestant efforts to promote “muscular Christianity” for white-collar workers.

What most caused the growing emphasis on male masculinity?
urban life and work

Which of the following groups would have been least likely to support prohibition?
German immigrants

Between 1880-1920 higher education for women was
most available in the Northeast at single-sex institutions

In the 1880s
the WCTU controversially threw its support behind the, Prohibition Party.

The first federal law ever passed to regulate trusts was the
Sherman Antitrust Act.

Between 1876 and 1892, Americans were
highly partisan and politically active.

In general, progressives differed from labor and farm advocates in which way?
Progressives were mostly middle-class, urban reformers.

As a result of the Supreme Court’s decision in the Standard Oil case (1915), the
attorney general sped up the pace of antitrust actions.

Mugwumps were reformers who
supported smaller government.

While William Jennings Bryan promoted free silver, McKinley
promised to restore order and bring a return to prosperity.

Teddy Roosevelt’s New Nationalism proposed all of the following except
federal pensions for retired workers.

The Wisconsin governor and progressive leader who helped give his state’s voters the right of recall and referendum was
Robert La Follette

Which of the following statement most accurately characterizes Theodore Roosevelt’s approach to the nation’s natural resources?
He was a conservationist who tried to balance commercial and public interests.

Why does it seem that there were lackluster presidents during the period from 1877 to 1895?
Extremely close elections limited their ability to maneuver and take tough political stands.

Which of the following is true of both the reform movements in the 1880s-1890s and those between 1900-1920?
Women played an integral part in both.

As president, Woodrow Wilson successfully implemented reforms in all of the following areas except
protecting the rights of blacks in the South.

Mary White Ovington and W.E.B. Du Bois were both founders of the
NAACP

All of the following were main goals of the prominent political movements between the end of Reconstruction and World War I except
bringing full equality to blacks.

Between 1910-1917, all the industrial states enacted laws
providing insurance for on-the-job accidents.

Which of the following statement accurately characterizes national politics during the Gilded Age?
Both Republicans and Democrats regularly engaged in various forms of electoral fraud. Proportionately more Americans voted during this era than any other time in American history. The presidents of this era are often remembered as weak, ineffective, and forgettable.

Which of the following Progressive reforms was suggested by the Populists?
Federal Reserve Act

In what way did American politics change during the mid-1890s?
Blacks were formally disenfranchised in the South/ Democrats became virtually the only polistical party in the South for decades./Republicans dominated national politics for the next forty years.

The Supreme Court’s Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision
stated that legal segregation was acceptable under the “separate but equal” principle.

Why did Congress abandon efforts to enforce blac
voting rights and fair elections in the South after 1892? k In the elections of 1890 and 1892, voters largely rejected Republicans and their policies, giving control of Congress and the presidency to the Democrats.

Which of the following presidents most easily won election to the White House and was seen as a powerful presence in the Oval Office?
William McKinley

In their 1892 Omaha Platform, Populists called for all the following except
woman suffrage.

Advocates of free silver believed it would
encourage borrowing and stimulate industry.

As progressives, Josephine Shaw Lowell and Florence Kelley concentrated their efforts on
female and child laborers.

When the jobless marched on Washington in 1894,
their leader was arrested and their demands were not met.

Michael Harrington’s The Other America exposed
poverty in America.

When Eisenhower said, “We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes,” he was referring to the
military-industrial complex.

Which of the following is most responsible for Congress’ approval of the Interstate Highway Act?
The cold war

The GI Bill stimulated the American economy by
subsidizing higher education and financing millions of mortgages.

Which of the following accurately characterizes many of the newly built suburban communities in the 1950s?
They had regulations such as maintaining lawns and not hanging laundry on weekends. They were generally homogeneous in their population.They often refused to allow sales to minorities.

Restrictive covenants refer to
agreements allowing only Caucasians to live in an area.

What is the reason for the bubble between 1940 and 1950 in the figure?
The baby boom

In 1949, according to Betty Friedan, she and other radicals were concerned about all of the following except
women’s rights

Which of the following is an example of an institutional form of racism faced by African Americans as they migrated to urban centers in the 1950s?
Housing restrictions. Increasingly segregated schools White flight to the suburbs

The ideal family as presented in the media of the 1950s, with a stay-at-home mom and a father as the breadwinner, was
not representative of African American families

Which of the following influenced the growth of a youth culture in the 1950s?
More years in school. Importance of peer groups.Teen consumer patterns

In the 1950s, most Puerto Rican immigrants settled in
New York City.

One of the most rapidly growing job categories in America during the 1950s was
white-collar managers.

Which of the following is properly paired?
Jack Kerouac-On the Road

Between 1940 and 1960, church membership in the United States
rose to 70 percent.

All of the following led to an urban crisis in the 1950s except
desegregation.

A symbol of the postwar housing boom was
Levittown.

Which of the following are correctly matched?
Hugh Hefner-founder of Playboy magazine

The baby boom in post-World War II America is most accurately explained as resulting from
a drop in age at marriage.

Which of the following statements accurately characterizes U.S. immigration laws between World War II and the mid-1960s?
In 1952, the McCarran-Walter Act ended the exclusion of immigrants from China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia. k In late 1945, the immigration of Mexican bracero workers, which had been permitted during World War II, was officially ended, and not until 1964 were such workers again legally admitted to the United States.

Alan Freed
helped to introduce white America to the new black sound by playing rhythm and blues records on the radio in 1954.

In the United States of the 1950s,
consumption came to be seen as a social responsibility.

The growing influence of religion in post-World War II American society was evident in all of the following except
the sentencing of the Rosenbergs to life in prison instead of death for giving U.S. atomic secrets to the Russians.

A negative aspect of America’s fascination with the automobile in the 1950s was
a tripling of oil consumption by the early 1970s

Betty Friedan’s 1963 boo
The Feminine Mystique k described the middle-class domestic ideal that suburban housewives were supposed to embrace.

In 1941, President Roosevelt issued an executive order banning racial discrimination in defense industries primarily because
he wanted to avoid a protest march by a black labor union.

In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled against segregated schools on the grounds that they
denied black children “equal protection of the laws.”

Which of the following civil rights supporters was not assassinated in the 1960s?
Stokely Carmichael

A result of Rosa Parks’ arrest was
the Montgomery bus boycott

In the “long hot summers” of 1964-1968,
charges of police brutality often sparked riots.

The Voting Rights Act of 1965
outlawed the use of literacy tests and together with the Twenty-Fourth Amendment allowed millions of blacks to register and vote for the first time.

In March 1965, the effort to pass the Voting Rights Act gained impetus after violence occurred in Alabama at
Selma

The Young Lords Organization fought primarily for the civil rights of
Puerto Ricans.

In 1973, two hundred Sioux, organized by AIM to dramatize their cause, engaged in several gun battles with the FBI for over two months at
Wounded Knee.

The Blac
Panther Tank Battalion and the Tuskegee Airmen werek all-black units that fought in World War II./widely praised by military commanders such as George Patton./unable to stop segregationist slander toward black veterans of World War II.

Furious with the national Democratic Party’s endorsement of civil rights goals in its 1948 platform, southern Democrats set up the States’ Rights (or Dixiecrat) Party and nominated which of the following for president?
Strom Thurmond

Which of the following statements characterizes the emergence of César Chavez as a national figure during the 1960s?
He and the United Farm Workers union won national attention by organizing a grape pickers’ strike in 1965.

In 1966, the slogan “blac
power” was first used byk Stokely Carmichael.

Many historians consider the most important event in the emergence of the Mexican American civil rights movement to be
World War II.

What major change occurred in Mexican American activism during the 1960s?
In 1969, a large group of Mexican American students, calling themselves Chicanos, met in Denver to hammer out a national agenda on political and cultural issues.

The Southern Manifesto was a
statement by 101 southern congressmen denouncing the U.S. Supreme Court’s Brown decision as “a clear abuse of judicial power” and encouraging local authorities to defy it.

All of the following were accomplished by the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s except the
elimination of racial separatism in urban America

According to the textbook, the twentieth century social movement with the greatest overall impact was the
civil rights movement.

The philosophy of nonviolent disobedience was first espoused by
Mahatma Ghandi.

Which of the following was not a way in which various Native American groups were divided in the 1960s?
Between rich and poor

In the early 1950s, which of the following was segregated by custom or law in the South?
Public transportation/ Public parks and libraries/ Drinking fountains

President Kennedy decided to as
for civil rights legislation after thek demonstrations in Birmingham

A political consequence of the national Democratic Party’s embrace of civil rights in the 1960s was
the departure of many southern whites to the Republican Party in the 1970s and 1980s.

In 1963, Eugene “Bull” Connor was
Birmingham’s commissioner of public safety

An outgrowth of the rights revolution of the 1960s and 1970s was
the widening of the belief in the federal government’s responsibilities.

The War Powers Act, the Freedom of Information Act, the Fair Campaign Practices Act, and the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Act were passed as a result of
Nixon’s imperial presidency

Two of Nixon’s greatest foreign policy successes were
SALT I and restoring relations with Communist China

Which of the following is true of Lyndon Johnson’s administration?
The Vietnam War undermined his presidency.

Which of the following was not a legacy of the Vietnam War?
The energy crisis

An achievement of the Johnson administration was
the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced out of office because he was
indicted for accepting kickbacks while governor of Maryland.

Operation Rolling Thunder
intensified North Vietnamese nationalism and hardened their will to fight.

On March 31, 1968, President Johnson shocked the American public when he
announced that he would not seek reelection.

In the 1968 election and during the Nixon administration, the expression “silent majority” was used to refer to Americans who
were hardworking and non protesting.

Richard Nixon campaigned for the presidency in 1968 by doing all of the following except
promising to strengthen LBJ’s Great Society programs.

E. Howard Hunt, John Dean, G. Gordon Liddy, and John Mitchell were all
implicated in the Watergate scandal.

From 1969 to 1972, Richard Nixon’s strategy to end the Vietnam War was to
reduce American troop involvement and turn over most of the ground fighting to the South Vietnamese army.

The counterculture’s idealism was best represented by the music of
Pete Seeger.

The Free Speech Movement at Berkeley
arose when the university banned student political activity on university property.

My Lai was
the site of the massacre of nearly 500 villagers by American soldiers.

the ancient capital of Vietnam and a center of Buddhist antiwar protest.

The four college students killed by National Guardsmen at Kent State University had been protesting
Nixon’s secret expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia.

Which of the following quotes is correctly matched with the person who said it?
Barry Goldwater-“a government big enough to give you everything you want is also big enough to take away everything you have”

Title IX
benefited women athletes

Which of the following statements accurately characterizes President Lyndon Johnson?
He was in many ways the opposite of Kennedy.

President Johnson’s environmental reforms included all of the following except
banning offshore oil drilling.

President Johnson’s Great Society called for all of the following except
reducing military spending

Which of the following contributed to the undermining of women’s traditional roles in the 1960s?
Widespread availability of the birth control pill/ Laws making it easier for couples to divorce/ New government laws protecting women’s civil rights

All of the following occurred in 1968 except the
perceived attack on American ships in the Gulf of Tonkin.

The War on Poverty
was President Johnson’s single biggest goal, even more than civil rights advances.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the economic consequences of the Vietnam War?
By 1968, the U.S. economy was entering a severe inflationary spiral that would last more than a decade.

All of the following came about during the women’s liberation movement in the 1970s except
a constitutional amendment creating a right to privacy.

The liberal “rights revolution” challenged Americans to thin
in new ways aboutk race.gender roles./sexual morality.

Which of the following least contributed to the cynicism that many Americans felt in the mid-1970s?
The civil rights movement

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the energy needs and resources that the country faced in the late 1960s and early 1970s?
The United States, once the world’s leading producer of oil, had become heavily dependent on imported oil.

The most divisive educational issue of the 1970s was
busing to secure racial integration.

The collective search for national order in the mid- and late 1970s
ultimately led to the rise of the New Right.

The largest Protestant denomination, which grew 23 percent between 1970 and 1985, is the
Pentecostal.

In the summer of 1975, which city was loaned money by the federal government and granted a three-year moratorium on municipal debt in order to stave off bankruptcy?
New York City

Nuclear reactors account for what percentage of all U.S. power generation today? 20%

Christian activists in the late 1970s and early 1980s were concerned about all of the following except
maintaining the separation of church and state

Roe v. Wade was decided on the basis of
the right to privacy.

In response to the OPEC oil embargo,
Congress passed a law limiting highway speeds to 55 miles per hour

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the Nixon administration’s domestic policies?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was signed into law by Nixon and had broad, bipartisan support.

Which of the following U.S. industries was most badly hurt by deindustrialization in the 1970s?
Stee

In 1978, California voters began a national trend by enacting a ballot initiative called Proposition 13 that
rolled back property taxes and required future tax measures to pass the legislature with a two-thirds vote.

Which of the following television sitcoms starred the fictional character Archie Bunker, who gave voice to the unease many Americans felt about changes taking place in society?
All in the family

Busing to achieve racially integrated schools
was limited by the Supreme Court to busing within a district but not between districts.

President Ford pardoned Nixon because
he wished to spare the country the agony of rehashing Watergate.

President Ford
was unsuccessful in his attempts to curb inflation

The modern environmentalist movement was reborn with
the publication of Silent Spring in 1962.

Which of the following is true of Republicans in the 1980s?
Their core was upper-middle-class white Protestants.

What allowed the Republicans to win the presidential election in 1980 and bring about a generational change in American politics?
The emergence of Ronald Reagan/The Iran hostage crisis/ The economic crisis of the 1970s

All of the following were policies of the Reagan administration except
cuts in defense spending.

President George H. W. Bush’s greatest achievement was
organizing a military coalition during the Gulf War to liberate Kuwait.

Between 1973 and 1992, the productivity of American workers grew at the rate of
1 percent a year.

The Moral Majority was founded by religious evangelical
Jerry Falwell.

Why has it been so difficult for conservative politicians to shrin
the size and scope of the federal government?k The government is entrenched in the social, economic, and defense welfare of Americans.

Which one of the following was not called for by the New Right during the 1980 presidential election?
Increasing federal spending on social welfare programs

In 1975, Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded
Microsoft.

Throughout Carter’s administration, the central theme of its foreign policy was
a commitment to human rights.

Which of the following is true regarding the 1991 Persian Gulf War?
The United States acted with the approval of the UN Security Council.

The Moral Majority favored
a ban on abortion

Which of the following people most directly contributed to the rise of conservatism in American politics after World War II?
Barry Goldwater

By increasing America’s arms buildup in defense against communism, President Reagan abandoned the diplomatic policy of former president
Richard Nixon

Which of the following is true of the Reagan presidency?
The national debt tripled

In 1988, President George H. W. Bush selected which of the following individuals to be his vice presidential candidate?
Dan Quayle

The New Right
disliked a powerful federal government and feared declining social morality.Ronald Reagan was victorious in 1980 partially due tok the frustrations of many Americans over the loss of American economic and political supremacy in the worldQuestion 19. Question :

A crisis developed in American-Iranian relations in 1979 because of
American support for the deposed Shah of Iran.

The Reagan administration achieved all of the following except
shrinking the size of the federal government.

One of Ronald Reagan’s most significant legacies was
his conservative judicial appointments.

Which of the following is true of the United States in the mid-1980s?
The United States registered a negative balance of international payments

President Reagan’s most important achievement was .
facilitating the end of the cold war

Supply-side economics as practiced by the Reagan administration rested on the theory that
tax cuts would stimulate investment and eventually result in higher tax revenues.

Sandra Day O’Connor and Ruth Bader Ginsberg were
the first women appointed to the Supreme Court

Which of the following are correctly matched?
Hugh Hefner-founder of Playboy magazine

Television in the United States during the late 1940s and 1950s
transformed American culture more than almost any other technological invention ever had.

Which of the following statements accurately characterizes U.S. immigration laws between World War II and the mid-1960s?
In 1952, the McCarran-Walter Act ended the exclusion of immigrants from China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia.

A symbol of the postwar housing boom was
Levittown

What is the reason for the bubble between 1940 and 1950 in the figure?
The baby boom

Which of the following statements does not accurately represent women and their relationship to work and family life in the postwar decades?
Few married, middle-class women worked outside the home until the 1970s.

Alan Freed
helped to introduce white America to the new black sound by playing rhythm and blues records on the radio in 1954.

What was part of the Bretton Woods system?
A commitment to an open market, global economy

Which of the following is most responsible for Congress’ approval of the Interstate Highway Act?
The cold war

The baby boom in post-World War II America is most accurately explained as resulting from
a drop in age at marriage.

Which of the following statements is true about the post-World War II economy
The prosperity was beyond the reach of many poor and nonwhite Americans

Michael Harrington’s The Other America exposed
poverty in America.

All of the following were examples of the sexual conservatism during the twenty years following World War II except
only married women had easy, unfettered access to birth control pills.

In 1949, according to Betty Friedan, she and other radicals were concerned about all of the following except
women’s rights.

Which of the following is true of post-World War II America?
Americans enjoyed the highest standard of living in the world.

One of the most influential books on the U.S. economy in the twentieth century, The Affluent Society (1958), was written by
John Kenneth Galbraith

The “space race” began when
Americans learned that the Soviet Union had launched the first space satellite, Sputnik.

In the 1950s, record sales boomed in the United States primarily because of
rock ‘n’ roll.

Which of the following is properly paired?
Jack Kerouac-On the Road

A negative aspect of America’s fascination with the automobile in the 1950s was
a tripling of oil consumption by the early 1970s.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the pressure felt by middle-class American women during the 1950s?
They were told by the media and by society that the highest value and only commitment for women was the fulfillment of their own femininity.

Restrictive covenants refer to
agreements allowing only Caucasians to live in an area.

The growing influence of religion in post-World War II American society was evident in all of the following except
the sentencing of the Rosenbergs to life in prison instead of death for giving U.S. atomic secrets to the Russians.

Beginning in the 1960s, the influx of Cuban refugees rapidly changed the character of
Miami.

In the United States of the 1950s
consumption came to be seen as a social responsibility.

During the late 1800s, an adult male immigrant from which of the following locations would be most likely to be a skilled worker?
Wales

Which of the following is an example of a trade union?
The American Federation of Labor

The strike at Homestead demonstrated that
by the 1890s, economic power had shifted from workers to large corporations.

Which of the following resulted from industrialization in the decades after the Civil War?
lower prices
increased output
greater immigration

A practice that differentiated late-nineteenth-century industry from its earlier counterparts before the Civil War was
advertising.

All of the following were skilled workers in the 1870s except
domestic servants.

The “new immigrants” who entered the U.S. between 1880-1920
often planned on working and saving money for a few years before returning home.

The first magazine with over one million subscribers was
Ladies’ Home Journal.

In terms of membership, the Knights of Labor discriminated
specifically against Chinese.

