Psych Exam (10-12)

Psychologists ____ agree on a definition of intelligence.
do not

To regard an abstract concept as a concrete entity is to commit the error known as ____. By doing this, we are viewing intelligence as something a person has, rather than a score obtained on an ____.
reification
intelligence test

Intelligence is a ____ constructed concept.
socially

In any context, intelligence can be defined as ___.
a mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

One controversy regarding the nature of intelligence centers on whether intelligence is one of ___ ability or several ____ abilities.
overall (general)
specific

The statistical procedure used to identify groups of items that appear to measure a common ability is called _____.
factor analysis

Charles Spearman, one of the developers of this technique, believed that a factor called g, or ____ runs through the more specific aspects of intelligence.
general intelligence

Opposing Spearman, ____ identified seven clusters of ____.
Thurstone
primary mental abilities

One psychologist believes that general intelligence evolved as a means of helping people solve ____.
novel problems

People with ____ score at the low end of intelligence tests but possess extraordinary specific skills.
savant syndrome

Howard Gardner proposes that there are ____, each independent of the others. However, critics point out that the world is not so just: General intelligence scores ____ predict performance on various complex tasks and in various jobs.
multiple intelligences
do

Sternberg’s ____ theory distinguishes three types of intelligence: ____ intelligence, ____ intelligence, and ____ intelligence.
triarchic
analytical (academic problem solving)
practical
creative

The ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable is called ____. The relationship between intelligence and creativity holds only up to a certain point–an intelligence score of about ____.
creativity
120

Standard intelligence tests, which demand single correct answers to questions, measure ____ thinking. Tests that allow multiple possible answers to problems measure ___ thinking.
convergent
divergent

The know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully differs from ___ intelligence and is referred to as ____ intelligence.
academic
social

A critical part of social intelligence is ____–the ability to ____, ____, ____ and ____ emotions.
emotional intelligence
perceive
understand
manage
use

More specifically, the four components of emotional intelligence are as follows: the ability to ____ emotions in faces, the ability to ___ them and how they change and blend, the ability to ____ them correctly in varied situations, and the ability to use them to enable ____ or creative thinking.
recognize
predict
express
adaptive

Some scholars believe that the concept of ____ intelligence stretches the idea of multiple intelligences too far.
emotional

Earlier studies ____ reveal a clear cut correlation between head size (relative to body size) and intelligence score.
did not

Newer studies that measure brain ____ using ____ scans reveal a ____ significant correlation between brain size (adjusted for body size) and intelligence score. The cause of this could be differing ____, nutrition, ____ or some combination of these.
volume
MRI
more
genes
environmental stimulation

A study of Einstein’s brain revealed that it was 15% larger in the lower ___ lobe–known to be an important neural center for processing ___ and ___ information.
parietal
mathematical
spatial

Postmortem analyses reveal that the brains of highly educated people have more ___ than do those of of people with less education. Other evidence suggests that highly intelligent people differ in their neural ___. Higher intelligence scores have also been linked with more ____ in brain areas known to be involved in ___, ___ and ____.
synapses
plasticity
gray matter
memory
attention
language

When people ponder intelligence test questions, for example, an area in the brain’s _____ becomes especially active in the ___ brain for verbal questions and ____ for spatial questions. People who are able to more quickly retrieve information from memory tend to score high in ___ ability.
frontal lobe
left
on both sides of the brain
verbal

Studies looking at a range of tasks have found that people with high intelligence scores tend to process and retrieve information ____ than people with low intelligence scores.
faster

Other studies have found that the brain waves of highly intelligent people register simple stimuli more ___ and with greater ____.
quicly
complexity

The early Greek philosopher ____ concluded that individuals differed in their natural endowments.
Plato

Although Francis Galton’s search for a simple intelligence measure failed, he gave us some ___ techniques that we still use, as well as the terms ___ and ____.
statistical
nature
nurture

The French psychologist who devised a test to predict the success of children in school was ___. Predictions were made by comparing children’s chronological ages with their ___ ages, which were determined by the test. This test ___ designed to measure inborn intelligence; Binet leaned toward an ___ explanation of intelligence.
Binet
mental
was not

Lewis Terman’s revision of Binet’s test is referred to as the _____. This test enables one to derive a(n) ___ for an individual.
Stanford-Binet
intelligence quotient

Today’s tests compute ____ by comparing the individual’s performance to the average performance of people of ____ age(s). These tests are designed so that a score of ____ is considered average.
an intelligence test score
the same
100

The misguided movement called ___ proposed measuring human traits and using the results to determine who should be allowed to reproduce.
eugenics

When given intelligence tests in the early 1900s, immigrants arriving in the United States often scored ____ average. This is because the tests were based on particular ___ background.
below
cultural

Tests designed to measure what you already have learned are called ___ tests. Tests designed to predict your ability to learn something new are called ___ tests.
achievement
aptitude

The most widely used intelligence test is the ____. Consisting of 11 subtests, it provides not only a general intelligence score but also separate scores for ____, ____, ____ and ____.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
verbal comprehension
perceptual organization
working memory
processing speed

One requirement of a good test is the process of defining meaningful scores relative to a pretested comparison group, which is called ____.
standardization

When scores on a test are compiled, they generally result in a bell-shaped pattern or ___ distribution.
normal

The Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler Scales ____ periodically re-standardized, thereby keeping the average score near ____.
are
100

During the 1960s and 1970s, college entrance aptitude scores showed a steady ____. At the same time, intelligence test performance ____. This phenomenon is called the ____.
decline
improved
Flynn effect

Although the actual cause of this effect is unknown, one explanation is that this is due to improved ___. The recent performance gains on the WAIS are greatest among people at the lowest ___ levels.
nutrition
economic

If a test yields consistent results, it is said to be ___.
reliable

When a test is administered more than once to the same people, the psychologist is determining its _____ reliability.
test-retest

