If the cell is a target cell, the hormone binds to and activates receptors located within the cytosol or nucleus. The activated receptor-hormone complex then alters ______ expression: It turns specific genes of the nuclear DNA on or off.
As the DNA is transcribed, new messenger _____ (mRNA) forms, leaves the nucleus, and enters the cytosol. There, it directs synthesis of a new protein, often an enzyme, on the ribosomes.
Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into ______ _____ (cAMP). Because the enzyme’s active site is on the inner surface of the plasma membrane, this reaction occurs in the cytosol of the cell.
Cyclic AMP (the second messenger) activates one or more protein _______, which may be free in the cytosol or bound to the plasma membrane. A protein kinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates (adds a phosphate group to) other cellular proteins (such as enzymes). The donor of the phosphate group is ATP, which is converted to ADP.
Phosphorylated proteins in turn cause reactions that produce ___________ responses. Different protein kinases exist within different target cells and within different organelles of the same target cell. Thus, one protein kinase might trigger glycogen synthesis, a second might cause the breakdown of triglyceride, a third may promote protein synthesis, and so forth. As noted in step 4, phosphorylation by a protein kinase can also inhibit certain proteins. For example, some of the kinases unleashed when epinephrine binds to liver cells inactivate an enzyme needed for glycogen synthesis.
After a brief period, an enzyme called phosphodiesterase inactivates cAMP. Thus, the cell’s response is turned ____ unless new hormone molecules continue to bind to their receptors in the plasma membrane.
_________ and _________
release of hormones from the adenohypophysis are called ___________ hormones
other endocrine glands are called __________ hormones
close before the chiid achieves a normal adult height. The deficient growth of tissue will affect all of the body systems; however, the child will have normal body proportions.
thicker and denser and tissues of the eyelids, tongue, nose,lips, and skin can enlarge. The enlargement of these tissues can cause circulatory, nerve, and skin problems.
(ducts) in the kidneys to increase water reabsorption and limit the amount of water excreted as urine. As water reabsorption is increased, there is a resulting increase in the blood volume and thus the blood pressure.
two lobes is called the _________.
and activates a number of processes required
to synthesize T3 and T4
the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is the site on the TGB molecule that will bind with iodine.
iodide to form and iodine molecule (I2).
proteins, mainly thyroxine-binding
globulin (TBG), not to be confused with (TGB)
hypothyroidism occurs in _________; myxedema in ___________.
parafollicular cells of the thyroid, also called C cells. The name is actually quite intuitive, thyro- meaning relating to the thyroid, and calcitonin, referring to the fact that its action is to regulate calcium levels
calcium and phosphate levels.
calcium loss in the urine, increasing calcium and magnesium absorption in the intestines by increasing the amount of calcitriol (vitamin D), and increasing phosphate loss in the urine.
stimulates the release of the “corlical” hormones.
the effects of the ___________ nervous system
to secrete the enzyme ______.
enzyme in the lungs called __________ ________ ________ (ACE)
a) stimulate the contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles’
b) stimulate the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.
and stimulates the kidneys to excrete K+ and H’. The increased water reabsorption results in a blood volume and blood pressure
2) Stimulates liver cells to convert amino acids and lactic acid to glucose (gluconeogenesis)
3) Stimulates the breakdown of triglycerides to release fatty acids into the blood
4) Inhibit the activity of white blood cells that participate in inflammation (anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive effects)
5) Stress resistance
are the effects of ______________
secondary sex characteristics in both sexes, and they
promote the female libido (sex drive).
Cause: Corcisol or ACTH secreting tumor
Hormone: Increased cortisol
Effects: High blood glucose, Immune suppression, Poor wound healing, Hypertension, Lipolysis causing redistribution of body fat (moon face, buffalo
hump, pendulous abdomen)
Cause: Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex
Hormone: Decreased cortisol, Decreased aldosterone
Effects: Low blood glucose, Low blood Na+, High blood K+, Low blood pressure
cells called _______. The cells contained in the
______ produce digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine ((((blanks are the same word))))
Glucagon acts on __________ to accelerate the conversion of glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis) and to promote formation of glucose from ________ ______ and certain amino acids (gluconeogenesis).
As a result, hepatocytes release ________ into the blood more rapidly, and blood glucose level rises.
Insulin acts on various cells in the body to accelerate facilitated ________ of glucose into cells; to speed conversion of glucose into ________ (glycogenesis); to increase ______ of amino acids by cells and to increase protein synthesis; to speed synthesis of fatty acids (lipogenesis); to _____ the conversion of glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis); and to slow the formation of glucose from lactic acid and amino acids (gluconeogenesis).
by the hypothalamus, were termed the stress response or the _________ ___________ ___________ (GAS).
lipolysis, and Na+ and water retention and decreased inflammation, wound healing, and immune response.