The introduction of mass production
increased workers’ output.

The Chinese came to the U.S.
because of poverty and upheaval in southern China.

Montgomery Ward and Sears became famous for
mail order catalogs.

A result of scientific management was that
it was very expensive to implement and most workers resisted it.

The federal government responded to the problem of discrimination against the Chinese in nineteenth century California by
barring Chinese immigration to the U.S.

The labor movement supported all of the following except
yellow-dog contracts.

Vertically integrated corporations
handled all the functions of an industry.

All of the following were true of the Farmers’ Alliance except
they were active in the Midwest but not in the South.

A major reason that by 1900 the United States had become the leading steel producer in the world was
the Bessemer Process.

Which of the following jobs was not generally available to women at the end of the nineteenth century?
corporate manager

Who, among the following, epitmozed the American notion that through hard work even a poor immigrant could become tremendously successful?
Andrew Carnegie

Oliver Kelly founded the National Grange or the Patrons of Husbandry which did all of the following except
work with state and national banks to end inflation.

In their efforts to improve working conditions, the Knights of Labor stressed
cooperative factories owned and managed by workers.

Chinese immigrants to the U.S. in the nineteenth century
faced more severe discrimination than European immigrants.

In the early years of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of immigrants to the United States came from
southern and Eastern Europe.

After the Civil War, Republican economic policies led to
the dominance of large corporations.

Which of the following countries first converted to the Gold Standard?
Britain

Which of the following did not promote settlement of the Great Plains?
Cattle Ranchers

The largest longest run agricultural and environmental miscalculation in American history refers to
farming on the great plains

The largest mass executions in American history took place as a result of what?
The Dakota Uprising

True of the Ghost Dance Movement:
it blended Christian and Native elements together.
it demonstrated a growing pan-Indian identity and cooperation.
it ultimately led to the Wounded Knee massacre

White reformers who created the Indian Rights Association advocated the
assimilation of Indians into white culture.

From the 1860’s to the 1880’s, open-range ranching was feasible on the Great Plains because of
the availability of free land.

The federal government’s Civil War debt was paid off primarily through
tariff revenues.

The last great Indian “battle” was against the Sioux
at Wounded Knee.

In 1872, Congress established ____ as the first national park.
Yellowstone

The United States encouraged Chinese immigration through such means as the Burlingame Treaty (1868) partially to
provide railroad workers and farm laborers out west.

As a result of the Dawes Act, the Indian tribes
lost almost two-thirds of their land.

William F. Cody, the showman who promoted the idea of a “mythic West,” was better known as
Buffalo Bill.

The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
promoted Indian assimilation.

Which tribe was pursued 1,100 miles and forced to surrender just south of the Canadian border?
Nez Perce

The first transcontinental railroad
was completed in 1869.

An outcome of settlement on the plains was
new rights and opportunities for many women.

The Apache warrior who resisted the U.S. government until 1886 was
Geronimo.

Reformers believed that the best way to save the Indians was through
education.
Christianity.
individual land ownership.

Late nineteenth-century farms on the Great Plains were much larger than eastern farms because
dry-farming techniques required about 300 acres to support a family farm.

Which president most refashioned America’s Indian policy?
Grant

States and the federal government encouraged railroad building through which of the following ways?
Loans and subsidies
Land grants
Financial assistance

The leader of the Sioux warriors who annihilated the forces led by Colonel George A. Custer on June 25, 1876 was
Sitting Bull.

The agricultural technique known as dry farming
involved deep planting to bring subsoil moisture to the roots and quick harrowing after rainfalls.

All of the following led to the collapse of the cattle boom in Texas except
fierce Indian attacks that decimated the herds and killed many cowboys.

To forestall difficulties which could foster the rise of communism throughout Europe the US gave nearly $13 billion dollars to a European recovery program nicknamed the
Marshall Plan

A reaction to the massive postwar strikes was the
Taft-Hartley Act

What was a long term consequence of the Korean War?
allowed future presidents to commit troops to an undeclared war without congressional approval, established a precedent of not using atomic weapons in future cold war conflicts, expanded American involvement in Asia

Consequences of the cold war in the 1950s?
a prolonged economic recession

The leader of North Vietnam in the 1950s?
Ho Chi Minh

At the Potsdam Conference Americas possession of what bolstered Truman to use “tough” methods with the Soviets?
atomic bomb

The National Security Council’s (NSC) 1950 document known as NSC-68 held that
the US must significantly increase its deficit spending

Who controlled the four zones of Germany after WWII?
The US, Russia, and England

In the late 1940s and early 1950s the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
targeted the film industry

What was the outcome of the Korean War?
Korea remained divided

During the cuban missile crisis
the US and the Soviet Union came closer to nuclear war than at any other time

The Soviet “sphere of influence” in Eastern Europe was affirmed by the
Yalta agreement

Most directly associated with McCarthyism?
Allegations of communist spies working in the State Department

During the Eisenhower administration, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) helped overthrow the government of
Iran

Kennedy’s greatest foreign-policy blunder was the
Bay of Pigs

From the American perspective what precipitated the cold war?
Stalin’s refusal to allow self-determination for the countries of Eastern Europe

John F. Kennedy’s policy toward South Vietnam included
increasing the number of American troops on the ground to 16,000 by November 1963

The creator of containment who enumerated his fears in the “Long Telegram” was
George Kennan

The Dixiecrats would have been most opposed to
desegregating the armed forces

When the Chinese Communists defeated the Nationalists in 1949 the US
State Department was accused of “losing” China by conservative critics

Which of the following was not part of the Fair Deal agenda
The Korean War

In the 1960 election
Kennedy won by a slim margin, just a few thousand votes could have given the election to Nixon

True of life in the US during the cold war?
Tension over communism abroad fostered a period of domestic repression and fear at home

Which provision of the Geneva Accords was never realized?
Free elections for a united Vietnam in 1956

President Truman’s response to the invasion of South Korea was to
ask the UN Security Council to authorize a “police action”.

Executive order 9066 allowed for the forced relocation of
Japanese Americans on the west coast to detention camps

Korematsu V. United States legitimized the forced internment of
Japanese Americans into relocation camps

The two main American military commanders in the Pacific Theater during WWII were
Douglas MacArthur and Chester Nimitz

What did President Roosevelt call “a date that will live in infamy”?
Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor

Who threatened to head a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination?
A. Philip Randolph

After the Japanese invaded China in 1937 President Roosevelt urged
peace-loving nations to quarantine japan and other aggressors

What was the final offensive launched by the Germans in Belgium in December 1944?
The Battle of the Bulge

What precedents were established in the US during WWII?
income tax, military establishment, active participation in international politics and alliances

The US’s initial response to world problems in the 1930s was
neutrality

What act of discrimination occurred in the armed services during WWII?
African Americans were segregated and given menial duties

What provision of the 1937 Neutrality Act stated that belligerents could buy nonmilitary goods from the US under certain conditions?
Cash and Carry

Why were Japanese Americans on the West coast interned during WWII?
the west coast was considered to be vulnerable and there was demand that the region be rid of supposed japanese spies

What changes did WWII bring in the US?
an end to the Great Depression, increased urbanization, bigger government

Harry S. Truman was nominated as Roosevelt’s vice presidential running mate in 1944 because
Wallace was considered to be too liberal

The GI Bill of Rights provided
education, medical care, pensions, and mortgage loans to veterans

What were enduring legacies of WWII?
the atomic age, military-industrial complex, onset of the cold war

True of the forced relocation and incarceration of Japanese Americans during WWI?
more than 2/3rds of those Japanese Americans were native born American citizens, the supreme court ruled the policy unconstitutional in 1944, after fear of a Japanese attack had subsided, it did not apply to the many Japanese American who lived in Hawaii.

The most decisive American factor in determining WWII’s outcome was
the immense production of war material and other needed supplies

When Japanese troops occupied the northern part of French Indochina in Fall 1940, the US
restricted trade with Japan including fuel and scrap metal vital to Japan’s war effort

Which of the following was characteristic of fascist governments in the 1930s and 1940s especially Nazi Germany?
Authoritarian dictatorships, militaristic governments, promoting racial superiority

What most accurately characterizes US politics during WWII?
Congress narrowed Roosevelt’s call in 1944 for a second bill of rights program to include only veterans

The Neutrality Act of 1935 and it’s 1936 and 1937 amendments
required belligerent nations that wanted to buy nonmilitary goods from the US to pay in cash and supply their own shipping

In 1942, Japanese forces invaded all of the following
Malaya, Philippines, Guam

The turning point of WWII in Europe came when the
Soviets halted the German advance at Stalingrad in the winter or 1942-43

provided federal subsidies to farmers who cut farm production
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

prevented all banks from reopening until treasury inspectors could examine their books and ascertain that they had sufficient cash reserves
The Emergency Banking Act of 1933

Roosevelt’s Democratic coalition included which of the following groups?
organized labor; white southerners; African Americans

Schecter vs. US struck down the NRA because it said the NRA
illegally regulated commerce within individual states

For southern black sharecroppers the New Deal’s AAA often meant that
blacks were pushed off the land

Roosevelt’s initial response to the Supreme Court’s declaring the NRA, the AAA, and other New Deal legislation unconstitutional was to
attempt to pack the court with his own men

hired 250,000 young men to do reforestation and conservation work
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

The New Deal’s greatest legacy is that it
expanded federal presence both in the economy and people’s lives

The Grapes of Wrath and Okies are most directly associated with
the Dust Bowl

established to curb stock market fraud and abuses
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Which of the following is true about minorities in the New Deal?
African Americans outside the South shifted their voting to Democrats

Which American ideal caused many Americans to blame themselves for their plight?
The self-made man

The New Deal aided blacks by
giving them a proportion of WPA jobs that exceeded blacks representation in the general population

What was Franklin Roosevelt’s attitude toward the federal government providing welfare payments to the unemployed
he found it distasteful preferring to provide jobs over cash subsidies

New Deal Administrators wanted to redefine the relationship between artists and the community through what became known as
Art for the Millions

A severe recession occurred in 1937 and 1938 when Roosevelt, Congress, and the Federal Reserve
cut spending and attempted to balance the budget

The first action F. Roosevelt took to help the crisis was to
declare a bank holiday that allowed only sound banks to reopen

a clear example of a legal system that was biased against blacks in the South
The Scottsboro case

Roosevelt heeded John Maynard Keyes advice on
deficit spending

reversed the Dawes Severalty Act and promoted tribal self-government
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

The protest that caused the biggest blow to Hoover’s popularity was the
Bonus Army

President Roosevelt differed from President Hoover in
his personal charisma and willingness to experiment

Between 1935 and 1943 the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
put unemployed workers directly on the federal payroll

What marked the early years of the Great Depression
high unemployment; massive business failures; and bank insolvencies

What was done to disable Francis Townsend’s support
Creation of the Social Security Administration

Who was the first major-party presidential candidate to reflect the aspirations of the urban working class and the democratic presidential candidate in 1928?
Alfred E. Smith

Welfare capitalism emerged in the 1920s in part
to stop unionization

Margaret Sanger is most famous for supporting
birth control

The prominent politician who fanned fears of domestic radicalism after a bomb exploded outside his home in 1919 was
A. Mitchell Palmer

What idea did advertising and mass media in the 1920s portray as far as American shopping habits?
all Americans were buying new consumer products

Accurately characterize the monkey trial of 1925
media circus

Which of the following cities experienced significant racial violence directed against blacks between 1917-1921
Tulsa, Oklahoma; Chicago, Illinois; Rosewood, Florida

Who controlled almost half of the national non-banking wealth, which characterizes American business in the 1920s?
The two hundred largest corporations

Which employment opportunity saw the greatest amount of improvement in the 1920s?
Industrial output

A series of bombings in 1919 led Americans to associate all radical or dissident political groups with violence
Red Scare of 1919-1921

Characterize US foreign policy during the 1920s?
The US actively sought to facilitate American economic expansion abroad

As secretary of Commerce under Warren Harding, Herbert Hoover supported expansion of the federal government through
voluntary cooperation with business in the public interest

Which of the following was the most grievous attack on civil liberties?
The Palmer Raids

The flapper, as an icon of American Culture, represented
the emancipated woman of the 1920s

The culture wars of the 1920s were due in part to
the tremendous growth of cities from immigration and rural migration

African Americans who served in WWI returned home to find
discrimination and race riots

The chief political virtue of Calvin Coolidge who became president on Harding’s death in 1923 and set him apart from the scandals from the Harding administration was his
unimpeachable morality

All of the following items became part of middle-class consumer cultures in the 1920s except
television

The rejuvenated Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s
targeted Catholic and Jewish immigrants as well as African Americans

At the time of the stock market crash in 1929 which sector of the American economy was in worst shape?
agriculture

The concept that championed black racial pride and cultural identity in the 1920s was known as the
Harlem Renaissance

During WWI the National War Labor Board did not support
the right of war workers to strike

What accurately characterizes women’s political participation during the 1920s
Women did not vote as a bloc

In the 1920s jazz;
represented a synthesis of African American music forms such as ragtime and the blues

What was a major weakness of the economy of the 1920s?
The unequal distribution of wealth

In its major initial contribution to the war effort of World War I, the US
used armed convoys to secure Allied shipping against submarine attack.

Herbert Hoover emerged from WWI as one of the nation’s most admired men because of his leadership of the
Food administration

What contributed to America expanding it’s markets into Latin America and Asia in the 1980’s
The Panic of 1893

President McKinley and the Republicans jumped at the chance to hold the Philippine Islands because
it provided the US with a major foothold in the western pacific and access to Asian markets.

America’s entry into WWI resulted in what?
one of the most important shifts of power in the 20th century

Around the turn of the century, which of the following countries actively pursued friendlier relations with the US?
Great Britain

After the explosion of the battleship Maine, a US naval board of inquiry blamed the sinking on
a mine

The battle in the Senate over the Treaty of Versailles centered around Article X, which was
a section of the League of Nations’ covenant that called for military action

In order to build the Panama Canal the US
lent covert assistance to free Panama from Columbia

The Influence of Sea Power Upon History was written by
Alfred Thayer Mahan

The first woman in congress who voted against going to WWI was
Jeanette Rankin

Who was the head of the Committee on Public Information
George Creel

What world leader was absent from the Versailles Treaty negotiations?
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin of Soviet Russia

In Abram v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that
authorities may prosecute speech when it represents a clear and present danger

Woodrow Wilson wished to keep the US neutral at the outbreak of WWI primarily because he
wanted to arbitrate among the combatants and to influence the settlement of the war

When William McKinley became president in 1897 and had to deal with the rebellion in Cuba he
took a tougher stance against the Spanish than Cleveland had taken

The Teller Amendment promised that the US
had no intention of annexing Cuba

The immediate cause for American entry into WWI was the
German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare

After considering his options for the disposition of the Philippines, President McKinley
decided to annex the entire Philippines under the justification that the Filipinos were unable to govern themselves

Which of the following statements accurately describes the state of American military preparedness in 1898?
The navy was better prepared than the ground forces

The outbreak of WWI was the culmination of a European crisis that began when a Bosnian recruited by Serbian terrorists assassinated the heir to the throne of
Austria-Hungary

All of the following forms of discrimination against Germans took place in the US during WWI except
the imprisonment of tens of thousands of German’s in internment camps

The greatest irony of America’s involvement in WWI was that it fought for democracy
with a racially segregated army

All of the following were ardent expressionists except
William Jennings Bryan

A lasting legacy of America’s participation in WWI was
woman suffrage

Worker’s compensation
between 1910 and 1917 all industrial states enacted laws pertaining to it. States had required on the job accidents

Robert Lafollette
governor of Wisconsin, Progressive leader, helped give his states’ voters recall and referendum

Roosevelt’s position on conservationism
conservationist, tried to balance the interests of industry and the public

Theodore Roosevelt
mug wump, popular hero of the Spanish American war, governor of New York, assistant secretary of the navy

The decision in the 1911 standard oil case
as a result of the Supreme court’s decision in this case, attorney general sped up the pace in antitrust actions

Military preparedness of the US army and navy
Better prepared than our ground forces

America blamed the sining of the U.S.S Maine originally
Navy blamed on hitting a mine

Teller Amendment promised
US had no interest in annexing Cuba

Cause of the Spanish-American War
Da Lome letter, sinking of the Maine, sympathy of the Cuban rebels, and concerns about our economic interests in Cuba (sugar)

President McKinley and the Republicans jumped at the chance to hold the Philippine islands because
It would give us a foothold in the Pacific near the Asian markets

Herbert Hoover emerged from WWI as one of our most admired men because of his leadership of the
Food Administration

The mos tlasting legacy of our participation in WWI was
women’s suffrage

Race relations during WWI
Blacks served in segregated units, given hazardous jobs, Native Americans were not allowed in combat, and blacks and whites were kept separate, which resulted in no racial violence

The Fourteen Points (Woodrow Wilson)
Freedom of navigation of the seas, arms reduction, the right to national self-determination, and the establishment of an organization to protect political and territorial rights

Who vowed they would not seek further territorial conquest
Woodrow Wilson when he became president in 1913

Jazz represented what in the 1920’s
a synthesis of African American music forms such as ragtime and blues

Rise of the KKK and the national origins act represented a resurgence of
Nativism

Trial in 1925 quickly became a media circus
Scopes monkey trial

Most visible part of the Harlem Renaissance was jazz and
Artists, writers, and musicians of the Harlem Renaissance

Frances Perkins
the first female cabinet member who served as a secretary of labor

Major cause of the 1937-1938 severe recession what Roosevelt, the Congress, and Federal Reserve did
Cut spending, attempted to balance the budget

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response when Congress declared NRI, AAA, and other New Deal legislation unconstitutional
Court packing plan

During his second term, New Deal plan passed in the court more easily because
Retirement of several conservative elderly justices, and their replacement for more liberal justices

FDR follows John Maynard Keyne’s advice on
deficit spending

Two examples of the endurance of New Deal Polices
Social Security and Wagner Acts

Who won 1936 election by a landslide
FDR

Between 1935 and 1943, put unemployed workers to work on federal pay roll by building rolls, bridges, public buildings, parks, and airports
WPA (Works Progress Administration)

Failure of the Social Security Act
did not include national health insurance

What caused the following groups to benefit at this time: unemployed, elderly, workers, and racial minorities
New Deal

President Roosevelt called this day that would “live in infamy”
Japan bombing of Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941)

Event that caused WWII to begin
Germany invaded Poland

Neturality Act of 1935
required warring nations that wanted to buy nonmilitary goods from the US to pay in cash, and supply their own shipping

1937 Amendment to the 1935 Neutrality Act
do not have to buy with cash now under certain conditions, belligerence could now buy nonmilitary goods under “cash and carry”

Discrimination/Segregation of black soldiers in WWII
soldiers were segregated in the war and were given menial jobs