When a person’s scores for the odd and even numbered questions on a test are compared, ____ reliability is being assessed.
split-half

The Stanford-Binet, WAIS, and WISC have reliabilities of about ____.
+.9

The degree to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to is refereed to as the the test’s ____.
validity

The degree to which a test measures the behavior it was designed to measure is referred to as the test’s ____.
content validity

The degree to which a test predicts further performance of a particular behavior, called the test’s ____ is referred to as the test’s ___.
criterion
predictive validity

Generally speaking, the predictive validity of general aptitude tests ____ as high as their reliability. The predictive validity of these tests ___ as individuals move up the educational ladder.
is not
diminshes

Some studies have found that infants who quickly become bored when looking at a picture score ___ on tests of brain speed and intelligence up to 21 years later.
higher

Traditional intelligence tests before age ____ predict future aptitudes only modestly.
3

During childhood, the stability of intelligence scores ____ with age. After about age ____, intelligence scores stabilize. A long term study of mental ability in Scottish children revealed that this ____ through late adulthood.
increases
7
holds

Individuals whose intelligence scores fall below 70 and who have difficulty adapting to life may be labeled ___. This label applies to approximately ____ percent of the population.
mentally retarded
1

Mental retardation sometimes has a physical basis, such as ____, a genetic disorder caused by an extra chromosome.
Down syndrome

The current view is that children with mild retardation should be integrated, or ____ into regular classrooms.
mainstreamed

At the high extreme, Lewis Terman’s “gifted children” turned out to be ____ well-____, and unusually successful ____.
healthy
adjusted
academically

The intelligence scores of identical twins reared together are ____ similar than those of fraternal twins. Brain scans also reveal that identical twins have similar volume to their brain’s ____, and those areas associated with ___ and ____ intelligence.
more
gray matter
verbal
spatial

Because intelligence is influenced by many genes, it is said to be ____.
polygenic

The intelligence test scores of fraternal twins are ____ than the intelligence test scores of other siblings. This provides evidence of a(n) ____ effect because fraternal twins, being the same ____, are treated more alike.
more alike
environmental
age

Studies of adopted children and their adoptive and biological families demonstrate that with age, genetic influences on intelligence become ____ apparent. Thus, children’s intelligence scores are more like those of their ____ parents than their ____ parents.
more
biological
adoptive

The amount of variation in a trait within a group that is attributed to genetic factors is called its ____. For intelligence, this has been estimated at ___ percent.
heritability
50

If we know a trait has perfect heritability, this knowledge ____ enable us to rule out environmental factors in explaining differences between groups.
does not

Studies indicate that neglected children ____ show signs of recovery in intelligence and behavior when placed in more nurturing environments. Although normal brain development can be retarded by ____, ____ deprivation and _____, there is no sure environment that will transform a normal baby into a genius.
do
malnutrition
sensory
social isolation

High-quality programs for disadvantaged children, such as the government-funded ____ program, increase children’s school readiness; that is, they increase their ____, creating better attitudes toward learning.
Head Start
emotional intelligence

Girls tend to outscore boys on ____ tests and are more ___ fluent. They also have an edge in ____ and ____ objects, in sensation, and in ____ detecting ability.
spelling
verbally
remembering
locating
emotion

Although girls have an edge in math ____, boys score higher in math _____. Boys tend to outscore girls on tests of _____.
computation
problem solving
mental rotation

Working from an ____ perspective, some theorists speculate that these gender differences in spatial manipulation helped our ancestors survive.
evolutionary

There is evidence that spatial abilities are enhanced by high levels of _____ during prenatal development.
male sex hormones

According to many, boys’ and girls’ interests and abilities are shaped in large part by ____ and divergent opportunities. The mental ability scores of males tend to vary ____ than those of females.
social expectations
more

Group differences in intelligence scores ____ provide an accurate basis for judging individuals. Individual differences within a race are ___ between race differences.
do not
greater than

Under the skin, the races ___ alike. Race ____ a neatly defined biological category.
are
is not

Although Asian students on the average score ____ than North American students on math tests, this difference may be due to the fact that ____.
higher
Asian students have a longer school year and spend more time studying math

On an infant intelligence measure (preference for looking at novel stimuli), Black infants score _____ White infants.
as well as

In the sense that they detect differences caused by cultural experiences, intelligence tests probably ____ biased.
are

Most psychologists agree that, in terms of predictive validity, the major aptitude tests ____ racially biased.
are not

When women and members of ethnic minorities are led to expect that they won’t do well on a test, a ____ may result, and their scores may actually be lower.
stereotype threat

Chapter 11
Chapter 11

Motivation is defined as ____.
a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal

Four perspectives on motivation are ____ theory (which has been replaced by the ____ perspective), _____ theory, ____ theory, and the ____ of needs proposed by ____.
instinct
evolutionary
drive-reduction
arousal
hierarchy
Maslow

As a result of Darwin’s influence, many complex behaviors were classified as rigid, unlearned behavior patterns that are characteristic of a species, called ____. Although early instinct theory ____ explain human motives, the underlying assumption that ____ predispose species-typical behavior remains strong.
instincts
did not
genes

According to another view of motivation, organisms may experience a physiological ____, which creates a state of arousal that ____ the organism to reduce the need.
need
drives

The aim of drive reduction is to maintain a constant internal state, called ____.
homeostasis

Behavior is often not so much pushed by our drives as it is pulled by ____ in the environment.
incentives

Rather than reduce a physiological need, some motivated behaviors actually ____ arousal. This demonstrates that human motives ____ always satisfy some biological need.
increase
do not

Human motivation aims not to eliminate ___ but to seek ____ of arousal.
arousal
optimum levels

Starting from the idea that ____ needs such as the need for water take precedence over others, Maslow constructed a hierarchy of needs.
lower-level

