As detailed in the Constitution, the formal requirements for the office of president include that he or she must be
at least thirty-five years old.

As detailed in the Constitution, the formal requirements for the office of senator include that he or she must be
a resident of the state from which elected.

The qualifications for state legislators are
set by the state constitutions.

As a result of ______, the number of African American public officials has increased throughout the United States.
major civil rights legislation in the 1960s

With regard to candidates for office, all of the following are true EXCEPT
today, only 35 percent of Americans say they would vote for a qualified woman for president.

______ may be more likely to campaign for and hold political office because they have more flexible schedules, and political involvement can make a valuable contribution to their careers.

State and national candidates are typically nominated through a
primary election.

Before the advent of ______, a strong party organization at the local, state, or national level could furnish most of the services candidates needed
television campaigning

One of the reasons that campaigns no longer depend on political parties is
that fewer people identify with them.

In 1954, fewer than 20 percent of adults identified themselves as ______, whereas today that share is about 40 percent.`

If a candidate is a highly visible incumbent seeking reelection,
there may be little need for campaigning except to remind the voters of the officeholder’s good deeds.

Tracking polls are
taken on a nearly daily basis as the election approaches.

A ______ is when professional consultants organize a discussion about candidates or certain political issues among small groups of ordinary citizens.
focus group

The series of acts passed by Congress in an attempt to limit and regulate the size and sources of contributions and expenditures in political campaigns are known as the
corrupt practices acts.

he ______ limited the amount that candidates could spend on their own campaigns, a limit later ruled unconstitutional.
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971

Reforms to the Federal Election Campaign Act in 1974 did NOT
provide public funding for congressional elections.

Candidates who accept federal financing for presidential general elections
can raise an equal amount of funds privately as provided by the government.

A committee set up by and representing a corporation, labor union, or special interest group to raise campaign donations is a
political action committee.

Soft money refers to
campaign contributions to political parties that escaped limits of federal or state election law.

Independent expenditures by special interests are
unregulated political expenditures by PACs, organizations, and individuals that are not coordinated with candidate campaigns or political parties.

The organizations that came to be known as “527s”
run issue ads to energize voters.

Advertising paid for by interest groups that support or oppose a candidate (or a candidate’s position on an issue) without mentioning voting or elections is called
issue advocacy advertising.

A meeting of party members designed to select candidates and propose policies is called
a caucus.

Superdelegates are
party leaders or elected officials who are given the right to vote at the party’s national convention.

Most candidates in state and local elections are chosen by
direct primaries.

When only declared party members can vote in a primary election, it is called
a closed primary.

When voters can vote in either party primary without disclosing their party affiliation, it is called
an open primary.

When the top two candidates in a primary compete in another primary for a majority of votes, it is called
a run-off primary.

The process in which more and more states move their primaries into the first months of the year is known as

At the national convention, each political party uses a ______ to determine which delegates may participate.
credentials committee

The selection of electors is governed by
state laws.

The number of members each state will have in the Electoral College
equals that state’s number of senators plus its number of representatives.

A secret ballot prepared, distributed, and tabulated by government officials at public expense is known as the
Australian ballot.

The two major parties prefer a(n) ______ ballot because it encourages straight-ticket voting.

Some observers argue that an excessive concern with voting fraud makes it harder for
minorities and poor people to vote.

The number of eligible voters who cast ballots on Election Day is referred to as the
voter turnout.

Felons and ex-felons, and new immigrants who are not yet citizens, are included in the
vote-eligible population.

Regarding voter requirements, each state
has different qualifications for voting and registration.

The public agenda is
issues that are perceived by the political community as meriting public attention and governmental action.

Negative political ads can backfire when
they decrease the profitability of television station owners.

A political advisor who tries to convince journalists of the truth of a particular interpretation of events is called a
spin doctor.

In 1996, Congress passed the ________ that had far-reaching implications for the communications industry.
Telecommunications Act

An inclination or preference that interferes with impartial judgment is called

Studies of bias in the media have reached
different conclusions: some found a liberal bias, while others found a conservative bias.

A political party is a group of political activists who
organize to win elections, operate the government, and determine public policy.

A political party differs from an interest group in that
political parties want to operate the government and interest groups do not.

A movement that represents the demands of a large segment of the population for political, economic, or social change is called a
social movement.

More interest groups are formed to represent ______ interests than any other set of interests.

“Umbrella groups” represent
collections of businesses or other entities.

Which types of interest groups are defined as economic interest groups?
business, labor, and professional organizations.

All of the following statements about public-interest groups are true EXCEPT
public-interest groups work for issues that will benefit only the narrow interests of a particular group.

______ are a shorthand way of describing congressional members’ voting records for interested citizens.

A voter or a candidate who does NOT identify with a political party is called
an independent.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding political party membership?
Nothing is required to be a member of a political party.

A group or bloc in a legislature or political party acting in pursuit of some special interest or position is called a(n)

Functions of political parties in the United States include all of the following EXCEPT
signing up large numbers of committed, dues-paying members.

A political system in which only two parties have a reasonable chance of winning is called
a two-party system.

The first partisan political division in the United States was between
the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists.

George Washington viewed political parties as a
threat to national unity and the concept of popular government.

All of the following statements about the early Republican Party are true EXCEPT
it was initially led by Thomas Jefferson.

The years from 1817 to 1825, when James Monroe was president and there was, in effect, no political opposition, came to be known as the
Era of Good Feelings.

All of the following statements about the early Democratic Party are true EXCEPT
it came into existence when the Republican Party split in two.

The modern Republican Party was founded when the issue of ______ divided both existing political parties.

A large-scale, lasting change in the types of voters who support each of the major political parties is ca

Under Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic Party
began a radical change by becoming at least as receptive as the Republicans to government action in the economy.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding politics and the Great Depression?
The Great Depression shattered the working-class belief in Republican economic competence.

After 1968, there was a slow-motion realignment that left the nation
almost evenly divided in politics.

The party organization is
the formal structure and leadership of a political party.

The document drawn up at each national convention outlining the policies, positions, and principles of the party is called the
party platform.

For a political party, the national committee
directs and coordinates party activities between national party conventions.

The practice of rewarding faithful party workers and followers with government employment and contracts is called

Divided government is best understood as
the situation when the presidency and Congress are controlled by different parties.

What is a plurality system?
Whoever gets the most votes wins.

The ______ is a rule by which all of a state’s electoral votes are cast for the presidential candidate who receives a plurality of the votes in that state.
unit rule

Many political scientists believe that third parties
have acted as safety valves for dissident groups, preventing major confrontations and political unrest.

One of the main ways third parties have influenced American politics is by
sometimes determining the outcome of an election by pulling votes from one of the major-party candidates.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding voting habits?
The number of voters who identify as independents has never been greater.

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