GI Bill of Rights
provided education, medical care, pensions, and mortgage loans for those who served during the war

Presidential Election of 1948
Truman – Democrat, Henry Wallas – Progressive Party, Thomas Dewey – Republicans, Strom Thurmond – Dixiecrats

Opposed to African Americans in the army
Dixiecrats

NSC-68
the document said that the US must increase its military spending for defense

General MacArthur
lost his Korean command after writing a letter to the Republican Party in the House to criticize Truman’s conduct of the war

Truman’s practical reaction to North Korea invading South Korea
immediately asked the UN security council to authorize a police action against invaders

The Korean War
Led to major US military buildup, greatly expanded our involvement in Asia, established a precedent of not using atomic weapons in future Cold War conflicts and set a precedent that future presidents could commit troops in an undeclared war without Congress approval

Effects of the Korean War on US Army
led to the US keeping a standing army even in peacetime

Congress approved what part of Truman’s Fair Deal
they extended social security

Purpose of Taft-Hartley Act
reaction to deal with postwar strikes

Communist spying between 1930 and 1950
Soviet archives and American Intercepts proved that a fair amount of espionage took place, most of higher level spying took place in 1930 by New Dealers and associates of FDR, most historians believed there was very little spying in US after 1947 during the Second Red Scare, and many communist spies believed it was okay because the two countries weren’t at war during the 1930’s and were allies in WWII

“Elements” of the “good life” for middle-class Americans during the 1950’s
Devotion to family, emphasis on domesticity, preference for suburban living, high value of consumption

Characteristics of many newly built suburban communities in the ’50’s
contained few unmarried or elderly people, generally homogeneous in their population, often refused to allow sales to minorities, had regulations such as maintaining lawns and not hanging laundry on the weekends

What event caused Congress to approve the Interstate Highway Act
Cold War

Restrictive covenants
agreements that only allowed Caucasians to live in certain areas

Negative impact of the automobile in the 1950’s
tripled our consumption of oil in the 1970’s

Kennedy’s reaction to the Freedom Riders in 1961
finally took action besides being verbal on TV, ordered Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent federal marshals to Alabama to restore order

Eugene “Bull” Connor
Birmingham safety commissioner

Impact of demonstrations in Birmingham on JFK’s civil rights’ approach
JFK Demonstrations in Birmingham forced him to pursue legislation for Civil Rights on television and promised the new Civil Rights bill

Tools used by southern white activists to preserve racial segregation
attack dogs, high-pressure water hoses, murder, and bombing churches

The political consequence of the Democratic party embracing Civil Rights in the 1960’s
they lost followers in the 1970’s and 1980’s to the Republican Party

Civil Rights supporters assassinated in the 60’s
JFK, Medger Evars, Malcolm X, and MLK

Aimed at ending legal discrimination against blacks in many areas of American society
Civil Rights Act of 1964

What civil rights leaders would have pursued a different philosophy from Martin Luther King?
Malcolm X

“Long hot summers” ’64-’68 were caused by these
charges of police brutality often sparked riots

Significant parts of the philosophy of black nationalism in the 1960’s
Building African American owned businesses, total separation from the dominant white culture, pride in one’s community, wearing traditional African clothes to celebrate one’s own heritage

Greatest success of Johnson’s Great Society
improving financial situation of the elderly

Most negative outcome of operation Rolling Thunder
intensified the North Vietnamese’s’ will to fight

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
allowed Johnson to do whatever was necessary to prevent further aggression in Vietnam, which was when he was able to send troops into Vietnam

Focus of the 1963 report of the President’s Commission on the status of women
largely confined itself to documenting discrimination of women in the workplace and in education

Nixon’s greatest foreign policy succeses
Salt I and restoring relations with China

George McGovern
Democratic nominee for president in 1972

Implicated in the Watergate scandal
E. Howard Hunt, John Dean, G. Gordon Liddy, and John Mitchell

My Lai
village in South Vietnam where the American soldiers massacred over 500 villagers

Civil Rights movement was broadened to improve what groups of people in the 1970’s
women, gays and lesbians, alleged prisoners, prisoners

Similarity about government among the people in 1960’s and 1970’s
their distrust in their government

Impact of the “Silent Spring”
the Environmentalist movement was reborn

U.S. industry most hurt in the 1970’s by deindustrialization
the steel industry

What did most Americans face in the 1970s
Economic crisis, political realignment, cultural dislocation, and rapid social change

Significant of New York City in 1975
It nearly collapsed financially, the federal government ensured it would not go under by lending NY money that it did not have to pay back after 3 years to avoid bankruptcy

Impacts of post-Watergate political reforms passed by Congress
made government less efficient and susceptible to public interest, increased the power of special interests, decentralized the power of Washington, made government more transparent

Reasons for cynicism that Americans felt in the mid-1970’s
Urban riots, Watergate scandal, economic stagnation, Vietnam war

Most divisive educational issue in the 1970’s
bussing to secure racial integration

Reasons for opposition to the ERA by conservative men and working class women by the 1970’s
undermine traditional gender roles, create an unnatural unisex society, women would be drafted into the army, would be impossible to restrict abortion

New Right
Supported economic deregulation, low taxes, Christian morality, and a more robust Cold War foreign policy

American Enterprise Institute
Conservative “think tank,” they were to examine how to bring conservative issues to the people and they gave institutional support to the New Right;, issued policy proposals to attack legislation, claimed formed to explore and distribute conservative ideas

Conservative Protestants and Catholics who were part of the Religious Right
condemned abortion, premarital sex, divorce, and feminism

Jerry Falwell
televangelist in 1979 founded the Moral Majority

Core of the Republicans in the 1980’s
upper middle-class white Protestants

Ronald Regan’s legacy
appointed 360 federal court judges to the Supreme Court that were 95% conservative

Theory that supported supply-side economics
If you cut taxes to business and to people, they will spend that money, which will allow corporations to expand, hire more people, and they will end up paying more taxes which will eventually help the country

Difficult for conservative politicians to shrink the size and scope of involvement of the federal government
The government was entrenched in social, economic, defense welfare programs

Reagonomics
economic theory shifted wealth into the hands of military planners and wealthy Americans

Similarities between the presidencies of Reagan and Clinton
both experienced economic prosperity

American group that benefited the most from China’s turn to capitalism
American consumers

Majority of immigrants to the US between 1970 and 2000
Latin America and Eastern Asia

A major stumbling block to Clinton’s political agenda
Clinton could not get Congress to pass his programs because he lost control of the House and the Senate

Conservatives blamed the decline in “family values” on
the passage of liberal divorce laws, government funded childcare programs, welfare payments to unmarried mothers, and banning religious instruction from public schools

Public concern over “this” led to the passage of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996
we were encouraging dependence on welfare

The domestic issue that most engaged President George W. Bush and Ronald Regan
taxes

Issue that the legal terrain shifted in favor of social conservatives
abortion

Major accomplishments of the Clinton Administration
Expanded NATO, reformed welfare, protected Bosnia, Kosovo, and hurt Herzegovina from Serbian expansion, balanced the federal budget and paid down much of our deficit

Impacts of the Immigration Act of 1965
made it easier for professionals and scientists to emigrate to the United States, created a more equal playing field among nations, admitted immigrants who had family members living in the US even if the quota had been past, gave artists of exceptional ability and workers with skills that we needed an advantage in emigration

Elements of Johnson’s Great Society
civil rights legislation, education initiatives, healthcare reform, poverty programs

Shootings at Kent State University
four students were shot because they were protesting Nixon’s secret expansion of the war into Cambodia

New Right disliked
powerful federal government and feared declining social morality

In Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, the Supreme Court
upheld a state’s right to restrict the use of public funds and institutions for abortions.

In 2000, the Al Qaeda terrorist network bombed a U.S. military
warship.

By the 1990s, the U.S. health-care system suffered from all of the following problems except
increasingly ineffective procedures and medicines.

George Bush paid a heavy political price when in 1991 he agreed to
a combination of spending cuts and the largest tax increase in history.

Which of the following is an important conservative organizational think tank that gives institutional support to the New Right?
All of the above

The 1994 Republican “Contract with America” can most accurately be characterized as
initiatives to set term limits, offer significant tax cuts, cut back federal regulations, and reduce entitlement programs.

Why did Bill Clinton win reelection in 1996?
A united Democratic Party inspired by Republican control of Congress, an uninspiring opponent in Bob Dole, and great effort combined to deliver 49 percent of the popular vote for Clinton.

In the 1992 presidential campaign,
the Democrats nominated Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, a self-styled “New Democrat” who would bring “Reagan Democrats” and middle-class voters back to the party.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the circumstances leading up to armed confrontation with Iraq?
In November 1990 the UN Security Council voted to authorize the use of force if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15, 1991.

The 1994 Republican “Contract with America” can most accurately be characterized as
programs to increase the size and activity of federal government.

Which of the following was not a major fundamentalist Christian leader of the New Right?
Edward Kennedy

What percentage of American children were growing up in households in the 1990s that conformed to the model of the ideal American family?
30 percent

Which of the following impacts on leisure did computers have for the average American?
All of the above

All of the following are transformations of work life created by the computer revolution except that
individual users were not able to telecommute from home.

All of the following are transformations of work life created by the computer revolution except that
individual users were not able to telecommute from home.

In 1994, President Bill Clinton arranged a meeting between Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and Yasir Arafat, chairman of
the Palestine Liberation Organization.

The economic recovery of the United States during the 1990s included all of the following factors except
the nation’s heavy industries increased market sha

During the 2006 elections, the Republican party was plagued by a major sex scandal involving
Mark Foley

To legitimize a U.S. invasion of Iraq before world opinion, President Bush needed approval by
the UN Security Council.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the U.S. attack on Iraq led by President George W. Bush?
All of the above

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the Democratic party’s campaign response to the Iraq War during the 2004 presidential election?
The party was split over supporting U.S. participation in the war.

The controversial Secretary of Defense under President Bush was
Donald Rumsfeld.

Which of the following states presented contested election returns that generated an intense political controversy in the 2000 presidential race?
Florida

Which of the following government agencies finally determined the outcome of the 2000 election?
The judicial branch

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the concept of hegemony?
The predominant influence of one state over another

The worst domestic terror attack in U.S. history took place on September 11
2001.

Which of the following statements does not characterize the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act in 2001?
The act decreased the government’s powers of domestic surveillance.

George W. Bush’s Democratic adversary during the 2000 election was
Al Gore

The instruction that Franklin Roosevelt received at home and at school while growing up in Hyde Park, New York, instilled in him a belief that
the privileged had a duty to look after the welfare of the poor and weak.

How did Roosevelt’s stay in Georgia for polio treatment help his political career?
It allowed him to develop political relationships with southern Democrats.

During Roosevelt’s term as governor of New York, he tried to relieve the economic strain on the needy and angered conservatives who
believed that the government should stay out of the economy and let market forces run their course.

What were some of the characteristics of Democratic Party supporters in 1932?
They were divided by region, religion, culture, and ethnicity.

What were the watchwords of President Roosevelt and his New Deal advisers?
Action, experiment, and improvise

The Emergency Banking Act and the Glass-Steagall Banking Act both modified the American banking system to allow
banks to be operated privately with the support of federal funding while implementing more stringent regulation of their practices.

Franklin Roosevelt’s “fireside chats,” which quickly became a fixture of his administration,
enabled Roosevelt to build a rapport with millions of ordinary Americans.

By what method did the Securities and Exchange Commission try to reform the stock market in the 1930s?
Monitoring all stock transactions

For what reason did business leaders continue to criticize the New Deal even as their economic situation improved?
Fears of government regulation, higher taxes, and union organization

What was the impact of the American Liberty League’s well-financed publicity campaign in the 1930s?
It underscored the divisions between the business community and the Roosevelt administration.

The failure of the National Recovery Administration (NRA) demonstrated that
American businesses would not yield their autonomy voluntarily.

What allowed the Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA) to fare better than the NRA?
The disbursement of allotment checks and rising farm produce prices engendered loyalty among farmers large enough to qualify for the program.

In addition to providing public works jobs for unemployed Americans, what other kinds of jobs did the Works Progress Administration create?
The WPA gave jobs to many artists to make use of their talents for public benefit.

Which groups of people joined unions after the passage of the Wagner Act in 1935?
Unskilled factory workers including immigrants, women, and African Americans

Which incident facilitated the United Auto Workers (UAW) successful unionization efforts at General Motors in 1937?
A “sit-down” strike that crippled production on the main assembly plant in Flint, Michigan

Why did economic conservatives and the Republican Party oppose Social Security?
They believed it would give the government too much control over private property and destroy Americans’ work ethic.

In what way did President Roosevelt characterize his administration during the election campaign of 1936?
Heroic and righteous in its efforts to combat the greedy capitalists who lusted for power

For what reason did President Roosevelt want to change the composition of the Supreme Court?
He felt that the actions of the Court against New Deal programs threatened the ability of Congress to act effectively in times of emergency.

Factors that began to work against the expansion of New Deal programs included
antagonism between conservatives and New Dealers, as well as Roosevelt’s own conviction that the depression was largely over.

How did Roosevelt signal a halt to New Deal reforms in his annual message to Congress in January of 1939?
He warned about the threats posed by fascism in Europe and proposed massive new defense expenditures.

By what means did Franklin Roosevelt take action against the Great Depression in his capacity as governor of New York?
Providing $20 million for the poor and unemployed through the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration

Aware of fascist or Communist plans some European leaders used to combat the Great Depression, Franklin Roosevelt’s supporters thought that he
would use government to rescue American democracy and capitalism.

What made Democrats attending the July 1932 nominating convention in Chicago optimistic about their prospects for victory in the upcoming presidential election?
President Hoover was deeply unpopular.

In the election of 1932, Franklin Roosevelt defeated Herbert Hoover
by winning 57 percent of the popular vote and close to 90 percent of the electoral votes.

What did the Civilian Conservation Corps offered unemployed men in the 1930s?
The chance to be paid for useful work building dams, planting trees, and constructing roads

For what purpose was the New Deal’s Tennessee Valley Authority designed?
To build hydroelectric power dams along the Tennessee River

The “domestic allotment plan,” which formed the centerpiece of the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) did what?
Paid farmers to take land out of production

New Dealers hoped that the National Recovery Administration (NRA) would produce a collective social conscience among businesses through
coordination of management, labor, and the federal government.

With which group did the Supreme Court side in its 1936 decision against the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)?
Agricultural processors and distributors

What was the Southern Tenant Farmers’ Union’s criticism of the AAA?
The AAA enriched large farmers at the expense of smaller ones.

What did Father Charles Coughlin do in his Depression era radio broadcasts that gained him widespread popular support?
He spoke against villainous “predatory capitalists.”

What actions made Huey P. Long, the governor of Louisiana in the 1930s, a nationally known political figure?
Building roads, hospitals, and schools

In 1937, the Supreme Court ruled that the Social Security system was
legal and allowed Congress to tax all citizens to pay for the program.

For what reason did President Franklin D. Roosevelt want to enact comprehensive tax reform in the 1930s?
He saw both societal and political advantages to breaking up the large fortunes of the country’s wealthiest citizens

How did New Deal programs and the efforts of the Roosevelt administration affect African Americans in the 1930s?
Roosevelt increased their representation in the federal government but failed to improve their overall economic and social status

What development created a major change in the circumstances of Native Americans during the New Deal?
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which tried to reverse the assimilationist goals of the Dawes Act

After steady economic recovery through 1936, what was the outcome of President Roosevelt’s post-election retreat from deficit spending?
A downturn in national income and production that reversed many of the gains brought by the New Deal

The economic model developed in the 1930s by John Maynard Keynes advocated
government intervention to revive production, boost consumption, and restore prosperity.

Which groups were exempted from the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act in order to guarantee its passage through Congress?
Merchant seamen, fishermen, domestic help, and farm laborers

President Roosevelt never was able to escape his need for southern political support, which tainted the New Deal with a legacy of
failing to address racial injustice.

What event followed Franklin Roosevelt’s cooling of support for the League of Nations in 1932?
Japan’s and Germany’s withdrawal from the league.

President Roosevelt’s good neighbor policy suggested a shift from previous administrations that had
used military force in Latin American nations.

What did the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934 give the president the power to do?
Reduce American tariffs for countries that would lower their tariffs on American exports in return

In September 1938, Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, offered Adolf Hitler terms of “appeasement,” which included the stipulation that Hitler
leave the rest of Czechoslovakia alone.

Which of these factors helped the undermanned and outgunned Royal Air Force to defeat the Germans in the Battle of Britain
New radar technology and access to Germany’s military plans

What did the revision of the Neutrality Act of 1937 allow belligerent nations to purchase from the United States on a cash-and-carry basis?
arms and nonmilitary supplies

In 1942, President Roosevelt issued an executive order that all Americans of Japanese descent be rounded up and
confined in “relocation centers.”

Women who joined the military during World War II
served in many different capacities but were barred from combat duty.

During World War II, military policy relegated African Americans to performing menial tasks in
segregated units.

Which of the following tasks was the War Production Board’s responsibility during World War II?
Setting production priorities and pushing for maximum output

After it conquered the oil-rich Dutch East Indies in 1942, where did Japan next aim its sights?
Australia and New Zealand

What was the American military officials’ strategy to reverse the Japanese advance in the Pacific in 1942?
To focus on two different areas of the Pacific

Which of the following strategic questions did the Allies have to resolve in the campaign against the Nazis in 1942?
When to take the step of opening a second front

What new job opportunities did the wartime economy create for American women during the years 1941-1945?
Factory work on production lines

How did the war overseas between 1941 and 1945 affect the U.S. domestic economy?
World War II dramatically expanded American employment and wages.

During the 1940s, the majority of African Americans migrated to
northern and western cities.

What did African Americans’ migration to defense jobs in industrial cities bring them along with economic progress?
Racial antagonism

Which battle resulted from Hitler’s attack late in 1944 on a crucial Allied supply port?
Battle of the Bulge.

What did Stalin promise to Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference in February 1945?
He would allow the self-determination of eastern European countries.

What was the name of the new international organization the “Big Three” agreed to create during the Yalta Conference in 1945?
United Nations

What did the U.S. Senate’s 1933 Nye committee conclude?
The real motivation for U.S. involvement in World War I was the greed of American munitions makers, bankers, and financiers.

What did Congress hope to avoid by passing the Neutrality Act of 1937?
A complete ban on foreign trade

What kind of response did President Roosevelt receive when he suggested, in a 1937 speech in Chicago, that the United States government should be more assertive toward aggressor nations?
A storm of protest from isolationists who charged Roosevelt with betraying “Americanism”

In his campaign for an unprecedented third term as president, Franklin Roosevelt tried to
allay Americans’ fears that he would quickly lead them into war.

What was the Roosevelt administration hoping to achieve with the 1941 Lend-Lease Act?
Roosevelt wanted Britain to obtain arms from the United States without paying cash.