According to Maslow, the ____ needs are the most pressing, whereas the highest-order needs relate to ___ and ___.
physiological
self-actualization
self-transcendence

A criticism of Maslow’s theory is that the sequence ____ and not ____ experienced.
arbitrary
universally

Surveys of life satisfaction reveal that ____ satisfaction is strongly predictive of subjective well-being in poorer nations, whereas ____ satisfaction matters more in wealthy nations and ____ in individualist nations.
financial
home-life
self-esteem

Ancel Keys observed that men became preoccupied with thoughts of food when they underwent ____.
semistarvation

Cannon and Washburn’s experiment using a balloon indicated that there is an association between hunger and ____.
stomach contractions

When rats had their stomach removed, hunger ____ continue.
did

Increases in the hormone ____ diminish blood ____, partly by converting it to stored fat, which causes hunger to ____.
insulin
glucose
increase

The brain area that plays a role in hunger and other bodily maintenance functions is the ____. Animals will begin eating when the ____ is electrically stimulated. When this region is destroyed, animals ____.
hypothalamus
lateral hypothalamus
decreases
ventromedial hypothalamus
overeat

The hypothalamus also secretes the hunger triggering hormone ____.
orexin

The hunger arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach is ____.
ghrelin

When a potion of an obese person’s stomach is surgically sealed off, the remaining stomach produces ____ of this hormone.
less

Chemical secreted by bloated fat cells: ____.
leptin

Digestive tract hormone that signals fullness: ____.
PYY

Hormone secreted by the stomach that signals fullness:_____.
obestatin

The weight level at which an individual’s body is programmed to stay is referred to as the body’s ____. A person whose weight goes beyond this level will tend to feel ____ hungry than usual and expend ____ energy.
set point
less
more

The rate of energy expenditure in maintaining basic functions when the body is at rest is the _____ rate. When food intake is reduced, they body compensates by ____ this rate.
basal metabolic
lowering

The concept of a precise body set point that drives hunger ____ by all researchers. Some researchers believe that set point can be altered by _____. In support of this idea is evidence that when people and other animals are given unlimited access to tasty foods, they tend to ____ and ____. For these reasons, some researchers prefer to use the term ____ as an alternative to the idea that there is a fixed set point.
is not accepted
slow
sustained changes in body weight
overeat
gain weight
settling point

Research with amnesia patients indicates that part of knowing when to eat is our ____ of our last meal.
memory

Carbohydrates boost levels of the neurotransmitter ____, which ___ the body.
serotonin
calms

Taste preferences for sweet and salty are ____. Other influences on taste include ___ and ____.
genetic
conditioning
culture

We have a natural dislike of many foods that are ____; this ____ was probably adaptive for our ancestors, and protected them from toxic substances.
unfamiliar
neophobia

Because of ____ facilitation, people tend to eat ____ when they are with other people. The phenomenon of ____ is the tendency of mindlessly eat more when portions are larger.
social
more
unit bias

The disorder in which a person becomes significantly underweight and yet feels fat is known as ____.
anorexia nervosa

A more common disorder is ____, which is characterized by repeated ______ episodes and by feelings of depression or anxiety. When bouts of excessive eating followed by remorse are not accompanied by excessive exercise or fasting, the ____ disorder may be diagnosed.
bulimia nervosa
binge-purge
binge-eating disorder

The families of bulimia patients have a high incidence of childhood _____ and ____ self evaluation. The families of anorexia patients tend to be ____, ____ and ____.
obesity
negative
competitive
high-achieving
protective

Genetic factors ____ influence susceptibility to eating disorders.
may

Vulnerability to eating disorders ____ with greater body dissatisfaction.
increases

Women students in ___ rate their actual shape as closer to the cultural ideal. In ____ cultures, however, the rise in eating disorders has coincided with an increasing number of women having a poor ____.
India
Western
body image

Stice and Shaw found that when young women were shown pictures of unnaturally thin models, they felt more ____, ____ and ____ with their own bodies.
ashamed
depressed
dissatisfied

Being slightly overweight ____ serious health risks. In the US over ____ percent of adults are obese. Significant obesity increases the risk of ____.
does not pose
34
diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, arthritis, and certain types of cancer

In developing societies where people face ____, obesity is considered a sign of ____ and ____.
famine
affluence
social status

The risk of obesity are greater for people who carry their weight at their ___. It also has been linked in women to their risk of late-life ___ disease and brain tissue loss.
abdomens (stomachs)
Alzheimer’s

Obese people are often stereotyped as ___, ____, and ____.
slow
lazy
sloppy

One study found that obese women earned ____ than a control group of nonobese women and were less likely to be ____.
less
married

In one experiment, job applicants were rated as less worthy of hiring when they were made to appear ____.
overweight

The energy equivalent of a pound of fat is approximately ____ calories.
3500

The immediate determinant of body fat is the size and number of ____ one has. This number is, in turn, determined by several factors, including _____.
fat cells
genetic predisposition, early childhood eating patterns, adult overeating

The size of fat cells ____ be decreased by dieting; the number of fat cells ____ be decreased by dieting.
can
cannot

Fat tissue has a ____ metabolic rate than lean tissue. The result is that fat tissue requires ____ food energy to be maintained.
lower
less

The body weight “thermostat” of obese people ___ set to maintain a higher-than-average weight. When weight drops below this setting, ____ increases and ____ decreases.
is
hunger
metabolism

Studies of adoptees and twins ____ provide evidence of a genetic influence on obesity. A particular variant of the gene called ___ has been shown to nearly double a person’s risk of becoming obese.
do
FTO

People are ____ likely to become obese when a friend becomes obese, thus demonstrating ____ influence as a factor in obesity. Obesity is ____ common among those who watch more daily TV and ___ common among people living in communities where walking is common.
more
social
more
less