What made the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor a serious strategic error?
It galvanized American support for full-scale entry into World War II.

What did Roosevelt’s “Dr. Win-the-War” strategy achieve that had not already been accomplished by the New Deal?
Full employment and economic recovery

Where did the majority of Japanese Americans live in 1941?
Hawaii

What was the function of the Selective Service Act of 1940?
It registered men of military age to be drafted into the armed services.

How were gay Americans involved in World War II?
Gay Americans served in all branches of the military.

What occurred after Japan’s assault on the Philippines in 1942?
Thousands of American and Filipino prisoners died during a sixty-five-mile march to a concentration camp.

In October and November 1942, the British stopped German General Erwin Rommel in Egypt, preventing his
capture of the Suez Canal.

When they met in Casablanca in 1943, what did the Allied leaders agree to as their next course of action?
Roosevelt and Churchill decided the Allies would invade Italy first

Republicans viewed the war years as an opportunity to do what?
Roll back New Deal reforms

To ensure his success in the 1944 presidential campaign, President Roosevelt decided to replace his current vice president, Henry Wallace, with which new running mate?
Harry S. Truman

How did U.S. officials respond to initial reports of the Holocaust—the mass murder of Jews and others deemed “undesirable” by the Nazis?
U.S. officials discounted the reports as exaggerations and refused to ease immigration restrictions.

What was the total number of civilian victims—including Jews, gays, gypsies, and religious and political dissenters—exterminated by the Nazis?
11 million

What gave the Allies a tactical advantage over the Germans going into D-Day?
The large deployment of Nazi troops in the east left the western front without enough troops, and the Luftwaffe had already been decimated by Allied air raids.

In the 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf, Allied forces captured two vital island strongholds within bombing range of Japan including Okinawa and
Iwo Jima.

Three days after the Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb that killed 78,000 Japanese people, American airmen dropped a second atomic bomb on what city?
Three days after the Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb that killed 78,000 Japanese people, American airmen dropped a second atomic bomb on what city?
Nagasaki

At the end of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union each had a vision of the postwar world that
was shaped by suspicion, distrust, and antagonism toward the other.

Which of the following strategies did Americans believe Britain and France should have pursued to prevent the outbreak of World War II?
Britain and France should have resisted Hitler’s initial aggression in Austria and Czechoslovakia.

After World War II, Joseph Stalin felt that U.S. officials’ insistence that he permit democratic elections in Eastern Europe was
hypocritical

What issue formed the crux of American and Soviet policymakers’ 1946 disputes over Germany’s future?
Reindustrialization

George F. Kennan was the diplomat responsible for which post-WWII foreign policy strategy?
Containment

The European Recovery Program approved by Congress in March 1948 did which one of the following things?
Helped to restore the economies of sixteen Western European nations

How did President Truman respond when Jews in Palestine declared the independent state of Israel in May 1948?
Truman recognized the new country immediately

Which of the following sums up Harry S. Truman’s approach to domestic policy at the end of World War II?
Truman worked to expand the social and economic powers the U.S. government had gained during the New Deal and the war.

With regard to postwar economic problems, most Americans placed the blame for rising prices and shortages of consumer goods on
organized labor

The federal government made a landmark commitment to address the housing needs of the poor with congressional approval of what policy?
The Housing Act of 1949

The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 provided what to the 16 million returning World War II veterans?
Funding for education or job training, unemployment compensation, and access to government loans

Why did the GI Bill fail to benefit African American and white veterans equally?
State- and local-level GI program administrators and providers discriminated against African Americans.

How did Republicans during the postwar period try to undermine New Deal programs and Democrats in general?
By associating both with communism

What did the Supreme Court rule in Dennis v. United States (1951), a case involving a Communist Party leader who had been found guilty of violating the Smith Act?
The Communist threat in America outweighed constitutional guarantees.

Which political leader instigated the June 1950 invasion of 90,000 North Koreans into South Korea?
Kim Il-Sung

How did the United States take advantage of the Soviet Union’s absence from the UN Security Council in June 1950?
It obtained UN sponsorship of a military defense of South Korea.

With the help of the Chinese, the North Koreans drove the UN forces back into South Korea and recaptured
Seoul.

What was the significance of Truman’s decision to dispatch troops to Korea without an official declaration of war from Congress?
Truman’s decision violated the spirit of the Constitution and contributed to the expansion of executive power that became characteristic of the Cold War.

By the end of the Korean War in 1953, U.S. defense spending had risen to $50 billion, representing what percent of the total federal budget?
70 percent

The experience of the Korean War induced the Truman administration to
expand its role in Asia by aiding the French forces fighting in Indochina.

What was the principle behind the policy of deterrence?
One’s own nuclear arsenal had to be more powerful than that of one’s opponent in order to deter either from attacking.

Why did Truman approve the development of a hydrogen bomb in 1950?
Truman was concerned about America’s loss of its monopoly on nuclear weapons.

Regional military alliances were the practical realization of an important component of which postwar military strategy?
Collective security

What was the goal of The National Security Act of 1947?
To streamline defense planning by uniting the military branches under a single secretary of defense

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was the part of the government’s postwar national security plan intended to
develop an espionage network and deter communism through covert activities.

Which of the following occurrences facilitated the victory of Communist Mao Zedong and his supporters at the end of the civil war in China in 1949?
The Communists’ resistance against the Japanese during World War II and their land reform efforts

By 1948, the United States had shifted its focus in Japan from trying to reform the Japanese government and decentralize the country’s economy to
restoring Japan’s industrial capabilities.

When did President Truman’s 1948 executive order to desegregate the armed forces finally go into effect?
During the Korean War

What caused the growth of African Americans’ political clout during the 1940s?
Wartime migration to northern and western cities created two million new black voters.

Which practice did LULAC and the GI Forum convince a federal court to prohibit in Texas school districts’ in 1948?
Segregating Mexican American students in separate schools or classrooms

Why were labor unions opposed to the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947?
It reduced the power of organized labor and made it more difficult for unions to organize workers.

In the 1948 election the Democratic Party split into several factions due to disagreements over
foreign policy and civil rights

How did the McCarran-Walter Act of 1952 break with previous immigration legislation?
It ended the ban on immigration and citizenship for the Japanese and other Asians.

When did Truman’s loyalty program, which caused more than 2,000 federal employees to lose their jobs, end?
Mid-1950s

How did General Douglas MacArthur respond to President Truman’s decision to pursue a negotiated settlement to the Korean conflict that would allow Communist rule in North Korea to continue?
MacArthur publicly challenged the president’s authority

Most Americans sided with General MacArthur on the issue of the Korean War because his attitude reinforced their belief that
the United States was too powerful to negotiate.

Which Democrat ran opposite General Dwight d. Eisenhower in the 1952 presidential election?
Adlai Stevenson

Why General Dwight Eisenhower decided to run for president when he believed that soldiers should stay out of politics?
Eisenhower disliked the foreign policy views of the leading Republican candidate and Democrats’ costly domestic programs.

How had Richard M. Nixon made his name in politics by the time he became Eisenhower’s running mate?
Nixon exploited the Red scare for political gain.

After the 1953 armistice, what made Truman judge the Korean War to be a success for containment?
The United States demonstrated that it would help nations resisting communism.

What was President Eisenhower’s policy with regard to the domestic reforms made during the New Deal?
He left the size and functions of the government intact.

He left the size and functions of the government intact.
never publicly denounced McCarthy.

Although liberals ridiculed Dwight Eisenhower’s conservatism by calling him President “Eisen-hoover,” his administration
extended the welfare state

President Eisenhower helped to foster large tax cuts that
favored business and the wealthy.

How did President Eisenhower’s administration approach the policy of containment?
Eisenhower criticized containment but continued it.

What prevented the Eisenhower administration from intervening in the Soviet suppression of the Hungarian revolt of 1956?
Knowledge that intervention would risk American lives and nuclear war

President Eisenhower applied the domino theory to which region?
Southeast Asia

Why did the Eisenhower administration accept South Vietnamese Prime Minister Diem’s refusal to hold the free elections mandated by the 1954 Geneva Accords?
There was a strong likelihood of a Communist victory.

What led to the significant increase in the productivity of postwar American agriculture?
Technological improvements and mechanization helped farmers to prosper.

Which groups were among the losers during the agricultural transformations of the 1950s?
Small farmers, southern sharecroppers, and African Americans

In 1957, union membership as a percentage of the total labor force peaked at what level?
27.1 percent

In what way did William J. Levitt help to make the suburbs accessible to families with modest incomes?
He applied assembly-line production methods to the construction of houses.

By 1960, what did economists suggest about the American middle class?
It had grown to include 60 percent of the U.S. population

What development stimulated the acquisition of consumer goods by Americans in the 1950s?
Consumer credit and indebtedness

What did Betty Friedan’s 1963 book, The Feminine Mystique, argue about American society’s idealization of the roles of wife and mother?
These idealized roles pressured women to seek fulfillment in serving others.

What was the chronological span of the baby boom, the population surge that peaked in 1957?
1945 to 1960

In the South, the civil rights movement benefited from African Americans’ control of
organizational resources that were essential to organizing a mass movement

What event symbolized the crowning achievement of The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in the 1950s?
The Supreme Court’s vote in favor of Oliver Brown in Brown v. Board of Education

In what way did President Eisenhower bring federal intervention to the South for the first time since Reconstruction?
He sent armed forces to oversee the integration of a public school

What organization chose Martin Luther King Jr. to lead its efforts to coordinate local protests against segregation and disfranchisement in 1957?
What organization chose Martin Luther King Jr. to lead its efforts to coordinate local protests against segregation and disfranchisement in 1957?
Southern Christian Leadership Association

What was one of the flaws in the Indian Claims Commission’s program to repay Native Americans whose land had been taken by the U.S. government?
The commission’s monetary awards did not reflect present-day land values.

To what did the federal government’s “termination” policy refer with regard to Native Americans?
The federal government’s intention to end its trustee relationship with Indian tribes

What was the purpose of the federal government’s relocation policy, first implemented in 1948?
Relocation promoted assimilation by encouraging Indians to move from the reservations to cities.

Which factor led to the leadership challenges President Eisenhower faced during his second term?
The resurgence of Democrats and an economic recession

Which country drove out its U.S.-supported dictator during the Eisenhower years?
Cuba

For what reason did President Eisenhower authorize CIA agents to engage in covert activities in Iran for the purpose of undermining Mohammed Mossadegh’s political power?
To protect U.S. oil interests

How did the Eisenhower Doctrine continue the U.S. policy of containment?
The doctrine sought approval for American aid to any Middle Eastern nation that requested assistance against armed aggression from any Communist country

As he left office, what did Dwight Eisenhower tell Americans about the military and the arms industry?
They exercised too much influence on government.

As white Americans joined the suburban migration in the 1950s, where did African Americans move?
To cities in search of economic opportunity

In addition to the appeal of a warm climate, what drew many Americans to the Sun Belt cities in the postwar years?
The promise of economic opportunity

On what basis did civil rights advocates praise the Supreme Court’s ruling in Hernandez v. Texas?
It recognized the unconstitutionality of the exclusion of Mexican Americans from juries.

Although more and more women attended college during and after World War II,
their number did not keep pace with the number of men attending college.

How did social critics view the surge of interest in religion in America in the 1950s?
They discounted it and questioned the depth of the religious revival.

In what way did television begin to play a role in politics in the 1950s?
Television forced candidates to raise huge sums for expensive television spots

Intellectuals such as David Riesman criticized the popular culture of the 1950s for its celebration of which elements of American society?
Materialism and conformity

What did members of the Beat generation celebrate in the 1950s?
The possibilities of spontaneity and absolute personal freedom

What role did Jo Ann Robinson and her fellow members of the Women’s Political Council play in the Montgomery boycott of 1955-1956?
They mobilized teachers and students around Montgomery to distribute fliers calling for the city’s black citizens to stay off the buses.

How did the Montgomery Improvement Association operate during the bus boycott in 1955-1956?
The MIA organized an alternative transportation system of volunteer car pools

How did the Supreme Court rule in its November 1956 decision regarding the lawsuit that resulted from Rosa Parks’s arrest?
It found the relevant laws of Alabama were unconstitutional.

What did the appearance of Martin Luther King Jr.’s face on the cover of Time magazine in February 1957 symbolize?
The beginning of his rapid rise to national and international fame

Which of the following was NOT true about the Servicemen’s Reeadjustment Act of 1944?
Congress originally wanted to extend welfare benefits to all Americans but FDR threatened a veto

What progressive legislation was passed during WWII to encourage women workers in the war effort?
Government child-care programs

A Progressive-era reform that was undermined by the government’s action during WWII was
antitrust prosecution

Which of the following is true for the Civil War and both WWI and WWII?
Government intervention in the economy helped labor unions grow

The presidencies of Lincoln and Roosevelt are similar in that each administration
limited the civil rights of American citizens

The Truman administration avoided the immediate threat of a postwar depression partially through
the GI Bill

The first anti-union legislation since the 1920s was
the Taft-Hartley Act

Which of the following is most directly associated with McCarthyism?
House Un-American Activities Committee

French occupation of Vietnam ended as a result of
the French defeat at Dienbienphy

Which provision of the Geneva Accords was never realized?
Free elections for a united Vietnam in 1956

Which of the following is true of post-WWII American?
Americans enjoyed the highest standard of living in the world

The popularity of Billy Graham and movies like “The Ten Commandments” in the 1950s is reminiscent of life during
the Roaring Twenties

Which of the following is most responsible for Congress’s approval of the Interstate Highway Act?
The Cold War

President Truman’s civil rights stance made up for the omissions of
the Progressive Era

The Treaty of Detroit, creating a broady based “labor-management accord”, was based on
general acceptance of collective bargaining

Kennedy’s “new politics” did NOT include
implementation of whistle-stop tours

Funds for food, education, and medicine in Latin American during the Kennedy administration were provided by the
Alliance for Progress

Operation Rolling Thunder
intensified the North Vietnamese will to fight

In 1968, the American Indian Movement was organized to protest
All of the Above

Which of the following in NOT an aspect of the antiwar movement?
Bobby Kennedy’s assassination

Society’s changing attitudes towards women and sex in the 1970s did NOT include
an increase in the decade’s birthrate

An outgrowth of the rights revolution of the 1960s and 1970s was
the widening of the belief in the federal government’s responsibilities

The most striking similarity between the 1960s and the 1970s occurred with regard to
distrust of government

California’s Prop 13 stemmed from the same motivation as
Shay’s Rebellion

Of the following, the most detrimental to expanding women’s rights was
Phyllis Schlaffy

Consider the following statement, made by the United States CIA director at the end of the Cold War.
“We have slain a large dragon, but we live now in a jungle of poisonous snakes. And in many ways the dragon was easier to keep track of.”
To whom was the director referring when he spoke of the large dragon?
The Soviet Union

Consider the following statement, made by the United States CIA director at the end of the Cold War.
“We have slain a large dragon, but we live now in a jungle of poisonous snakes. And in many ways the dragon was easier to keep track of.”
Which of the following incidents in indicative of what the director was saying?
All of the above

Consider the following statement, made by the United States CIA director at the end of the Cold War.
“We have slain a large dragon, but we live now in a jungle of poisonous snakes. And in many ways the dragon was easier to keep track of.”
Among the following, which is considered to be one of the “poisonous snakes”?
Al Qaeda

Reaganomics shifted wealth into the hands of
military planners and wealthy Americans

Why has it been so difficult for conservative politicians to shrink the size and scope of the federal government?
The government is entrenched in social, economic, and defense welfare of Americans

Use of the internet became popular during the presidential administration of
Bill Clinton

Both Ivan Boesky and Martha Stewart
served prison terms for insider trading

The biggest problem with the boom economy of the 1980s and the 1990s was
the immense disparity between rich and poor

Who, among the following, would most likely favor globalization?
The Group of Seven (G-7)

The “Balkanization” of America refers to the
multicultural movement

Which of the following entities, affected by China’s turn toward capitalism, benefitted the United States?
Chinese exports

Which Bush action represented more government intrusion on local autonomy?
No Child Left Behind

Which Bush program was not enacted?
Social Security reform

Which of the following contributed most to George W. Bush’s early problems with diplomatic relations?
The president’s unilateralism regarding world issues

One conservative effort to take back the country is demonstrated by
its project to select and groom appropriate law students for future Supreme Court positions

Which constitutional provision shows a lack of trust in the “people”?
Method of electing a new president

George Washington warned against foreign entanglements and political parties in his farewell address. What was the most probable reason for his concerns?
The youth and weakness of the new republic

The transportation revolution portended the Civil War in that it
linked the economies of the Northeast and the Midwest

The Know-Nothing party was created in opposition to
Irish and German immigrants

The “South Carolina Exposition and Protest”, written by John Calhoun, was most similar to the arguments made by
Jefferson and Madison in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

President Jackson’s main argument for destroying the bank was that the
bank was a monopoly that benefitted only a few owners, some of whom were foreign

Nat Turner’s Rebellion resulted in
stricter slave codes and greater limits on slave movements

Frances Wright, Dorothea Dix, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were all
working toward reforming society

Of the following, who would most likely believe that the Civil War was inevitable and nothing could be done to stop it?
William Seward

Which of the following was a cause of both the War of 1812 and the Mexican War?
The US wanted to acquire another nation’s territory

The South was unable to convince England to enter the Civil War on her behalf largely because
England no longed needed Souther cotton

A result of the Great Awakening was
the growth of a democratic spirit

Which conflict is properly paired?
Stono Rebellion – slaves versus masters

Why was very little emphasis placed on developing the fine arts during the colonial period?
The population was expanding its energy building the nation

The War of 1812 was similar to the American Revolution because in both wars,
the British were fighting both the Americans and France

the Hartford Convention’s proposals were most similar to those expressed in
the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

A colonial institution that did NOT have its roots in England was
town meetings

Which is true about colonial American?
The British government was quite conciliatory united the Boston Tea Party incident

The Lewis and Clark expedition
determined that there was no commercially viable inland water route to the Pacific

By far, the worst depression in American history, up until the Great Depression of the 1930s was in
1893

What do the Railroad Strike of 1877 and the great Pullman boycott of 1894 have in common?
The federal government sent troops to put both strikes down

What is the irony of the Pendleton Act passing during Chester A. Arthur’s presidency?
Much of Arthur’s power as a Stalwart came from that spoils system

The basic cause of the “Agrarian Crusade” of the late nineteenth century was most similar to that of
Shay’s Rebellion

Dollar diplomacy
made use of private capital investments to gain influence in foreign nations

World Wars I and II and the New Deal all
led to new federal bureaucracies

In what way are the War of 1812 and WWI similar? In both, the United States
actively declared the rights of neutral nations

The greatest hinderance to reform in the 1920s was the
Red Scare

The rise of the Ku Klux Klan and the National Origins Act represented a resurgence of
nativism

The Scottsboro case, the popularity of the novel “Gone With the Wind”, and the movie “Birth of a Nation” indicated Americans’
racial prejudice

What was done to disable Francis Townsend’s support?
Creation of the Social Security Administration

Which legislation was passed to undermine Huey Long’s support?
the Wealth tax

Roosevelt’s decision to recognize the Soviet Union in 1933 was influenced by
the rise of militarism in Germany, Italy and Japan

The “cash-and-carry” provisions were added to the Neutrality Acts in 1937 because the United States
government did not want a repetition of what led us to fight in WWI

Korematsu v. United States legitimized the
forced internment of AMericans of Japanese descent into relocation camps

An undercurrent in Americans politics that was apparent in the elections of 1948, 1952, and 1956 was
the importance of the economy in determining voter choice

The Taft-Hartley Act undermined much that was achieved in the
Wagner Act

American foreign policy in the Middle East from the Eisenhower Doctrine through the 1970s was consistently affect by the
American support for Israel

The legacy of the Nixon administration was
the public’s cynicism about politicians and government

Th Sun Belt attracted both migrants and business men due to its
all of the above

The Civil Rights Acts of 1964 aimed at
ending discrimination in voting, housing, and employment

By increasing America’s arms build-up in defense against communism, President Reagan abandoned the diplomatic policy of former president
Richard Nixon

Which of the following was an unanticipated effect of the Cold War on the United States?
Far-reaching equality movements

Terrorist techniques are an ironic outgrowth of the most radical elements of the
pro-life faction

The terrorist perpetrators of 9/11 have been likened to
WWII kamikaze pilots

Who of the following would most dislike George W. Bush’s $8 trillion, foreign-owed debt?
Andrew JACKSON

What was the key issue that led to the Taft-Roosevelt split?
conservation

Teddy Roosevelt’s New Nationalism called for the government to get involved with social justice when he said the central issue was
congressional indifference about human concerns

Booker T. Washington’s Atlanta Compromise suggested that
accommodation would lead to black economic progress, which would lead to political and civil rights

The Niagara Movement led to
the NAACP

Why did federal bureaucracy grow so rapidly during the Progressive ERa
staff hired by government to realize new regulations

One of the foremost reforms made under Wilson’s New Freedom program was the creation of a central bank divided into 12 districts that would allow for the elasticity of money. This reform was the
Federal Reserve Act

Wilson’s improvement on the Sherman Antitrust Act was known as the
Clayton Antitrust Act

The organization that had power to investigate companies and issue “cease and desist” orders against unfair business practices was the
Federal Trade Commission

Which of the following is NOT a contribution of the Progressives?
A radical ideology began that would last for 30 years

Mary White Ovington and W.E.B. Du Bois were both founders of the
NAACP

The National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs was effective in its efforts to improve the life of African Americans because it
was able to reach across the color line and find support

Which of the following is properly matched?
Booker T. Washington–black economic progress and manual education

“The largest, longest-run agricultural and environmental miscalculation in American history” refers to
farming of the Great Plains

In 1891, Thomas Morgan, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, called for assimilation of Native Americans through
education

Which of the following is properly matched?
Chinese—transcontinental railroad

Which of the following is most in keeping with the “Know-Nothing” Party’s philosophy?
The Chinese Exclusion Act

Mark Twain had most in common with
Ned Buntline

Which of the following is true for labor in both the colonial days and in the late nineteenth century?
The shortage of workers was a challenge

A practice that differentiated late-nineteenth century industry from its earlier counterparts before the Civil War was
advertising

Who, among the following, epitomizes a Horatio Alger story?
Andrew Carnegie

The AFL was more successful than the Knights of Labor, mainly because
the AFL represented “bread and butter” issues

Which of the following statements is true regarding American labor in the late nineteenth century?
The Western Federation of Miners and the IWW were among the most radical of the unions

The rise of nickelodeons, amusement parks, dance halls, vaudeville, and other “cheap amusements” had the effect of
challenging traditional courtship rituals

Which of the following would Mark Twain think best embodies the spirit of the “Gilded Age”?
Ward McAllister’s Social Register

Which of the following represents the “genteel tradition” begun in the 1860s?
The Atlantic Monthly

Which phenomenon most influenced the rise of the cult of masculinity?
Urban life and work

Which is NOT true of Tammany Hall?
Its power was broken by William Marcy Tweed

The late nineteenth century is known as the “Age of Robber Barons.” What were robber barons?
Capitalists who became wealthy from the economic system but contributed nothing to it

An effect of the Civil War and the South’s resultant supply of cheap labor was
southern economic retardation and stagnation

A result of mass production was that
skilled workers gradually lost their autonomy.

“It looks to me like slavery to have a man stand over you with a stop watch.” To what is this iron molder referring?
Scientific management

What do the Railroad Strike of 1877 and the great Pullman boycott of 1894 have in common?
The federal government sent troops to put both strikes down

What was a major effect of the American radical movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century?
It exposed the exploitative and unjust features of the American industrial order

The United States encouraged Chinese immigration through such means as the Burlingame Treaty (1868) partially
to provide workers for the Central Pacific Railroad

What Jeffersonian ideal was cited to allow business to grow and prosper without regulation, often at the expense of its workers and consumers?
The government that governs best, governs least

A poor young boy who makes his way in the world regardless of the obstacles in his path and rises to greatness, is the theme of stories by
Horatio Alger

The growth of trusts, seen especially in the railroad industry in the last half of the nineteenth century, was a result of the
pervasiveness of intense competition among producers

Why was the Great Plains the last area to be settled?
With about half the rainfall of the East, it was perceived as uninhabitable

The dominant northern Plains Indian tribe was the
Sioux

The factor that changed Americans’ perception of the plains to an area ripe for exploitation was the
railroad

Initially, the major American business on the Great Plains was
cattle ranching

The author of many dime novels who built up the myth of life in the West was
Ned Buntline

The last great Indian “battle” was a massacre of Sioux Indians
at Wounded Knee

An army scout and buffalo hunter made famous in dime novels, this showman created a wild west show that kept the legend of the West alive
Bill Cody

Which of the following did NOT promote settlement of the Great American Desert
Cattle ranchers

An outcome of settlement on the plains was
the breaking down of gender roles

Which of the following made surviving on the plains easier
New strains of wheat and steel plows

Oliver Kelly founded the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, which
hoped to improve the social life of farm families

State Granger laws were designed mostly to
regulate the railroads

What factor wrecked the Indian reservation system established by the United States government?
White land hunger

The Far West was settled before the central United States mostly because of
the discovery of mineral wealth

New Mexico was unique in that
European and Native American cultures managed a successful coexistence

What stimulated Mexican migration into the United States at the end of the nineteenth century?
A demand for workers

The Chinese came to the United States
as part of a worldwide Asian migration driven by poverty

The Dawes Severalty Act
used private ownership of property as a “civilizing force.”

Which of the following is properly matched?
Helen Hunt Jackson—A Century of Dishonor

The Exodusters were
blacks who migrated to Kansas

As American industry expanded in the late nineteenth century, its energy source shifted from
water to coal

To encourage business enterprise, the national government provided railroads with
land grants and incorporation

By 1900, the United States had become the leading steel producer in the world, mainly attributed to
the Bessemer Process

Credit Mobilier was
a railroad scandal involving Union Pacific

Which of the following is correctly matched?
Cornelius Vanderbilt—New York Central Railroad

By 1890, the American enterprise system surpassed anything in Europe mainly because
the American market was more vast and accessible than Europe’s

Both Andrew Carnegie and Gustavus Swift made use of vertical integration, which is
when a national company is capable of handling all the functions of an industry within its own structure

Economic growth in the New South developed more slowly than in the North because
the South developed labor-intensive industries instead of capital-intensive ones

As Northern European immigration to the United States declined at the end of the nineteenth century, which immigrant group dramatically increased?
southern and eastern Europeans

Which of the following jobs was NOT generally available to women at the end of the nineteenth century?
Day laborer

Which of the following is properly paired?
Andrew Carnegie—steel industry

A result of “scientific management” (Taylorism) was that
it angered the workers.

Which of the following statements about the labor movement is correct?
The Knights of Labor included women and African Americans in its union.

Which of the following is properly matched?
Collective bargaining—union negotiations with the employer for all the employees

The Haymarket incident in 1886
led to the downfall of the Knights of Labor.

Which is true of the Homestead steel strike?
It ushered in a decade of conflict between workers and corporate industry

Which statement is NOT true about the Pullman boycott (strike)?
A virtual war broke out between the strikers and the Pinkerton guards hired to protect the trains.

Eugene V. Debs
confronted a system in which employers, helped by government, beat down working people

The IWW (Wobblies) and their leader, “Big Bill” Haywood, believed that
workers could bring about a Marxist revolution by means of a general strike

What were the greatest factors in defining occupational opportunity in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century?
Gender and race

Urbanization became inevitable in the United States because of
industrialism

Frederick Law Olmsted was significant in urban development through his work in
creating public parks as part of the “City Beautiful” movement

For the newcomer, the anonymity of city life meant recognition, family background, and deference did little to determine one’s social status. Therefore status was expressed by
choice of one’s neighborhood

The novelist who realistically depicted the seedy side of urban life in the novels Sister Carrie and The Titan was
Theodore Dreiser

Industrialism and urbanization changed middle-class family life in all of the following ways EXCEPT
home schooling increased

A marker for urban dwellers’ fears that city life was emasculating was
the rising popularity of westerns, adventure novels, and competitive sports

“New” immigration patterns in the early twentieth century reflected the growing emigration from
southern and eastern Europe

The central institution for urban African Americans was
church

Which of the following correctly matches the people with their respective endeavors?
Dwight Moody and Billy Sunday—religious revivalism

Financing for much of urban culture came from
private investment

By the early 1900s, cities became a major concern for reformers who feared
that city life engendered the loss of republican America ideals

Which of the following was true for middle-class families in the late nineteenth century?
Attitudes toward child rearing changed as children were indulged and remained dependent on their parents longer than they had previously.

Which of the following is true about popular culture in the last quarter of the nineteenth century?
A change occurred in which culture was increasingly feminized and “confiscated” by the upper classes

Which of the following was LEAST employed for the practice of “treating”?
Baseball

William Randolph Hearst’s and Joseph Pulitzer’s sensationalist style of reporting was known as
yellow journalism.

Which of the following was NOT true of the urban political machine?
It kept new immigrants from taking jobs from native-born Americans

Which of the following is true of religion in the city at the turn of the century?
The Catholic Church found that in order to hold on to their congregations, they needed to incorporate ethnic differences and the American way of life.

Cities offered all the following amenities EXCEPT
comfortable, modern housing for the working classes.

Which of the following made the growth of skyscrapers possible?
The development of steel girders, plate glass, and elevators

Dumbbell tenements were
a prize-winning design that tried to reconcile maximum land usage with decent housing but was sorely inadequate in reality

Compulsory segregation, other than in education, was first imposed on southern blacks
during the late 1880s in the form of southern states’ prohibitions against blacks traveling in first-class railroad passenger cars.

Political machines provided Americans with
institutions capable of providing services left undone by government.

A significant outcome of the 1896 election was
the Republicans’ emergence as the majority party.

The political group that took credit for “redeeming” the South was the
Democratic Party.

When late-nineteenth-century Republicans “waved the bloody shirt,” they were invoking
the Civil War.

Between 1877 and 1893, Republicans and Democrats
did not represent clearly opposing positions, as party differences became unclear.

In the late nineteenth century, the Supreme Court
limited Congress’s power to regulate manufacturing.

One of the most troublesome political issues of the 1880s was how the federal government should reduce
its surplus revenue.

In the late nineteenth century, those Americans most eager to see the money supply increased were
debtors.

A significant outcome of the 1896 election was
the Republicans’ emergence as the majority party.

The Populist leader who exhorted farmers “to raise less corn and more hell” was
Mary Elizabeth Lease.

Between 1876 and 1892, Americans were
highly partisan and politically active.

The expression “Gilded Age” originated as the
title of a novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner that was published in 1873 and satirized America as a land of vulgar money grubbers.

Most members of the newly rising American middle class around 1900
preferred to live in the suburbs because of the privacy it afforded them.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes residential patterns in the typical American city around 1900?
Immigrants from a particular region of a country tended to settle by ethnic group.

Many middle-class Americans in the late nineteenth century
no longer firmly linked sex and procreation and began to acknowledge that healthy sexuality should give pleasure to both men and women.

In late-nineteenth-century America, all of the following were signs of high status except
living close to one’s place of employment.

Most of the immigrants who arrived in American cities between 1900 and 1910 were
southern and eastern European Jews and Catholics.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes industry in post-Civil War American cites?
In most industries, the scale of production increased.

Between 1877 and 1893, American politics
celebrated the government that governed least.

In the early twentieth century, Tom Watson and Benjamin R. Tillman
appealed to poor whites and advanced their political careers by means of race baiting

The notion of “separate spheres” in the late nineteenth century referred to the controversial idea and debate that
men and women had different natures.

The Populist Party advocated unlimited coinage of silver in the belief that it would
raise the prices of farm products and livestock.

Laws restricting activity on Sundays were called
blue laws.

In the late nineteenth century, social Darwinists, such as William Graham Sumner, believed that
millionaires were the fittest Americans.

The Supreme Court’s Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision
defined the “separate but equal” principle.

Gerrymandered voting districts ensured that
while blacks got some offices, political control remained in white hands.

The basic evil that Populists identified as oppressing farmers during the late nineteenth century was
the power of money.

Horatio Alger was
the author of rags-to-riches novels.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Theodore Roosevelt’s attitude toward the muckrakers?
Thinking they went too far, he coined the term “muckraker” by comparing them to the man with the muckrake in John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress.

As progressives, Josephine Shaw Lowell and Florence Kelley concentrated their efforts on
female and child laborers.

As a basis for corrective action, most progressives relied on
rational planning and statistical studies.

The Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire of 1911
caused New York State to pass the most advanced labor code in the country.

In the 1912 presidential election,
Wilson won because the Republican vote was split between Taft and Roosevelt, not because a majority of the public endorsed him.

Jane Addams was one of the founders of
Hull House.

Before becoming president in 1901, Theodore Roosevelt had been
governor of New York.

In their journalistic writing, muckrakers tended to
expose the underside of American life.

Progressives believed that
people could act constructively and successfully.

In his “New Nationalism” phase after 1910, Theodore Roosevelt argued that
the federal government, via a trade commission, should oversee large companies.

Which of the following does not characterize the progressives of the early twentieth century?
They usually aligned themselves with business interests and the private sector.

In response to the trend toward mergers of businesses into large trusts, Theodore Roosevelt
worried that the trusts were becoming too powerful and stifled competition.

Ida M. Tarbell established her credentials as a muckraker when she wrote a scathing analysis of
Standard Oil Company.

Theodore Roosevelt did not become the Republican presidential nominee in 1912 because
Taft controlled the party machinery, which, in most states, chose convention delegates; even though Roosevelt swept states that held primaries, he was passed over.

The major leaders of the renewed struggle for civil rights in the first decade of the twentieth century were
William Monroe Trotter and W. E. B. Du Bois.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Woodrow Wilson’s political ideas?
He did not want collectivism to overwhelm individual liberties.

Protestant churches that espoused the Social Gospel
taught that Christians must fight for the “social aims of Jesus” by relieving the misery and despair of the masses.

As a result of the Supreme Court’s decision in Standard Oil v. U.S. (1911), the
attorney general sped up the pace of antitrust actions.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Theodore Roosevelt’s approach to the nation’s natural resources?
He was a conservationist who tried to balance commercial and public interests.

The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 established a
combined system in which a federal board supervised twelve district banks.

During the 1904 presidential campaign, Roosevelt began calling his program the
Square Deal.

After settling post-Civil War disputes with France and Great Britain, the United States
lapsed back into diplomatic isolation.

When Woodrow Wilson became president in 1913, he
vowed that the United States would not seek further territorial gains by conquest.

In the guerrilla war that followed the conquest of the Philippines,
the conflict far exceeded in ferocity the war just concluded with Spain.

The American victory at San Juan Hill in Cuba can be credited largely to
four black U.S. regiments

Confronted with the possibility of acquiring additional territory in a war with Spain, President McKinley
was not averse to exploiting any opportunities that arose, although he was not motivated by a wish to seize colonies from Spain.

After considering his options for the disposition of the Philippines, the most difficult issue following the war, President McKinley
decided to keep them under American control because he considered Filipinos unable to govern themselves

In its open-door policy toward China in 1899-1900, the United States
sought guarantees of free access to trade and Chinese territorial integrity from other world powers.

The Teller amendment, added to the congressional resolution empowering President McKinley to send U.S. forces to Cuba in 1898, promised that the United States
had no intention of annexing Cuba.

Under the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, the United States would
act unilaterally to regulate the affairs of any Caribbean nation.

Which of the following is not a reason that Americans developed foreign markets in the late nineteenth century?
American business owners hoped to attract immigrant workers to America by impressing them with the quality and quantity of U.S.-made goods.

In the face of deteriorating relations with Spain in 1897 and early 1898, President McKinley
issued an ultimatum to Spain demanding an armistice, abandonment of reconcentration, and peace negotiations with the rebels.

President McKinley and the Republicans jumped at the chance to hold the Philippine Islands because
they saw them as the key to American influence in the Asian market.

Dollar diplomacy was
William Howard Taft’s preference for seeking a large role for American bankers and investors in East Asia.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the conduct of American diplomacy in the late nineteenth century?
In Asia, Africa, and the Pacific islands, diplomacy was left to American missionaries who worked to Christianize native populations.

When William McKinley became president in 1897 and had to deal with the rebellion in Cuba, he
took a tougher stance against the Spanish than Cleveland had taken.

When he spoke of the United States carrying a “big stick,” Theodore Roosevelt meant that the nation
should make it clear to all foreign powers that whatever policies it might adopt, it intended to back them up with deeds as well as words.

As a result of the Supreme Court’s decision in Standard Oil v. U.S. (1911), the
attorney general sped up the pace of antitrust actions.

After settling post-Civil War disputes with France and Great Britain, the United States
lapsed back into diplomatic isolation.

In its open-door policy toward China in 1899-1900, the United States
sought guarantees of free access to trade and Chinese territorial integrity from other world powers.

The expansionist foreign policy of the 1890s derived significant inspiration from
Social Darwinism and Anglo-Saxon superiority.

American sugar planters in Hawaii sought annexation of the islands to the United States in 1893 because
changes in the McKinley Tariff of 1890 and domestic sugar subsidies in the United States made them eager to gain the same advantages as U.S. growers had.

Early twentieth-century civil rights advocates who created the Niagara Movement called for all of the following except
the payment of reparations to former slaves and their descendents.