Most obese persons who lose weight ____ it back.
gain

The 2 researchers who identified a four-stage sexual response cycle are ____ and ____. In order, the stages of the cycle are the ____ phase, the ____ phase, _____ and the ____ phase.
Masters
Johnson
excitement
plateau
orgasm
resolution

During resolution males experience a ____ during which they are incapable of another orgasm.
refractory period

Problems that consistently impair sexual functioning are called _____. Examples of such problems include ____, ____ and ____.
sexual disorders
premature ejaculation
erectile dysfunction
orgasmic dysfunction

In most mammals, females are sexually receptive only during ovulation, when the hormones, the ____ (such as ____), have peaked.
estrogens
estradiol

The importance of the hormone ____ to male sexual arousal is confirmed by that fact that sexual interest declines in animals if their ____ are removed. In women, low levels of the hormone ___ may cause a waning sexual interest.
testosterone
testes
testosterone

Normal hormonal fluctuations in humans have ____ effect on sexual motivation. In later life, frequency of intercourse ____ as sex hormone levels ____.
little
decrease
decline

Research has shown that erotic stimuli ____ nearly as arousing for women as for men.
are

Brain scans reveal more activity in the ____ among ____ who are viewing erotica.
amygdala
men

With repeated exposure, the emotional response to an erotic stimulus often ____.
habituates

Most women and men ____ sexual fantasies. Compared with women’s fantasies, men’s sexual fantasies are more ____. Sexual fantasies ____ indicate sexual problems or dissatisfaction.
have
frequent, physical, and less romantic
do not

Sexual expression varies widely from one ____ to another and with the passage of ____. Rates of teen intercourse are roughly similar in ____ and ____ but much lower in ___ and ____ countries and among North Americans of ____ descent.
culture
time
Western Europe
Latin America
Asian
Arab
Asian

Because teenage sex is often ____ there is increased risk of pregnancy and ____. Compared with European teens, American teens have ____ rates of intercourse, ____ rates of contraceptive use, and thus ____ rates of teen pregnancy and abortion.
unprotected
sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
lower
lower
higher

Unprotected sex has led to an increase in adolescent rates of ____. Teenage girls because of their not yet fully mature biological development and lower levels of protective ____, may be especially vulnerable to STIs.
sexually transmitted infection (STI)
antibodies

A person’s sexual attraction toward members of a particular gender is referred to as ____.
sexual orientation

Historically, ____ of the world’s cultures have been predominantly heterosexual. Most homosexuals begin thinking of themselves as gay or lesbian around ____.
all
the late teens or early twenties

Studies in Europe and the US indicate that approximately ____ percent of men and ____ percent of women are exclusively homosexual. This finding suggests that popular estimates of the rate of homosexuality are ____.
3 or 4
1 or 2
high

Some homosexuals struggle with their sexual orientation and are at increased risk of ____ attempts.
suicide

A person’s sexual orientation ___ appear to be voluntarily chosen. Several research studies reveal that sexual orientation among ____ tends to be less strongly felt and potentially more changeable than among the other gender. This phenomenon has been called the gender difference in ____.
does not
women
erotic plasticity

Childhood events and family relationships ____ important factors in determining a person’s sexual orientation. Also, homosexuality ____ involve a fear of the other gender that leads people to direct their sexual desires toward members of their own gender.
are not
does not

Sex hormone levels ____ predict sexual orientation.
do not

As children, most homosexuals ____ sexually victimized.
were not

Homosexual and bisexual people appear more often in certain populations including ___, ____ and ____.
poets
fiction writers
artists
musicians

Men who have older brothers are somewhat ____ likely to be gay. This phenomenon which has been called the ____, may represent a defensive maternal ____ response to substances produced by ____ fetuses.
more
fraternal birth-order effect
immune
male

One theory that proposes that people develop a homosexual orientation if they are segregated with ____ gender at the time their sex drive matures. The fact that early homosexual behavior ____ make people homosexual ____ this theory.
their own
does not
conflicts with

Same-sex attraction ___ occur among animals.
does

Researcher Simon LeVay discovered a cluster of cells in the ____ that is larger in ___ men than in all others. Gay and lesbians differ from their straight counterparts in their preference for sex related ____. Other studies have found that the brain’s ____ is larger in lesbian women and heterosexual men.
hypothalamus
heterosexual
odors
right hemisphere

Studies of twins suggest that genes probably ____ play a role in homosexuality. Research has confirmed that homosexual men have more homosexual relatives on their ____ side than on their ___ side.
do
mother’s
father’s

In animals and some rare human cases, sexual orientation has been altered by abnormal ____ conditions during prenatal development. In humans, prenatal exposure to hormone levels typical of ___, particularly between ____ and ____ months after conception may predispose an attraction to males.
hormone
females
2
5

Gays and lesbians may have certain physical traits that fall midway between straight males and females, including ____ patterns, greater odds of being ____ handed and anatomical traits of the ____ within the hearing system.
fingerprint
left
cochlea

A number of scientists today believe that biological factors may predispose a ____ that influences sexuality, and thus explains why sexual orientation is ____ to change. Most psychiatrists now believe that ____ plays the larger role in predisposing sexual orientation. Those who believe that sexual orientation is determined by ____ express more accepting attitudes toward homosexual persons.
temperament
difficult
biology
biology

The study of sexual behavior and what motivates it ____ be free of values.
cannot

Researchers’ values ____ be openly stated.
should

The philosopher ____ referred to humans as the ___ animal. From an evolutionary standpoint, social bonds in humans boosted our ancestors’ ____ rates. As adults, those who formed ____ were more likely to ____ and co-nurture their offspring to maturity.
Aristotle
social
survival
attachments
reproduce

When asked what makes life meaningful, most people mention _____.
close, satisfying relationships with family, friends, or romantic partners

Feeling accepted and loved by others boosts our ____.
self-esteem

Much of our ____ behavior aims to increase our belongings. For most people, familiarity leads to ____.
social
liking