When Congress created the Federal Trade Commission in 1914, the agency
had broad powers to investigate companies and stop unfair trade practices.

When U.S.-Japanese relations were complicated by the San Francisco school board’s decision in 1906 to segregate all Asian students in a separate school, the United States
offered a “Gentlemen’s Agreement,” by which Japan agreed to restrict immigration to the United States.

Which of the following was the basis for the belief of American businessmen and policymakers in the late 1880s and early 1890s that the United States needed to adopt a more aggressive policy of expansion abroad?
Accelerating pace of European imperialism and the fear that the United States would lose its chance at foreign markets, a fear increased by the Panic of 1893

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes American military intervention in Mexico in 1914?
The intervention fostered a great deal of anti-American sentiment.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the ideas of naval strategist Alfred T. Mahan?
The United States should maintain a limited form of colonialism that is dependent upon a strong navy, vigorous merchant marine, and strategic bases to protect its trade interests.

Theodore Roosevelt’s strategic thinking about U.S. foreign policy was, in part, shaped by his
belief in the duty of the “civilized” countries of the world to police and subdue “backward” peoples.

In its open-door policy toward China in 1899-1900, the United States
sought guarantees of free access to trade and Chinese territorial integrity from other world powers.

When U.S.-Japanese relations were complicated by the San Francisco school board’s decision in 1906 to segregate all Asian students in a separate school, the United States
offered a “Gentlemen’s Agreement,” by which Japan agreed to restrict immigration to the United States.f

The Treaty of Paris, which ended the war with Spain and in which Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States,
received only one vote beyond the required two-thirds majority in the Senate.

After the explosion of the battleship Maine, a U.S. naval board of inquiry blamed the sinking on
a mine.

The most distinctive feature of American industry in the last third of the nineteenth century was
its emphasis on the manufacture of capital goods.

Which of the following statements accurately characterizes the early historical development of the Knights of Labor?
All of the above.

In 1890, the typical working woman was
young.

Business and government responded to the Haymarket Square riot by
imposing yellow-dog contracts.

How did Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor’s goals differ from those of the Knights of Labor?
Gompers believed that workers should focus on concrete, achievable gains and possess power sufficient to back up their cause.

The Knights of Labor enjoyed their largest increase in membership after they
were successful in a strike against Jay Gould.

The greatest advantage of American businesses over their European competitors in the late nineteenth century was their access to
a large internal market with no political barriers.

Why did the Pullman strike of 1894 fail?
It was crushed by the combination of federal troops and court injunctions.

The introduction of mass production in the late nineteenth-century American economy
increased workers’ output.

Which issue crystallized the dispute between the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor?
The eight-hour workday

Vertically integrated corporations
handled everything involved in the functions of an industry.

In their efforts to improve working conditions, the Knights of Labor stressed
cooperative factories owned and managed by workers.

The strike by steelworkers at Homestead, Pennsylvania,
resulted from Andrew Carnegie’s desire to break the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers.

Which of the following was not provided by trade unions to their members?
Guarantee of a job for every craftsman or laborer

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the employment of women in the American labor force during the late nineteenth century?
Around 1900, about one-third of working women were employed as maids or domestic servants, one-third held “female” white-collar jobs, and one-third worked in industry.

In nineteenth-century America, craft workers
enjoyed a great deal of autonomy.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the economics of working-class family life in late nineteenth-century America?
In 1900, one of every five children below age sixteen worked for wages.

The most important step in the development of an integrated railroad system in late nineteenth-century America was the
adoption of a standard track gauge.

In the late nineteenth century, the American Catholic hierarchy was dominated by
Irish Americans.

Most members of the newly rising American middle class around 1900
preferred to live in the suburbs because of the privacy it afforded them.

After the Civil War, metropolitan newspapers
expanded to include human-interest stories, a women’s page, and society and sports sections.

Before the 1880s, most Jews in America came from
Germany.

The expression “Gilded Age” originated as the
title of a novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner that was published in 1873 and satirized America as a land of vulgar money grubbers.

Joseph Pulitzer was the
St. Louis newspaper publisher who set off a furious circulation war with papers owned by William Randolph Hearst.

Many middle-class Americans in the late nineteenth century
no longer firmly linked sex and procreation and began to acknowledge that healthy sexuality should give pleasure to both men and women.

In the late nineteenth century, George Washington Plunkitt was
a Tammany ward boss who courted all nationalities to win their support.

By 1900, the primary means of urban mass transit in the United States was the
trolley car.

In late-nineteenth-century America, all of the following were signs of high status except
living close to one’s place of employment.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes immigrants’ accommodation to city life in the United States around 1900?
Many relied on native-language newspapers, the conviviality of saloons, and the assistance of mutual-aid societies.

The “Gibson girl” of the 1890s personified
the middle-class “new woman”–spirited, athletic, and chastely sexual.

Most of the immigrants who arrived in American cities between 1900 and 1910 were
southern and eastern European Jews and Catholics.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes industry in post-Civil War American cites?
In most industries, the scale of production increased.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes residential patterns in the typical American city around 1900?
Immigrants from a particular region of a country tended to settle by ethnic group.

Which of the following occupational groups grew most rapidly in the United States between 1870 and 1910?
Salaried employees

Which one of the following did urban political machines not do in late-nineteenth-century America?
Clean up prostitution and other forms of corruption

From the 1850s to the 1890s, the most efficient form of urban mass transportation in the United States was the
horsecar.

After the Civil War, metropolitan newspapers
expanded to include human-interest stories, a women’s page, and society and sports sections.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes industry in post-Civil War American cites?
In most industries, the scale of production increased.

The invention that sped up city communications most after 1876 in the United States was the
telephone.

In the early twentieth century, Tom Watson and Benjamin R. Tillman
appealed to poor whites and advanced their political careers by means of race baiting.

Between 1877 and 1893, Republicans and Democrats
did not represent clearly opposing positions, as party differences became unclear.

n the late nineteenth century, the Supreme Court
limited Congress’s power to regulate manufacturing.

Between 1877 and 1893, American politics
celebrated the government that governed least.

The notion of “separate spheres” in the late nineteenth century referred to the controversial idea and debate that
men and women had different natures.

In the late nineteenth century, those Americans most eager to see the money supply increased were
debtors.

The Populist Party advocated unlimited coinage of silver in the belief that it would
raise the prices of farm products and livestock.

When late-nineteenth-century Republicans “waved the bloody shirt,” they were invoking
the Civil War.

The Supreme Court’s Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision
defined the “separate but equal” principle.

The political group that took credit for “redeeming” the South was the
Democratic Party.

Political machines provided Americans with
institutions capable of providing services left undone by government.

The Populist leader who exhorted farmers “to raise less corn and more hell” was
Mary Elizabeth Lease.

Laws restricting activity on Sundays were called
blue laws.

One of the most troublesome political issues of the 1880s was how the federal government should reduce
its surplus revenue.

In the late nineteenth century, the Supreme Court
limited Congress’s power to regulate manufacturing.

Gerrymandered voting districts ensured that
while blacks got some offices, political control remained in white hands.

A significant outcome of the 1896 election was
the Republicans’ emergence as the majority party.

Which one of the following was not a divisive educational issue in the late nineteenth century?
Teacher-student ratios

As the racial policies of the white South hardened, the option that was least realistic for black Americans was
returning to Africa.

At the end of the War with Mexico, Free-Soilers
shifted their party’s focus away from the sinfulness of slavery and toward the need to keep the West open for settlement by white yeoman farmers.

Under land grants issued by the Mexican government, a large American settlement in Texas was established by
Stephen F. Austin.

In asking Congress to declare war on Mexico, Polk charged that Mexico
had invaded American territory and shed American blood on American soil.

The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following?
Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory

Why did radical abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison bitterly criticize the free-soil movement?
He considered it essentially racist because its aim was not to oppose slavery but to preserve the West for white settlement only.

Which of the following is not a reason why the Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency in 1860?
He had already defeated Stephen A. Douglas in the senatorial election in 1858.

The Dred Scott decision
persuaded many Republicans that the Supreme Court and President Buchanan were part of the “Slave Power” conspiracy.

The Wilmot Proviso of 1846
prohibited slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico.

During his four terms as an Illinois state legislator, Lincoln
promoted education, state banking, and internal improvements.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
purchased more than one-third of Mexico’s territory for $15 million.

From 1854 to 1856, the fundamental principle on which all Republicans agreed was
an absolute opposition to the expansion of slavery into any new territories.

The concept of Manifest Destiny included the assumption that
the citizens of the United States were destined by God to dominate the “inferior” peoples of the continent.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the American invasion of Mexico in 1846?
The Americans captured Matamoros, Monterrey, Tampico, and most of northeastern Mexico.

Support for John Brown’s attempt to ignite a slave rebellion was publicly expressed by
Henry David Thoreau.

In the 1857 Dred Scott decision, which position was not held by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney?
Both the Missouri Compromise and the Kansas-Nebraska Act were constitutional.

Why did radical abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison bitterly criticize the free-soil movement?
He considered it essentially racist because its aim was not to oppose slavery but to preserve the West for white settlement only.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes popular sovereignty as a response to the question of the extension of slavery?
It was championed by senators Lewis Cass and Stephen A. Douglas to allow voters in western territories to decide for themselves whether or not they wanted to legalize slavery.

The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following?
Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory

The American Party, or Know-Nothings,
originated in anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic societies of the 1840s.

Proannexation Democrats engineered the annexation of Texas in 1845 by
approving it through a joint resolution, which required only a majority vote in both houses of Congress.

In 1854, why did Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduce a bill to extinguish Native American rights in the Great Plains and organize the northern segment of the Louisiana Purchase into a large territory called Nebraska?
He wanted Chicago to become the eastern terminus of a transcontinental railroad.

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
denied alleged runaways a jury trial or the right to testify.

In his so-called Freeport Doctrine, Stephen A. Douglas
asserted that settlers could exclude slavery from a territory by not adopting local legislation to protect it.

The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following?
Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory

Women in the North and South worked in all of the following occupations except
winning state and national political office to occupy seats vacated by men fighting at the front.

The Battle of Antietam (September 1862) resulted in
the bloodiest single day in American military history.

Lee went on the offensive and invaded Maryland in August and September 1862 because
he hoped that a victory over Union forces on northern soil would humiliate Lincoln’s government.

The enlistment of African Americans in the Union army and their deployment in battle was delayed because
most Union generals doubted that they would make good soldiers.

The movement toward secession in the winter of 1860-1861 was most rapid in
South Carolina.

In his attack on Atlanta in the summer of 1864, Sherman’s Union forces
waged a prolonged campaign that besieged the city in July and, after several vicious battles, took the city in early September.

The Alabama was a Confederate
warship built in Great Britain that, when released on the high seas in the summer of 1862, captured or sank more than one hundred Union merchant ships.

In the election of 1864, Lincoln
was swept to victory by Sherman’s victory at Atlanta.

The Alabama was a Confederate
warship built in Great Britain that, when released on the high seas in the summer of 1862, captured or sank more than one hundred Union merchant ships.

During the early years of the Civil War, the term contraband came into use to signify which of the following?
Freedom-seeking slaves who fled from Confederate masters to Union armies

The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which Lincoln promulgated on September 22, 1862,
had no immediate, practical effect on the life of any slave.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the place of emancipation in the Union’s war aims in 1861 and 1862?
Some Republican leaders began to redefine the war as a struggle not only against Confederate armies, but also against the institution of slavery.

The Battle of Antietam (September 1862) resulted in
the bloodiest single day in American military history.

Upon becoming president on March 4, 1861, Lincoln
stated that secession was illegal and that he intended to enforce federal law throughout the Union.

The states of the Lower South seceded and organized a provisional government of the Confederate States of America headed by Jefferson Davis
before Buchanan left the White House and Lincoln was inaugurated.

General Ulysses S. Grant changed the Union military strategy by
advancing all of the Union armies simultaneously, instead of targeting a specific city, place, or territory.

After the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln
declared the battle a Union victory to rally public support in the North.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the experiences of African American soldiers in the Union army?
Black soldiers were paid $3 less per month and won equal pay only by threatening to lay down their arms.

Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act in April 1866 after learning of
a race riot in Memphis.

Many of the “carpetbaggers” who moved to the South during Reconstruction were
former Union army officers who decided that the South was a pleasant or promising place to resettle.

Which of the following was not a provision of the Reconstruction Act of 1867?
Federal funding for schools for southern blacks

Which of the following does not help to explain the diminishing effectiveness of Reconstruction in the South?
The expanded presence of federal troops and officials in 1875 to 1877 brought about an escalation in southern terrorist retaliation.

The first Grand Wizard or leader of the Ku Klux Klan was former Confederate general
Nathan Bedford Forrest.

The Fifteenth Amendment
forbade states from denying any citizen the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition as a slave.

Passed by Congress in 1866, the Civil Rights Act
defined the citizenship rights of freedmen and authorized the federal government to bring suit in federal courts against anyone who violated those rights.

In response to the contested results in the election of 1876,
Congress appointed a fifteen-member bipartisan electoral commission to decide which set of electoral votes was valid.

The Ten Percent Plan that Lincoln announced in December 1863
stipulated that a state could return to the Union when 10 percent of those who voted in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty to the Union.

After the Civil War, many African Americans
joined newly founded African American churches.

The Freedmen’s Bureau
was responsible for resettlement and distribution of confiscated land and regulated labor contracts between freedmen and planters.

Expecting freedom from slavery near the end of the Civil War, most African Americans were most eager to
secure land for economic independence.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the movement to expand public elementary schools in the United States before the Civil War?
In a series of publications, Catharine Beecher urged that “energetic and benevolent women” were best qualified to teach young children.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the resettlement of former slaves in the South?
Under Johnson’s amnesty plan, ex-Confederates were allowed to recover their land, and freedmen were forced to work for them or leave.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the North’s advantages over the South at the beginning of the Civil War?
Factories in the North accounted for nearly 90 percent of the nation’s industrial output.

Why did Lincoln choose to issue his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862 rather than at some other time?
He had decided against issuing the proclamation as long as the Union seemed to be losing the war; but after the Battle of Antietam, he chose to shift the underlying rationale for the North’s war effort to emancipation while he continued to sustain Northern support.

Ralph Waldo Emerson
New England philosopher who was the leading spokesman for Transcendentalism

Henry David Thoreau
turned away from society and embraced self-reliance and the natural world; philosopher of civil disobedience

Margaret Fuller
co-founder with Susan B. Anthony of National Women’s Loyal League

Walt Whitman
author of Leaves of Grass; claimed perfect communion with others

Nathaniel Hawthorne
author of the Scarlet Letter

Herman Melville
wrote Moby Dick

Ann Lee Stanley
founder of the Shakers

Charles Fourier
French Utopian reformer who devised 8 stage theory of social evolution

Arthur Brisbane
Fourier’s idealistic American disciple

John H. Noyes
leader of “perfectionists”; founder of Oneida community

Joseph Smith
founder of the Mormon Church

Brigham Young
led Mormons to Great Salt Lake Valley

David Walker
free black whose Appeal justified slave rebellion

Nat Turner
believed he was chosen by Christ; hoped his rebellion would inspire others

William L. Garrison
publisher of The Liberator

Theodore D. Weld
published The Bible Against Slavery; married Angelina Grimke

Grimke sisters
labeled “promiscuous” for speaking to mixed audiences

Dorothea Dix
led efforts to improve conditions in almshouses, asylums, and jails

Horace Mann
led movement to increase number of public schools and improve quality

Catharine Beecher
argued that women were best qualified to educate the young

Maria W. Stewart
African-American woman; Garrisonian Abolitionist

Harriet Beecher Stowe
author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Elizabeth C. Stanton
co-founder with Susan B. Anthony if National Women’s Loyal League

Lucretia Mott
organized Seneca Falls Convention with Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Susan B. Anthony
created a network of “captains” who lobbied state legislatures for women’s rights

By 1840 the South was on the cutting edge of the Market Revolution because
it produced ad exported 1.5 million bales of raw cotton, over two-thirds of the world suppl

Between 1800 and 1860 white planters moved to the lower South to
invest in agricultural development

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the cotton planter class of the southwest
the goal of the planter class was to make money

Which of the following reasons does not explain how the federal government played a major role n expanding slavery during the early 1800s?
The federal government expanded participation in the International Slave Trade after 1807

Planters attempted to resolve a labor crisis in the cotton South by
buying slaves from the Chesapeake region through the domestic slave trade

Sugar plantations in Louisiana were characterized by all of the following factors except
a high rate of African American slave fertility

White planters provided the human cargo of the domestic slave trade through all of the following ways except
selling slaves to the federal government

In what ways was the domestic slave trade crucial to the southern economy?
the trade provided tens of thousands of new workers to build plantations

The domestic slave trade affected the African American family unit before 1865 by
separating family members through sale and trade

The plantation elite was characterized by all of the following criteria except
plantation elites owned more than 1,000 slaves

Which of the following statements most accurately characterized the gang-labor system of cotton plantation labor?
Gang labor included white overseers and black drivers

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the class of smallholders of slaves in the South?
They held from one to five black laborers in bondage

Planters failed to politically dominate the South because
they lived in a republican society with democratic institutions such as the secret ballot

White southerners failed to diversify the southern economy for all of the following reasons except
they blamed white northerners for economically exploiting white southerners

A more unified African American culture began to emerge in the early decades of the nineteenth century because
the rapid transfer of slaves from other regions into the lower Mississippi Valley significantly minimized cultural differences

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes African American marriage customs in the slave South?
Many slave couples, following African custom, jumped over a broomstick in a public ceremony to signify their union

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes African American marriages and childbearing in the early nineteenth century?
Most married slaves who were not separated by sale lived in stable unions and had most of their children while they were together

What were the trends in slaves’ living conditions in the early nineteenth century?
As blacks formed stronger social, family, and cultural ties, they were in a better position to resist the breakup of families through sale by their owners

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes blacks’ resistance to slavery by the 1820s?
In their situation, most blacks had no choice but to build the best possible lives for themselves

Free blacks in the South
generally acknowledged unity with the enslaved population

The abolitionist women who equated women’s traditional family roles with slavery
avoided arousing public outrage by advancing their ideas within a religious context.

The “gag rule,” passed by the House of Representatives in 1836,
stipulated that antislavery petitions received by the House would be automatically tabled.

In its campaign to end slavery, the American Anti-Slavery Society
distributed pamphlets and collected signatures on antislavery petitions.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the new urban culture of large U.S. cities such as New York during the early 1800s?
Popular entertainment, in particularly minstrelsy, was an important aspect of new urban culture.

Which of the following was not an objection raised by non-Mormons of Illinois against Joseph Smith and his followers?
Mormons owned slaves.

In her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century, Margaret Fuller
argued that every woman deserved psychological and social independence because the identity bestowed by her independent relationship with God transcended gender.

The Book of Mormon was
Joseph Smith’s translation from ancient gold plates that were revealed to him by an angel.

Angelina and Sarah Grimké
became famous—and widely criticized—for delivering antislavery lectures before mixed male-female meetings.

In his 1829 pamphlet addressed to “colored citizens,” the free African American David Walker
justified slave rebellion and warned white Americans that violence and retribution would come if justice were delayed.

A more unified African American culture began to emerge in the early decades of the nineteenth century because
the rapid transfer of slaves from other regions into the Lower Mississippi Valley significantly minimized cultural differences.

Which of the following reasons does not explain how the federal government played a major role in expanding slavery during the early 1800s?
The federal government expanded participation in the International Slave Trade after 1807.

In what ways was the domestic slave trade crucial to the southern economy?
The trade provided tens of thousands of new workers to build plantations.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes African American marriages and childbearing in the early nineteenth century?
Most married slaves who were not separated by sale lived in stable unions and had most of their children while they were together.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the gang-labor system of cotton plantation labor?
Gang labor included white overseers and black drivers.

Sugar plantations in Louisiana were characterized by all of the following factors except
a high rate of African American slave fertility.

White planters provided the human cargo of the domestic slave trade through all of the following ways except
selling slaves to the federal government.

In the tobacco-growing regions, the lives of the planter aristocracy consisted of
following the aristocratic model of disinterested benevolence.

Which of the following factors most accurately describes the means utilized by white planters to transport African Americans slaves through the domestic slave trade?
Planters relied upon both coastal and inland networks of transport.

White southerners failed to diversify the southern economy for all of the following reasons except
they blamed white northerners for economically exploiting white southerners.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the cotton planter class of the southwest?
The goal of the planter class was to make money.

Which of the following groups was not directly affected by the expansion of southern cotton slavery during the early 1800s?
Irish immigrants

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the plantation labor system of the southern cotton industry?
African American slaves worked from sunup to sundown and from one end of the year to the other.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the experiences of free blacks in early nineteenth-century United States?
Most held low-wage jobs as farm workers, day laborers, or laundresses.

The plantation elite was characterized by all of the following criteria except
plantation elites owned more than 1,000 slaves.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes blacks’ resistance to slavery by the 1820s?
In their situation, most blacks had no choice but to build the best possible lives for themselves.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes African American marriage customs in the slave South?
Many slave couples, following African custom, jumped over a broomstick in a public ceremony to signify their union.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the domestic slave trade?
The domestic slave trade expanded after the War of 1812.

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin
increased opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act and prompted northern legislatures to challenge federal authority.

The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following?
Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory

Why did radical abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison bitterly criticize the free-soil movement?
He considered it essentially racist because its aim was not to oppose slavery but to preserve the West for white settlement only.

The Dred Scott decision
persuaded many Republicans that the Supreme Court and President Buchanan were part of the “Slave Power” conspiracy.

From 1854 to 1856, the fundamental principle on which all Republicans agreed was
an absolute opposition to the expansion of slavery into any new territories.

Support for John Brown’s attempt to ignite a slave rebellion was publicly expressed by
Henry David Thoreau.

Why did radical abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison bitterly criticize the free-soil movement?
He considered it essentially racist because its aim was not to oppose slavery but to preserve the West for white settlement only.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes popular sovereignty as a response to the question of the extension of slavery?
It was championed by senators Lewis Cass and Stephen A. Douglas to allow voters in western territories to decide for themselves whether or not they wanted to legalize slavery.

The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following?
Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
denied alleged runaways a jury trial or the right to testify.

The abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison
attacked the U.S. Constitution because it condoned slavery.

In his 1829 pamphlet addressed to “colored citizens,” the free African American David Walker
justified slave rebellion and warned white Americans that violence and retribution would come if justice were delayed.

Publications such as Godey’s Lady’s Book and Catharine Beecher’s Treatise on Domestic Economy
instructed women on how to make their homes more moral and efficient and reinforced middle-class domesticity.

The resolutions that feminists adopted at Seneca Falls in 1848
drew on republican ideology and were patterned directly on the Declaration of Independence.

As a result of Turner’s Rebellion, the Virginia legislature
debated but rejected a bill providing for gradual emancipation and colonization.

Most early transcendentalists
were members of wealthy and privileged New England families.

In her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe
depicted slavery as a destroyer of slave families and a degrader of slave women.

Joseph Smith originally organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in
New York State.

By the early 1840s, Garrison and his supporters in the American Anti-Slavery Society
advocated a broad-based reform program, embracing women’s participation in the society, pacifism, and the abolition of prisons and asylums.

Free blacks in the South
generally acknowledged unity with the enslaved population.

Between 1800 and 1860 white planters moved to the lower South to
invest in agricultural development.

What were the trends in slaves’ living conditions in the early nineteenth century?
As blacks formed stronger social, family, and cultural ties, they were in a better position to resist the breakup of families through sale by their owners.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the class of propertyless whites in the South?
They worked hard physical jobs as day laborers and enjoyed little respect from other whites.

The domestic slave trade affected the African American family unit before 1865 by
separating family members through sale and trade.

Which of the following events was a major slave revolt or alleged conspiracy by black slaves or free blacks in the South before 1865?
The Gabriel and Martin Prosser conspiracy of 1800

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the demands for work generally placed upon slaves in the early nineteenth century?
Many slaves—especially in South Carolina—were assigned and expected to complete a specific task each day; if they finished early, they could have the rest of the day for themselves.

In his so-called Freeport Doctrine, Stephen A. Douglas
asserted that settlers could exclude slavery from a territory by not adopting local legislation to protect it.

The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following?
Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory

Women in the North and South worked in all of the following occupations except
winning state and national political office to occupy seats vacated by men fighting at the front.

Henry David Thoreau’s book Walden was a(n)
record of his spiritual search for meaning beyond the artificiality of “civilized” life.

In New York in 1860, the efforts of feminists such as Susan B. Anthony resulted in a law that gave women all of the following rights except
the right to vote in local and state elections.

The U.S. economy suffered from all of the following economic problems in the mid-1970s except
Deflation.

In the years 1973-1975, the oil-exporting nations of OPEC
Declare an oil embargo against the United States.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the Nixon administrations domestic policies?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was signed into law by Nixon and had broad, bipartisan support.

In 1979, a nuclear reactor came close to meltdown at
Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania.

President Ford
Was unsuccessful in his attempts to curb inflation.

Which of the following U.S. industries was most badly hurt by deindustrialization in the 1970s?
Steel

Nearly every American city struggles to pay its bills in the 1970s for all of the following reasons except
A decline in federal funding due to the end of Johnson’s Great Society.

In 1978, California voters began a nation trend by enacting a ballot initiative called proposition 13 that
Rolled back property taxes and required future tax measures to pass the legislature with a two-thirds vote.

The post-Watergate political reforms passed by Congress did all of the following except
Encourage bipartisanship

President Ford pardoned Nixon because
He wished to spare the country the agony of rehashing Watergate.

The presidential candidate who ran as a Washington outsider and promised to clean up the government was
Jimmy Carter.

Which of the following accurately characterizes affirmative action?
Opponents, many of who had been opposed to civil rights all along, charged that it was reverse discrimination.

The most divisive education issue of the 1970s was
Busing to secure racial segregation.

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was
Passed by Congress in 1972 and ratified by thirty-four states by the end of 1974, but then stalled and was never ratified.

Roe v. Wade was decided on the basis of
The right to privacy.

Which of the following television sitcoms starred the fiction character Archie Bunker, who gave voice to the unease many Americans felt about changes taking place in society?
All in the Family.

The resurgence of Christian faith in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s has been labeled by historians as
Fourth Great Awakening.

Evangelical Protestantism emphasized all of the following except
The social gospel.

During the 1970s, the civil rights movement broadened to include all of the following except
Recent immigrants.

President Johnson’s Great Society called for all of the following except
Reducing military spending.

Which of the following statements accurately characterizes President Lyndon Johnson?
He was in many ways the opposite of Kennedy.

The Immigration Act of 1965
Replaced discriminatory national quotas with more uniform numerical limits on immigrants from different regions.

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Authorized the president to take any action necessary to prevent further aggression in Vietnam.

At the height of the Vietnam War, the United States had approximately *blank* troops stationed in Vietnam
500000

Operation Rolling Thunder
Intensified North Vietnamese nationalism and hardened their will to fight; was poorly designed by LBJ

By 1968, the death rate of American soldiers in Vietnam
Had reached several hundred per week.

Which of the following is true about Lyndon Johnson’s administration?
The Vietnam War undermined his presidency

Which of the following accurately characterizes the Tet offensive
Many Americans changed their opinions of the war as a result, was a military victory for America and cost LBJ his presidency.

In 1968, the liberal who had the best chance of reunifying the Democratic Party was
Robert F. Kennedy

Which of the following was the result for the death of the War on Poverty?
The Vietnam War

Richard Nixon campaigned for the presidency in 1968 by doing all of the following except
Promising to strengthen LBJs great society programs.

Title IX
Benefited women athletes.

In the 1968 election and during the Nixon administration, the expression “silent majority” was used to refer to Americans who
Were hardworking and nonprotesting

From 1969 to 1972, Richard Nixon’s strategy to end the Vietnam War was to
Reduce american troop involvement and turn over most of the ground fighting to the South Vietnamese army.

The four college students killed by National Guardsmen at Kent State University had been protesting
Nixon’s secret expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia.

Two of Nixon’s greatest foreign policy successes were
Salt I and restoring relations with Communist China.

The Christmas bombings of 1972
Were the most destructive of the war, and should have been accomplished in early 1967.

After the United States withdrew its forces from South Vietnam
The North Vietnamese army overwhelmed the South Vietnamese forces and forcibly reunited Vietnam in 1975.

E. Howard Hunt, John Dean, G. Gordon Liddy, and John Mitchell were all
Implicated in the Watergate scandal.

Before his appointment to the vice presidency, Gerald Ford – who became president on Richard Nixon’s resignation and was the nations first non-elected Vice President- had been
House minority leader.

In what way did the black-led civil rights movement redefine the meaning of liberalism?
By demanding state protection for individuals against discrimination.

Which of the following accurately characterizes racial segregation in the United States during the 1950s?
Mob violence and police harassment were commonly used against African Americans in many Northern cities.

The philosophy of nonviolent disobedience was first espoused by
Mahatma Ghandi.

Furious with the national Democratic Party’s endorsement of civil rights goals in its 1948 platform, southern Democrats set up the States’ Rights (or Dixiecrat) Party and nominated which of the following for president?
Strom Thurmond

What effect did the Cold War have on the civil rights movement?
It both constrained it and engendered support for reforms.

In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled against the segregated schools on the grounds that they
Denied black children “equal protection of the laws.”

The Southern Manifesto was a
Statement by 101 southern congressmen denouncing the U.S. Supreme Court’s Brown decision as “a clear abuse of judicial power” and encouraging local authorities to defy it.

In promoting civil rights, President Eisenhower
Sent troops into Little Rock, Arkansas.

The result of Rosa Park’s arrest was
The Montgomery bus boycott.

The sit-in method of civil rights protest begun in Greensboro was pioneered by
Black college students.

How did the Kennedy administration react to the freedom rides in 1961?
It gave some support to the freedom riders by sending federal marshals to restore order in Alabama.

In his famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” Martin Luther King Jr.
Appealed to Christian and democratic beliefs and argued that Americans had to make a moral choice about segregation.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 aimed at
Ending legal discrimination against blacks in many areas of American society.

In March 1965, the effort to pass the Voting Rights Act gained impetus after violence occurred in Alabama at
Selma

The Voting Rights Act of 1965
Outlawed the use of literacy tests and together with the Twenty-Fourth Amendment allowed millions of blacks to register and vote for the first time.

A political consequence of the national Democratic Party’s embrace of civil rights in the 1960s was
The departure of many southern whites to the Republican Party in the 1970s and 1980s.

In 1966, the slogan “black power” was first used by
Stokely Carmichael

In the “long hot summers” of 1964-1968,
Charges of police brutality often sparked riots.

Which of the following statements characterizes the emergence of César Chavez as a national figure during the 1960s?
He and the United Farm Workers union won national attention by organizing a grape pickers’ strike in 1965.

An outgrowth of the rights revolution of the 1960s and 1970s was
The widening of the belief in the federal government’s responsibilities.

By the mid-1970s, the civil rights movement had been most successful at
Abolishing Jim Crow laws.

The famous kitchen debate of 1959
Little was settled, but it did display the aspirations and hopes of middle-class Americans.

Which of the following is true of post-World War II America?
Americans enjoyed the highest standard of living in the world.

Which of the following had the greatest impact on the postwar economy?
Spending on national security

When Eisenhower said, “We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes,” he was referring to the
Military-industrial complex.

The “space race” began when
Americans learned that the Soviet Union had launched the first space satellite, Sputnik.

One of the most influential books on the U.S. Economy in the twentieth century, The Affluent Society (1958), was written by
John Kenneth Galbraith

The “space race” began when
Americans learned that the Soviet Union had launched the first space satellite, Sputnik.

In the United States of the 1950s,
Consumption came to be seen as a social responsibility.

Television in the United States during the late 1940s and 1950s
Transformed American culture more than almost any other technological invention ever had.

A popular television program of the 1950s that depicted American working-class lives was
The Honeymooners

The ideal family as presented in the media of the 1950s, with a stay-at-home mom and a father as the breadwinner, was
Not representative of African American families.

The great resurgence of evangelical religion in 1950s America was most evident in the dramatic rise to popularity of
Billy Graham

In the 1950s, evangelist Norman Vincent Peale preached
The therapeutic application of religion to help individuals cope with stressed of modern life.

The growing influence of religion in post-World War II American society was evident in all of the following except
The sentencing of the Rosenbergs to life in prison instead of death for giving U.S. atomic secrets to the Russians.

During the 1950s, for middle-class Americans, the good life consisted of all of the following except
A focus on individuality.

A negative aspect of America’s fascination with the automobile in the 1950s was
Tripling of oil consumption by the early 1970s.

Which of the following is most responsible for Congress’ approval of the Interstate Highway Act?
The Cold War.

Urban renewal in the 1950s
Coincided with an increase in the inner cities’ black, Latino, and Native American populations.

Immigration policy in the 1950s provided for
Legal resumption of Asian Immigration.

The baby boom in post-World War II America is most accurately explained as resulting from
A drop in age at marriage.

Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin are both associated with
Polio vaccines.

Betty Friedans 1963 book The Feminine Mystique
Described the middle-class domestic ideal that suburban housewives were supposed to embrace

In the 1950s, record sales boomed in the United States primarily because of
Rock n’ roll.

The GI Bill stimulated the American economy by
Subsidizing higher education and financing millions of mortgages.

All of the following divided the United States and the Soviet Union at the end of World War II except
Hatred of fascism

The Soviet “sphere of influence” in Eastern Europe affirmed by the
Yalta Agreement

From the American perspective, what precipitated the Cold War?
Stalin’s refusal to allow self-determination for the countries of Eastern Europe.

At the Postdam Conference
America’s possession of the atomic bomb bolstered Truman to use “tough” methods with the Soviets.

Germany and its capital city of Berlin were each divided into for zones after World War II. Which of the following did not control one of the zones?
The United Nations

In the years immediately following World War II, Britain’s influence and power in the world began to decline for all of the following reasons except
The United States no longer trusted competent British leadership of world affairs.

The Truman Doctrine was implemented in response to Communist threats in
Greece and Turkey.

To forestall economic difficulties, which could foster the rise of communism throughout Europe, the United States gave nearly $13 billion to a European recovery program nicknamed the
Marshall Plan.

During the late 1940s and early 1950s, the United States and the USSR came closest to war over
The Berlin crisis.

A result of the Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift, the coup in Czechoslovakia was the creation of
NATO

Which of the following Axis nations did the United States help rebuild economically after World War II, to make it a bulwark against Communism during the Cold War?
Japan

When the Chinese Communist defeated the Nationalists in 1949, the United States
State Department was accused of “losing” China by conservative critics.

President Truman’s response to the invasion of South Korea was to
Ask the UN Security Council to authorize a “police action.”

President Truman relieved General MacArthur of his Korean command because MacArthur
Had written a letter to the republican minority leader in the House that criticized Truman’s conduct of the war.

What was the outcome of the Korean War?
Korea remained divided.

The most significant impact of the Korean War was that, throughout the remainder of the Cold War,
Even in peacetime, the United States kept a standing army activated.

A reaction to the massive postwar strikes was the
Taft-Hartley Act.

Which if the following statements does not accurately characterize the presidential election of 1948?
Truman’s reelection was only possible due to the large African American voter turnout in the South.

Which of the following was not part of the Fair Deal agenda?
The Korean War

In 1947, the Truman administration reacted to the growing anti-Communist fervor in the country by
Issuing an executive order initiating a comprehensive investigation of the federal employees loyalty.

Which of the following was not part of the Second Red Scare?
The Espionage and Sedition Acts

Which of the following is most directly associated with McCarthyism?
Allegations of communist spies working in the State Department

Modern Republicanism was
A party philosophy that emphasized moderating rather than dismantling the New Deal state.

As a moderate Republican, President Eisenhower signed all of the following bills that expanded on New Deal programs and ideology except
Strengthening the rights of organized labor.

Which of the following is not an element of Eisenhower’s “New Look” in foreign policy?
Military aid to Hungarians during their 1956 uprising

Which of the following is least related to the other four?
Warsaw Pact

During the Eisenhower administration, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) helped overthrow the government of
Iran

The leader of North Vietnam during the late 1950s was
Ho Chi Minh

French occupation of Vietnam ended as a result of
The defeat at Dienbienphu

Which provision of the Geneva Accords was never realized
Free elections for the united Vietnam in 1956

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the events surrounding the Suez crisis?
Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and later built the Aswan dam with Soviet assistance.

The Eisenhower Doctrine was issued in response to the difficulties in
The Middle East

Perhaps Kennedy’s greatest foreign-policy blunder was the
Bay of Pigs

During the Cuban missile crisis
The United States and the Soviet Union came closer to nuclear war than at any other time.

During John F. Kennedy’s administration, the Peace Corps
Spread American ideals abroad and was intended to show developing countries that there was an alternative to communism.

Early opposition to Ngo Dinh Diem in South Vietnam came in part from
South Vietnamese Buddhists

John F. Kennedy’s policy toward South Vietnam included
Increasing the number of American troops on the ground to 16000 by November 1963z

All of the following are true about World War II except
It was fought on three of the seven continents and four of the five oceans

Prior to World War II, all of the following countries embraced fascist governments except
Russia

The United States’ initial response to world problems in the 1930s was
Neutrality

The Neutrality Act of 1935 and its 1936 and 1937 amendments
Required belligerent nations that wanted to buy nonmilitary good from the United Stares to pay in cash and supply their own shipping.