After years of placing individual refugee and immigrant families in ____ communities, US policies today encourage _____.
isolated
chain migration

____ people use social exclusion, or ____, to control social behavior.
Throughout the world
ostracism

Researchers have found that people who are rejected are more likely to engage in ___ behaviors, to underperform on ____ and to act in disparaging or ___ ways.
self-defeating
aptitude tests
agressive

According to Freud, the healthy life is filled with ___ and ____.
work
love

Most people ____ a predictable career path, which is one reason that many colleges and universities focus less on ____ and more on ____.
does not have
training job skills
enlarging capacities for understanding, thinking and communicating in any work environment

People who are unemployed ____ lower well being. People who view their work as a ____ report the greatest satisfaction.
report
calling

Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi formulated the concept of ____, which is defined as a focused state of ____ and diminished awareness of ____ and time. People who experience this state also experience increased feelings of ___, ____ and ____.
flow
consciousness
self
self-esteem, competence, well being

In industrialized nations, the nature of work has changed from ____ to _____ to ____.
farming
manufacturing
knowledge work

The field of ____ psychology applies psychology’s principles to the workplace. The subfield of ____ focuses on employee recruitment, training, appraisal, and development. Another subfield, _____ examines how work environments and ____ styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction and productivity. A third subfield ____ psychology focuses on the design of appliances machines and work environments.
industrial-organizational
personnel psychology
organizational psychology
management
human factors

Researchers note that the first step to a stronger organization is to institute a ____ selection system, which matches strengths to work.
strengths-based

Satisfied and successful people devote less time to ____ than to _____.
correcting deficiencies
accentuating strengths

Interviewers tend to ____ in their ability to predict job performance from unstructured interviews. These impressions tend to be highly ____.
feel confident
error prone

The best predictor of long term job performance for most jobs is ____. Interviewers tend to ____ estimate their interviewing skills and intuition–a phenomenon labeled the ____.
general mental ability
over
interviewer illusion
a. Interviews disclose the interviewee’s good intentions, which are less revealing than their typical behaviors
b. Interviewers tend to follow the successful careers of people they hired and lose track of those they did not hire
c. Interviewers mistakenly presume that how interviewees present themselves reflects only their enduring traits
d. Interviewers preconceptions and moods influence their perceptions of job applicants

A more disciplined method of collecting information from job applicants is the ____, which asks the same questions of all applicants. This method enhances the ____ accuracy and ____ of the interview process.
structured interview
predictive
reliability

Performance appraisal has several purposes, including helping organizations decide ____, how to appropriately ____, and how to better harness employees’ ____. Performance appraisal methods include ____, ____ scales, and ____ scales.
who to retain
reward and pay workers
strengths
checklists
graphic ratings
behavior rating

Some organizations practice ____ feedback, in which employess not only rate themselves but are also rated by their supervisors and other colleagues.
360 degree

Performance appraisal is subject to bias. When the overall evaluation of an employee biases ratings of work-related behaviors a ____ has occurred. The tendency to be too easy or too harsh results in ___ and ____ errors respectively. When raters focus on easily remembered recent behavior, they are committing the ___ error.
halo error
leniency
severity
recency

Psychologists refer to the desire for significant accomplishments for mastering skills or ideas, for control, and for attaining a high standard as ____.
achievement motivation

Research has shown that ___ is a better predictor of school performance than ____ have been. Extremely successful individuals differ from equally talented peers in their ____, their passionate dedication to a long-term goal.
self-discipline
intelligence scores
grit

Positive moods at work contribute to worker ____, ____ and _____. Researchers have also found a positive correlation between measures of organizational success and employee ____ or the extent of workers’ involvement, satisfaction, and enthusiasm.
creativity
persistence
helpfulness
engagement

The best managers help people to ____, match tasks to ____, care how their people feel about their work, and ____ positive behaviors.
identity and measure their talents
talent
reinforcement

Higher work achievement is motivated by a leader who sets ____ goals.
specific
challenging

Managers who are directive, set clear standards, organize work, and focus attention on specific goals are said to employ ____. More democratic managers who aim to build teamwork and mediate conflicts in the work force employ ____.
task leadership
social leadership

Effective leaders tend to exude a self-confident ___ that is a mix of a ____ of some goal, an ability to ____ the goal clearly, and enough optimism to ____ others to follow. Leadership that inspires others to transcend their own self interests for the sake of the group is called ____ leadership.
charisma
vision
communicate
inspire
transformational

The most effective style of leadership ____ with the situation and/or the person.
varies

Effective managers ____ exhibit a high degree of both task and social leadership. The ____ effect occurs when people respond more positively to managerial decisions on which they have voiced an opinion.
often
voice

Chapter 12
Chapter 12

Emotions have 3 components: ____, ___ and ____.
physiological arousal
expressive behaviors
conscious experience

According to the James-Lange theory, emotional states ____ physiological responses.
follow

Cannon proposed that emotional stimuli in the environment are routed simultaneously to the ____, which results in awareness of the emotion, and to the ____ nervous system, which causes the body’s reaction. Because another scientist concurrently proposed similar ideas, this theory has come to be known as the _____ theory.
cortex
sympathetic
Cannon-Bard

The two-factor theory of emotion proposes that emotion has 2 components: ____ arousal and a ____ label. This theory was proposed by ____ and _____.
physiological
cognitive
Stanley Schachter
Jerome Singer

Describe the major physiological changes that each of the following undergoes during emotional arousal.
heart: heart rate increases
muscles: muscles become tense
liver: liver pours out extra sugar into the blood stream
breathing: breathing rate increases
digestion: digestion slows
pupils: pupils dilate
blood: blood tends to clot more rapidly
skin: skin perspires

The responses of arousal are activated by the ____ nervous system. In response to its signal, the ____ glands release the stress hormones ____ and ____, which increase heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and blood sugar.
sympathetic
adrenal
epinephrine (adrenaline)
norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

When the need for arousal has passed, the body is calmed through activation of the ____ nervous system.
parasympathetic

The various emotions are associated with ____ forms of physiological arousal. In particular, the emotions of ____, ____, and ____ are difficult to distinguish physiologically.
similar
fear
anger
sexual arousal

The emotions ____ and ____ are sometimes accompanied by differing ____ temperatures and ____ secretions.
fear
rage
finger
hormone

The emotions ____ and ____ stimulate different facial muscles.
fear
joy

The brain circuits underlying different emotions ____ different. For example, seeing a fearful face elicits greater activity in the ____ than seeing a(n) ____ face. People who have generally negative personalities, and those who are prone to ____, show more _____ lobe activity.
are
amygdala
angry
depression
right frontal

When people experience positive moods, brain scans reveal more activity in the ____.
left frontal lobe

Individuals with more active ____ lobes tend to be more cheerful than those in whom this pattern of brain activity is reversed. A cluster of neurons called the ____ becomes activated when people experience natural or drug-induced pleasure.
left
frontal
nucleus accumbens

The technical name for the “lie detector” is the ____.
polygraph

How well the lie detector works depends on whether a person exhibits ____ while lying.
anxiety

Those who criticize lie detectors feel that the tests are particularly likely to err in the case of the ____ because different ____ all register as _____.
innocent
emotions
arousal

By and large, experts ____ that lie detector tests are highly accurate.
do not agree

A test that assesses a suspect’s knowledge of details of a crime that only the guilty person should know is the ____.
guilty knowledge test

The spillover effect refers to occasions when our ____ response to one event carries over into our response to another event.
arousal

Schacther and Singer found that physically aroused college men told that an injection would cause arousal ____ become emotional in response to an accomplice’s aroused behavior. Physically aroused volunteers not expecting arousal ____ become emotional in response to an accomplice’s behavior.
did not
did

Arousal ____ emotion; cognition ___ emotion.
fuels
channels

Robert Zajonc believes that the feeling of emotion ____ precede our cognitive labeling of that emotion.
can

A pathway from the ____ via the ____ to the ___ enables us to experience emotion before ____. For more complex emotions, sensory input is routed through the ____ for interpretation.
eye or ear
thalamus
amygdala
cognition
cortex

The researcher who disagrees with Zajonc and argues that most emotions require cognitive processing is ____. According to this view, emotions arise when we ____ an event as beneficial or harmful to our well being.
Richard Lazarus
appraise

Complex emotions are affected by our ___, ____, and ____.
interpretations
expectations
memories

Most people are especially good at interpreting nonverbal ____. We read fear and ____ mostly from the ____, and happiness from the ____. Although we are good at detecting emotions, we find it difficult to detect ____ expressions.
threats
anger
eyes
mouth
deceiving

Introverts are ____ at reading others’ emotions, whereas extraverts are themselves ____ to read.
better
easier

The absence of nonverbal cues to emotion is one reason that communications sent as ____ are easy to misread.
e-mail

Women are generally ____ than men at detecting nonverbal signs of emotion and in spotting ____. Women posses greater emotional ____ than men, as revealed by the tendency of men to describe their emotions in ____ terms. This gender difference may contribute to women’s greater emotional ____.
better
lies
literacy
simpler
responsiveness

Although women are ___ likely than men to describe, themselves as empathic, physiological measures reveal a much ____ gender difference. Women are ____ likely than men to express empathy.
more
smaller
more

Gestures have ___ meanings in different cultures.
different

Studies of adults indicate that in different cultures facial expressions have ____ meanings. Even our emotional ______ cross world cultures. Studies of children indicate that the meaning of their facial expressions ____ across cultures. The emotional facial expressions of blind children ____ the same as those of sighted children.
the same
display rules
does not vary
are

According to ____, human emotional expressions evolved because they helped our ancestors communicate before language developed. It has been adaptive for us to ____ faces in particular ____.
Darwin
interpret
contexts

In cultures that encourage ____, emotional expressions are often intense and prolonged. Cultures such as that of Japan ____. This points to the importance of realizing that emotions are not only biological and psychological but also _____.
individuality
hide their emotions
social-cultural

Darwin believed that when an emotion is accompanied by an outward facial expression, the emotion is ____.
intensified

In one study, students who were induced to smile ____ cartoons more amusing.
found

The _____ effect occurs when expressions amplify our emotions by activating muscles associated with specific states.
facial feedback

Studies have found that imitating another person’s facial expressions ____ to greater empathy with that person’s feelings.
leads

Similarly, moving our body as we would when experiencing a particular emotion causes us to feel that emotion. This is the ____ effect.
behavior feedback

Izard believes that there are ____ basic emotions, most of which ____ present in infancy. Although others claim that emotions such as pride and love should be added to the list, Izard contends that they are ____ of the basic emotions.
10
are
combinations

Throughout the world, people place emotions along 2 dimensions: ____, which refers to whether a feeling is ____ or ____ and high versus low ____.
valence
pleasant (positive valence)
unpleasant (negative valence)
arousal

Fear can by and large be seen as a(n) ____ response.
adaptive

Most human fears are acquired through _____.
learning (conditioning)

In addition, some fears are acquired by ____ parents and friends.
observing

A key to fear learning lies in the ____, a neural center in the ____ system. Following damage in this area, humans who have been conditioned to fear a loud noise will ____ the conditioning but show no ____ effect of it.
amygdala
limbic
remember
emotional

People who have suffered damage to the ____ will show the _____ but _____ be able to remember why.
hippocampus
emotional reaction
will not

Patients who have lost use of the ____ are unusually trusting of scary-looking people.
amygdala

Fears that fall outside the average range are called ____. Fearfulness is shaped by both our ____ and our ____.
phobias
experience
genes