The “cash-and-carry” provision of the 1937 Neutrality Act stated that
Belligerents could buy nonmilitary goods from the United States under certain conditions.

World War II began in Europe when
Germany invaded Poland.

In a famous 1941 speech, Roosevelt define all of the following “four essential freedoms” except
Freedom from discrimination.

The principles of freedom of the seas, national self-determination and collective security were reiterated in
The Atlantic Charter

After the Japanese invaded China in 1937, President Roosevelt
Urged peace-loving nations to “quarantine” Japan and other aggressors.

What did President Roosevelt call “a date that will love in infamy”?
Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor

According to the textbook, the most decisive American factor in determining World War II’s outcome was
The immense production of war material and other needed supplies.

During World War II, federal income tax was
Paid by ten times as many Americans as before.

Which of the following statements accurately characterizes the entry of women into the American workforce during World War II?
Men earned higher wages than women for comparable work.

The progressive legislation was passed during World War II to encourage women workers in the war effort?
Government child-care programs

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes U.S. politics during World War II?
Congress narrowed Roosevelt’s call in 1944 for a second bill of rights program to include only veterans.

The GI Bill of Rights provided
Education, medical care, pensions, and mortgage loans to veterans.

Harry S. Truman was nominated as Roosevelt’s vice presidential running mate in 1944 because
Vice President Wallace was considered to be too liberal by many party leaders.

Japanese Americans on the West Coast were interned during World War II because
The West Coast was considered to be vulnerable to attack by Japanese forces, and inflammatory rhetoric demanded that the region be rid of supposed Japanese spies.

Which of the following statements accurately describes rationing during World War II?
Most Americans complied with rationing.

Problems on the home front included all of the following except
Zoot-suit riots

The greatest civil rights abuse(s) during the war was (were)
The internment of Japanese aliens.

Executive Order 9066
Allowed for the forced relocation of Japanese Americans on the West Coast to detention camps.

Why did the United States participate in World War II?
To protect democracy in Europe and preserve American power outside the Western Hemisphere.

During World War II, the “big three” consisted of
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin.

From 1941 to 1943, Stalin was most interested in securing a guarantee that Britain and the United States would
Open a second front in France to force Germany to withdraw troops from Russia.

Instead of immediately opening a second front in France in 1942-1943, Churchill successfully insisted that the Allies
Invade North Africa and later Sicily and the Italian mainland.

The massive Allied invasion of Europe was code-named
D-Day

In 1942, Japanese forces invaded all of the following except
New Zealand

The turning point of World War II in Europe came when the
Soviets halted the German advance at Stalingrad in the winter of 1942-43.

The two main American military commanders in the Pacific theater during World War II were
Douglas MacArthur and Chester W. Nimitz

In 1944, U.S. Naval forces destroyed much of Japan’s remaining naval fleet in the battle of
Leyte Gulf

Which of the following statements regarding the atomic bomb and its use in World War II is not correct?
U.S. Officials doubted that even a successful demonstration of the atomic bomb could convince Japan to surrender.

Which of the following was not agreed to at Yalta
Dropping the atomic bomb on Japan.

List the causes of World War II
Failure of the treaty of Versailles, Nationalism, Economic conditions, Power politics

List the objectives of the Atlantic Charter between the United States and Great Britain
Non-aggressive pledge, formation of a collective security system, self determination of people, no territorial aggrandizement, freedom of seas, reduction of commercial restriction.

List the four things the United States wanted to achieve in the Yalta conference
Treatment of Germany, status of Poland, creation of the United Nations, Russia’s entry into the war.

List the reasons Truman desires to bring a quick end to World War II in the Pacific
Stronger negotiation position over post-world due to the atomic bomb, gain sole control over Japan, reduce American losses.

All of the following happened to the U.S. Economy between 1929 and 1932, indicating the growing severity of the Great Depression, except
High inflation led to a 50 percent increase to the cost of living.

Which of the following steps was not taken by Hoover administration in its attempts to counter the Great Depression?
Providing direct federal relief for unemployed Americans.

In the Bonus Army incident in Washington (1932), federal troops
Fired on the assembled veterans and burned their encampment.

Which American ideal caused many Americans to blame themselves for the plight?
The self-made man.

During the 1932 presidential campaign, Franklin Roosevelt promised
Bold, persistent experimentation.

President Roosevelt differed from President Hoover in
His personal charisma and willingness to experiment.

The first action Roosevelt took to help the crisis was to
Declare a bank holiday that allowed only sound banks to reopen.

The Emergency Banking Act of 1933
Prevented all banks from reopening until treasury inspectors examined their books and ascertained whether or not they had sufficient cash reserves.

The Agriculture Development Act (AAA)
Provided federal subsidies to farmers who cut farm production.

What was Franklin Roosevelt’s attitude toward the federal government providing welfare payments to the unemployed?
He found it distasteful, preferring to provide jobs over cash subsidies.

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Hired 250,000 young men to perform reforestation and conservation work.

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was
Established in 1934 to curb stock market fraud and abuses.

The New Deal program most applauded by union labor was
National Recovery Act, especially its section 7(a).

The failure of the Social Security Act was that it
Did not include national health insurance.

Between 1935 and 1943, the Work Progress Administration (WPA)
Put unemployed workers to work on the federal payroll by building roads, bridges, public buildings, parks, and airports.

Roosevelt’s initial response to the Supreme Court’s declaring the NRA, the AAA, and other New Deal legislation unconstitutional was to
Attempt to pack the Courts with his own men.

A severe recession occurred in 1937 – 1938 when Roosevelt, congress, and the Federal Reserve
Cut spending and attempted to balance the budget.

Roosevelt heeded John Maynard Keynes’s advice on
Deficit spending.

Which or the following is true about minorities in the New Deal?
African Americans outside the South shifted their voting to the Democrats.

The Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934
Granted independence to the Philippines.

The Grapes of Wrath and Okies are most directly associated with
The Dust Bowl.

The single largest New Deal project in the West was the construction of the
Grand Coulee Dam.

The New Deal’s greatest legacy is that it
Made the United States the largest creditor nation in the world.

List four goals of the Washington Naval Conference
Reduce international tensions, End naval armaments race, Permit administration to cut taxes, Free European Capital for use in areas necessary to rebuild after World War I, Establish new political arrangement in the Far East.

In the 1992 presidential campaign,
the Democrats nominated Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, a self-styled “New Democrat” who would bring “Reagan Democrats” and middle-class voters back to the party.

As a result of the impeachment and trial of President Clinton,
the president was unable to fashion a coherent Democratic alternative to the Republican’s conservative agenda.

In response to the press’s revelations about the Iran-Contra affair, President Reagan
said he couldn’t remember if he had known about it.

Why did Bill Clinton win reelection in 1996?
A united Democratic Party inspired by Republican control of Congress, an uninspiring opponent in Bob Dole, and great effort combined to deliver 49 percent of the popular vote for Clinton.

One of the most important individuals associated with the rise of conservatism in American politics after World War II is
Ronald Reagan.

Which of the following is an important conservative organizational think tank that gives institutional support to the New Right?
All of the above: Cato Institute, American Enterprise Institute, and Heritage Foundation.

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
was a proposed system of satellite and laser shields used to detect and intercept incoming missiles.

In 1994, President Bill Clinton arranged a meeting between Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and Yasir Arafat, chairman of
the Palestine Liberation Organization.

The Reagan administration cut spending for all of the following programs except
Social Security and Medicare.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the circumstances leading up to armed confrontation with Iraq?
In November 1990 the UN Security Council voted to authorize the use of force if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15, 1991.

One of Ronald Reagan’s most significant legacies was
his conservative judicial appointments.

After a Senate committee investigated Anita Hill’s charge that she had been sexually harassed by Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas,
Republicans in the Senate won Thomas’s confirmation by a narrow margin.

By the 1990s, the U.S. health-care system suffered from all of the following problems except
increasingly ineffective procedures and medicines.

In Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, the Supreme Court
upheld a state’s right to restrict the use of public funds and institutions for abortions.

All of the following were policies of the Reagan administration except
cuts in defense spending.

In 1952, the first commercial computer system was used by
CBS News.

By 2000, what percentage of California’s population was foreign-born?
27 percent.

The concept “Y2K” refers to
an international computer disaster in 2000.

In 1947, scientists revolutionized the electronics industry by inventing the
transistor.

All of the following are transformations of work life created by the computer revolution except that
individual users were not able to telecommute from home.

Successful businessmen of the 1980s included all of the following individuals except
Ivan Boesky.

Multinational corporations
often outsource jobs to regions where labor costs are lower.

Which of the following impacts on leisure did computers have for the average American?
All of the above: Online chat rooms and dating services, E-mail to stay in tough with family and friends, and Interactive games and the watching of news and films.

During President Bill Clinton’s two terms in the White House, the stock market value of American companies
nearly tripled.

The overwhelming majority of immigrants to the United States between 1970 and 2000 came from
East Asia and Latin America.

During the 1970s, women’s wages compared to men’s wages were roughly
70 percent.

What percentage of American children were growing up in households in the 1990s that conformed to the model of the ideal American family?
30 percent.

In 1975, Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded
Microsoft.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the AIDS epidemic in the United States in the 1980s and 1990s?
By the mid-1990s, more Americans had died of AIDS than were killed in the Korean and Vietnam Wars combined.

Which of the following was not an advance in small electronics during the 1980s?
Direct video recording system (TiVo)

The World Wide Web
originated in 1991, making the Internet more accessible to all and thus commercially attractive.

After 1991, the United States invaded Iraq a second time in March
2003

George W. Bush’s faith-based initiative offered concrete witness of his commitment to
the Religious Right.

The worst domestic terror attack in U.S. history took place on September 11,
2001.

The controversial Secretary of Defense under President Bush was
Donald Rumsfeld.

After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack by Islamic fundamentalists, a dragnet led by the federal government rounded up

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the U.S. attack on Iraq led by President George W. Bush?
All of the above: It prompted an explosion of anti-American demonstrations in the Arab World, American troops had taken the Iraqi capital in three weeks, and Massive U.S. air attacks created “shock and awe.”

Which of the following government agencies finally determined the outcome of the 2000 election?
the Judicial Branch.

In August 2005, the city of New Orleans was devastated by a
hurricane.

In 2005, two vacant Supreme Court seats were filled by
Samuel Alito and John G. Roberts.

Which of the following states presented contested election returns that generated an intense political controversy in the 2000 presidential race?
Florida.

In a startling move, the Bush administration pulled the United States from the Kyoto Protocol, a set of agreements that dealt with which of the following forms of pollution?

Which of the following statements does not characterize the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act in 2001?
The act decreased the government’s powers of domestic surveillance.

In 2006, a major prison scandal rocked the Bush administration involving
Guantanamo Bay.

Which of the following pieces of legislation did President Bush propose in 2001 in order to fulfill a campaign promise to improve national educational standards and performance?
No Child Left Behind Act.

To legitimize a U.S. invasion of Iraq before world opinion, President Bush needed approval by

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the Democratic party’s campaign response to the Iraq War during the 2004 presidential election?
The party was split over supporting U.S. participation in the war.

The vice president who served under George W. Bush during both terms in office was
Richard Cheney.

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
targeted the film industry.

In his final presidential address in 1961, President Eisenhower
warned Americans about the influence of the “military-industrial complex.”

Modern Republicanism was
an updated party philosophy that emphasized a slowdown, rather than a dismantling, of federal responsibilities.

In 1947, the Truman administration reacted to the growing anti-Communist fervor in the country by
inflaming the hysteria by issuing an executive order initiating a comprehensive investigation of all federal employees’ loyalty.

During the Eisenhower administration, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) helped overthrow the government of
Iran

President Truman relieved General MacArthur of his Korean command for insubordination when
Republicans released a letter from MacArthur to the Republican minority leader in the House that criticized Truman’s conduct of the war.

The Marshall Plan provided aid to
Western Europe.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the beginning of the Berlin blockade?
Alarmed by the revitalization of the Berlin economy under the Marshall Plan, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on all highway, rail, and river traffic to West Berlin.

Senator Joseph McCarthy’s investigation committee lost all credibility when it attacked
the U.S. Army.

On September 15, 1950, General Douglas MacArthur, hoping to reverse the UN’s position in South Korea, directed a brilliant invasion at
Inchon.

What was the outcome of the Korean War?
Korea remained divided.

President Eisenhower’s brand of Republicanism produced a(n)
unsuccessful attempt to reduce federal power.

The U-2 incident concerned
the Soviet Union’s capture of an American spy pilot.

At the Potsdam Conference,

The Taft-Hartley Act

The “space race” began when
Americans learned that the Soviet Union had launched the first space satellite, Sputnik (1957).

In his Truman Doctrine speech, the president

In Indochina in 1954, President Eisenhower defended the French in that nation’s attempt to retake
Vietnam.

When the Chinese Communists defeated the Nationalists in 1949, the United States
found itself plunged into political recriminations about who was to blame for the “fall” of China.

Which of the following did not express their alienation from mainstream American culture of the 1950s?
Benjamin Spock

Television in the United States during the late 1940s and 1950s
contributed powerfully to the homogeneity of American culture.

The Southern Manifesto was a
statement by 101 southern congressmen denouncing the U.S. Supreme Court’s Brown decision as “a clear abuse of judicial power” and calling on their constituents to resist it.

In 1947 Congress authorized the construction of thousands of miles of
highways

Which of the following does not characterize the U.S. car culture during the 1950s?
Serious research for fuel-efficient autos

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the pressure felt by middle-class American women during the 1950s?
They were told by the media and by society that the highest value and only commitment for women was the fulfillment of their own femininity.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the innovations in housing construction pioneered by William Levitt after World War II?
His company could build 150 homes per week by applying mass-production techniques to home construction.

A popular television program of the 1950s that depicted American working-class lives was
The Honeymooners.

The root of the “military-industrial complex,” according to President Eisenhower, is the partnership between
business and government.

Beginning in the 1960s, the influx of Cuban refugees rapidly changed the character of
Miami.

Which of the following television programs was geared toward children during the era?
ALL THE ABOVE: Captain Kangaroo, Mickey Mouse Club, and Howdy Doody

The baby boom in post-World War II America is most accurately explained as resulting from

Betty Friedan’s 1963 book The Feminine Mystique
argued that the suburban housewife image was common during the 1950s.

One of the most rapidly growing job categories in America during the 1950s was
white-collared managers.

In his book On the Road, Jack Kerouac

One of the most influential books on the U.S. economy in the twentieth century, The Affluent Society (1958), was written by
John Kenneth Galbraith.

What was the outcome of the 1968 presidential election?
Richard Nixon won the presidency by a narrow margin.

Student protesters of the 1960s targeted Dow Chemical Company especially because it
produced napalm and Agent Orange for use in Vietnam.

The Voting Rights Act of 1965
together with the Twenty-fourth Amendment and various legal challenges to state and local poll taxes, allowed millions of blacks to register and vote for the first time.

During the Cuban missile crisis,
the United States and the Soviet Union went on full military alert.

John F. Kennedy’s policy toward South Vietnam included
sending in thousands of American troops to prop up the faltering government.

In the 1960 election,
there were confirmed cases of voting fraud in Illinois, which Kennedy won by a slim margin; it was one of the states that gave him his narrow margin of victory.

Operation Rolling Thunder
intensified North Vietnamese nationalism and hardened their will to fight.

In the 1960s, black separatism gained adherents for all of the following reasons except
white acceptance of the teachings of Martin Luther King Jr.

During John F. Kennedy’s administration, the Peace Corps
often gave its volunteers the opportunity to teach English abroad and spread American values.

Richard Nixon successfully campaigned for the presidency in 1968 by doing all of the following except
promising to strengthen LBJ’s Great Society programs.

In March 1965, the effort to pass the Voting Rights Act gained impetus after violence occurred in Alabama at
Selma.

The Kennedy administration’s defense policy
stressed a “flexible response.”

On March 31, 1968, President Johnson shocked the American public when he
announced that he would not seek reelection.

In the test ban treaty of August 1963, the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union agreed to ban all
nuclear testing in the atmosphere.

The Free Speech Movement at Berkeley
arose when the university banned political activity at a campus site that was traditionally reserved for distributing leaflets and recruiting.

In the 1968 election and during the Nixon administration, the expression “silent majority” was used to refer to Americans who
were hardworking and nonprotesting.

The birth of the modern environmentalist movement is usually dated to
the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962.

In the 1970s, the phenomenon of deindustrialization in the United States was most visible in the
Midwest and Northeast.

The so-called Pentagon Papers
were a classified study of the American conduct of the Vietnam War up to 1967 and later leaked to the New York Times.

In the case of Bakke v. University of California (1978), which of the following issues was under review?
Affirmative action

Which one of the following was not a consequence of Watergate?
Congress passed the War Powers Act.

The downfall of President Nixon is most accurately attributed to
his broad pattern of illegal activities.

What was the “smoking gun” that was found in the unexpurgated White House tapes that Nixon was finally forced to release in August 1974, which made it virtually certain that the Senate would convict him in an impeachment trial?
Direct evidence that Nixon had ordered the Watergate cover-up as early as six days after the break-in

President Nixon’s obstruction of justice began when he
sent word to the FBI not to investigate links between the Watergate burglars and his administration.

In 1979, a nuclear reactor came close to meltdown at
Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania.

The Christmas bombings of 1972
were the most destructive of the war.

The 1973 Paris Peace Accords led to the
release of American prisoners of war.

From 1969 to 1972, Richard Nixon’s strategy to end the Vietnam War was to
reduce American troop involvement and turn over most of the ground fighting to the South Vietnamese army.

President Gerald Ford’s publicly stated reason for pardoning Richard Nixon “for all offenses he had committed or might have committed during his presidency” was that
he wished to spare the country the agony of rehashing Watergate.

My Lai was
the site of the massacre of 350 villagers by American soldiers.

Before his appointment to the vice presidency, Gerald Ford–who became president on Richard Nixon’s resignation and was the nation’s first non-elected vice president–had been
House minority leader.

After the United States withdrew its forces from South Vietnam,
the North Vietnamese army overwhelmed the South Vietnamese forces and forcibly reunited Vietnam in 1975.

Federal Farm Board (Agriculture Marketing Act 1929) created in 1929, before the stock market crash on Black Tuesday, 1929, but its powers were later enlarged to meet the economic crisis farmers faced during the Great Depression. It was established by …

The immediate cause for American entry into World War I was the German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare. By 1915, the Central Powers consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

What Characterized the period of Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover Described as a New Era in 1920? A Freewheeling economy and a heightened sense of individualism America’s return to a peacetime economy in 1920 and 1921 was marked by a …

The disastrous effects of World War I and the Great Depression led to the rise of totalitarian regimes in some countries After coming to power in Italy, Benito Mussolini banned political parties, took over the press, and suppressed strikes WE …

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