Most people become angry when another person’s act seems ____, ____ and _____.
willful
unjustified
avoidable

The belief that expressing pent-up emotion is adaptive is most commonly found in cultures that emphasize ____. This is the ____ hypothesis. In cultures that emphasize ____, such as those of ____ or ____, expressions of anger are less common.
individuality
catharsis
interdependance
Tahiti
Japan

Psychologists have found that when anger has been provoked, retaliation may have a calming effect under certain circumstances. List the circumstances.
a. Retaliation must be directed against the person who provoked the anger
b. Retaliation must be justifiable
c. The target of the retaliation must not be someone who is intimidating

List two suggestions offered by experts for handling anger.
a. Wait to calm down
b. Deal with anger in a way that involves neither chronic anger nor sulking

Researchers have found that students who mentally rehearsed the times they ____ someone who had hurt them had lower bodily arousal than when they thought of times when they did not.
forgave

Happy people tend to perceive the world as ____ and live ____ and more energized and satisfied lives.
safer
healthier

Happy people are also ____ willing to help others. This is called the ____, ____ phenomenon.
more
feel-good
do-good

An individual’s self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life is called his or her ____.
subjective well-being

Positive emotions ____ in the early to middle part of most days. The gloom of stressful events usually ____ the next day.
rise
is gone by

After experiencing tragedy or dramatically positive events, people generally ____ their previous degree of happiness.
regain

Most people tend to ____ the duration of emotions and ____ their capacity to adapt.
overestimate
underestimate

Researchers have found that levels of happiness ____ mirror differences in standards of living.
do not

During the last four decades, buying power in the US has almost tripled; personal happiness has ____.
remained almost unchanged

Research has demonstrated that people generally experience a higher quality of life and greater well-being when they strive for ________ than when they strive for ____.
intimacy, my personal growth, and contribution to the community; wealth

The idea that happiness is relative to one’s recent experience is stated by the _____ phenomenon.
adaptation-level

The principle that one feels worse off than others is known as ____. This helps to explain why the middle and upper income people who compare themselves with the relatively poor are ____ satisfied with life.
relative deprivation
slightly more

List 6 factors that have been shown to be positively correlated with feelings of happiness.
high self-esteem
satisfying marriage or close friendships
meaningful religious faith
optimistic, outgoing personality
good sleeping habits and regular exercise
having work and leisure that engage our skills

List 5 factors that are evidently unrelated to happiness.
age
gender
education
parenthood
physical attractiveness

Research studies of identical and fraternal twins have led to the estimate that ____ percent of the variation in people’s happiness ratings is heritable.
50

The field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge relevant to health and disease is _____. The subfield of psychology that contributes to behavioral medicine is called ____ psychology.
behavioral medicine
health

Stress is not merely a ____ or a _____. Rather, it is the _____ by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and challenges.
stimulus
response
process

This definition highlights the fact that stress arises less from the events than from how we ____ them and that stressors can have ____ effects, depending on how they are perceived.
appraise
both positive and negative

In the 1920s, physiologist Walter ____ began studying the effect of stress on the body. He discovered that the hormones ____ and ____ are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. THis and other bodily changes due to stress are mediated by the ____ nervous system, thus preparing the body for ____.
Cannon
epinephrine (adrenaline)
norephinephrine (noradrenaline)
sympathetic
fight or flight

Physiologists have discovered that in response to stress the cerebral cortex, via the ____ and the ____ gland, triggers the outer part of the ____ to release ____ stress hormones such as ____.
hypothalamus
pituitary
adrenal glands
glucocorticoid
cortisol

Another common response to stress among women has been called “_____,” which refers to the increased tendency to _______.
tend and befriend
seek and give support

In studying animals’ reactions to stressors, Hans Selye referred to the bodily response to stress as the ______.
general adaption syndrome

During the first phase of the GAS–the ____ reaction–the person is in a state of shock due to the sudden arousal of the ____ nervous system.
alarm
sympathetic

This is followed by the stage of ____, in which the body’s resources are mobilized to cope with the stressor.
resistance

If stress continues, the person enters the stage of ____. During this stage, a person is ____ vulnerable to disease.
exhaustion
more

One study found that women who suffered enduring caregivers stress had especially short ____, which are pieces of ____ at the ends of ____ that are important in allowing cells to ____.
telomeres
DNA
chromosomes
divide

In the wake of catastrophic events, such as floods, hurricanes, and fires, there often is an increase in the rates of _____.
psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety

Research studies have found that people who have recently been widowed, fired or divorced are ____ vulnerable to illness than other people.
more

For most people, the most significant sources of stress are _____. The stresses that accompany poverty and unemployment, for example, often compounded by _____, may account for the higher rates of ____ among residents of impoverished areas.
daily hassles
racism
hypertension

The leading cause of death in North America is ____. List several risk factors for developing this condition.
coronary heart disease
smoking, obesity, high-fat diet, physical inactivity, elevated cholesterol level

Friedman and Rosenman discovered that tax accountants experience an increase in blood ____ level and blood- ____ speed during tax season. This showed there was a link between coronary warning indicators and ____.
cholesterol
clotting
stress

The Type A characteristic that is most strongly linked with coronary heart disease is _____, especially ______.
negative emotions
the anger associated with an aggressively reactive temperament

When a _____ person is angered, bloodflow is diverted away from the internal organs, including the liver, which is responsible for removing ____ and fat from the blood. Thus, such people have elevated levels of these substances in the blood.
Type A
cholesterol

Another toxic emotion is ____; researchers have found that _____ are more than twice as likely to develop heart disease as ____.
pessimism
pessimists
optimists

Depression _____ one’s risk of having a heart attack or developing other heart problems.
increases

In _____ illnesses, physical symptoms are produced by psychological causes.
psychophysiological

Examples of such illness are certain types of ____ and some _____. Such illnesses appear to be linked to _____.
hypertension
headaches
stress

The term _____ was once used to describe such illness. However, this term implied that symptoms were ____.
psychosomatic
unreal

The new field of ____ investigates how psychological, neural, and endocrine systems together affect the immune system and health.
psychoneuroimmunology

The body’s system of fighting disease is the ____ system. This system includes 2 types of white blood cells, called _____: the____, which fight bacterial infections, and the _____, which form in the ____ and attack viruses, cancer cells and foreign substances.
immune
lymphocytes
B lymphocytes
T lymphocytes
thymus

Two other immune agents are the ____, which pursues and ingests foreign substances, and ____ cells, which pursue diseased cells.
macrophage
natural killer (NK)

Responding too strongly, the immune system may attack the body’s tissues and cause ____ or an ____ reaction. Or it may ____. allowing a dormant herpes virus to erupt or ____ cells to multiply.
arthritis
allergic
under react
cancer

____ are the immunologically stronger gender. This makes them less susceptible to ____, but more susceptible to ____ diseases such as ____ and ____.
Women
infections
self attacking
lupus
multiple sclerosis

Stress can suppress the lymphocyte cells, resulting in a(n) _____ in disease resistance. Stress diverts energy from the ____ to the ____ and ____, mobilizing the body for action and making us more vulnerable to disease.
decrease
immune system
brain
muscles

Worldwide, the fourth leading cause of death is ____, caused by the ____ which is spread primarily through the exchange of ____ and ___.
AIDS
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
blood
semen

Stressful life circumstances ____been shown to accelerate the progression of this chronic disease.
have

Educational initiatives, support groups, and other efforts to control stress ____ been shown to have positive consequences on HIV-positive individuals.
have

Stress and ____ emotions ____ been linked to cancer’s rate of progression.
negative
have

When rodents were inoculated with ___ cells or given ____, tumors developed sooner in those that were also exposed to ____ stress.
tumor
carcinogens
uncontrollable

Stress ____ create cancer cells.
does not

People learn to ____ with stress by finding ____, ____ or ____ ways to alleviate it.
cope
emotional
cognitive
behavioral

When we cope directly with a stressor, we are using ____ coping.
problem-focues

When we attempt to alleviate stress by avoiding it and attending to emotional needs, we are using ____ coping.
emotion-focused

People tend to use ____ coping when they feel a sense of ____ over a situation.
problem-focused
control
emotion-focused
change

Negative situations are especially stressful when they are appraised as _____.
uncontrollable

With higher economic status comes lower risks of infant _____, a low ____, smoking, and ____.
mortality
birth weight
violence

In animals and humans, sudden lack of control is followed by a drop in immune responses, a(n) ____ in blood pressure, and a rise in the levels of _____.
increase
stress hormones

People who have an ___outlook on life are less likely than others to suffer ill health.
optimistic

Researchers have found that life events may be less stressful for people who have a good sense of ____.
humor

One study found that laughter caused improved ____ and increased ____.
tone
bloodflow

Another buffer against the effects of stress is ____ support.
social

Longitudinal research reveals that a ____ at age 50 predicts healthy aging better than ____ at the same age.
good marriage
low cholesterol

James Pennebaker has found that emotional ____ can adversely affect our physical health.
suppression

Health can also be improved by ____ about personal traumas in a diary.
writing

Another way to reduce stress is to talk about it. In another study by Pennebaker, Holocaust survivors who were the most ___ had the most improved health.
self-disclosing

Sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness is known as ____ exercise.
aerobic

Experiments ____ been able to demonstrate conclusively that such exercise reduces anxiety, depression, and stress.
have

Exercise increases the body’s production of mood-boosting neurotransmitters such as ____, ____, and the ____. It also predicts better ____ functioning and reduced risk of ____ and Alzheimer’s disease.
norepinephrine
serotonin
endorphins
cognitive
dementia

By one estimate, moderate exercise adds ____ years to life expectancy.
two

A system for recording a physiological response and providing information concerning it is called ____. The instruments used in this system ____ the individual with a means of monitoring physiological responeses.
biofeedback
provide

Simple relaxation procedures have been shown to help alleviate ____, ____, ____ and _____. Lowered blood pressure, hear rate, and oxygen consumption have been found to be characteristic of people who regularly practice _____. The ____ response is a state of calm resulting from sitting quietly, with closed eyes while breathing deeply.
headaches
hypertension
anxiety
insomnia
meditation
relaxation

Brain scans of experienced meditators reveal decreased activity in the ____ lobe and increased activity in the ____ lobe.
parietal
frontal

Acupuncture, massage therapy, homeopathy, and similar treatments comprise the growing health care market called _______. In China, ____ therapies have flourished for centuries, as have acupuncture and acupressure therapies that claim to correct imbalances in the flow of energy called ____.
complementary and alternative medicine
herbal
Qi or Chi

Critics of alternative medicine point out that such treatments seem especially effective with ____ diseases such as arthritis and ____ as well as with diseases that disappear naturally–a phenomenon called ____. Critics also argue that the seeming effectiveness of alternative medicine is due to a ____ effect.
cyclical
allergies
spontaneous remission
placebo

Until fairly recently in history, the healing traditions of ____ and ____ have worked ____.
religion
medicine
together

Several recent studies demonstrate that religious involvement ____ health and longevity.
predicts

An insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference. Psychoanalysis A psychoanalytic technique in which clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as …

According to the _______ of helping, we are especially likely to help and to care for our close relatives over strangers. Evolutionary Perspective You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error …

ENERGY provides the capacity to do work, to cause something to happen, or to cause change in a system. energy resources any item that can be employed for a useful purpose, more specifically something that can be used to produce …

Personality is defined as an individual’s characteristic pattern of ____, ____, and ____. thinking feeling acting The psychoanalytic perspective on personality was proposed by ____. A second, historically significant perspective was the ____ approach, which focused on people’s capacities for …

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