DIABETES MELLITUS MEDICATIONS

Drug Classifications of Insulin
Rapid Acting, Short Acting, Intermediate-acting, & Long Acting

Actions of Rapid, Short, Intermediate, and long Acting of Insulin Classifications
Key regulator of metabolism, required for entry glucose into skeletal muscle and fat, needed for protein and lipid metabolism.

Uses of Rapid, Short, Intermediate, and long Acting of Insulin Classifications
control blood sugar in patients with diabetes mellitus

Binguanide Oral Antidiabetic Agent Group/ Classification
Metformin (glucophage)

Binguanide Oral Antidiabetic Agent Group/ Classification . the Action of the Medications
Metformin (glucophage)
Actions: Decrease the release of glucose by the liver.
Increase sensitivity of the cells to insulin.

Binguanide Oral Antidiabetic Agent Group/ Classification . the uses of the Medications
Metformin (glucophage)
Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Binguanide Oral Antidiabetic Agent Group/ Classification . the common adverse affects/ side effects of the Medications
Metformin (glucophage)
Nausea, vomiting, anorexia,, abdominal cramps, and flatulence,
severe side effects:
malaise, respiratory distress, and hypotension

What are some of the complications of Metformin medication?
Lactic Acidosis is a rare but potentially life threatening

which patients shouldn’t have Metformin?
patient’s with diminished renal function/ creatine clearance, hypoperfusion: shock, heart failure, or septicemia, elevated liver function tests. and patients that receive radiopaque dyes.

Sulfonylureas Classification/ Group:
Drugs:
1. chlorpropaminde (Diabinese)
2. Glimepiride (amaryl)
3. Glipizide (Glucotrol)
4. Glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase)
5. Tolazamice (Toninase)
6. Tolbutaminde (Orinase)

Sulfonylureas Classification/ Group: Actions:
stimulate release of insulin from beta cells of the pancreas: is when the body is not producing insulin

Sulfonylureas Classification/ Group: Uses:
effective in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Sulfonylureas Classification/ Group: Common adverse effects/ side effects
Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal cramps

Sulfonylureas Classification/ Group: Serious adverse effects
hypoglycemia, hepatotoxicity, blood dyscrasias, dermatologic reactions.
patients that are allergic to sulfonilureas or sulfur shouldn’t take these group of medications.

Meglitinide Classification/ Group
Drugs:
1. Repaglinide (Prandin)
2. Nateglinide (Starlix)

Meglitinide Classification/ Group: Action
Action:
Stimulate release of insulin form beta cells of pancreas

Meglitinide Classification/ Group: Uses
effective in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Meglitinide Classification/ Group: Common & serious Adverse effects
hypoglycemia

Tiazolidinedione Classification/ Group:
Drugs:
1. Avandia
2. Avelox
3. Actos
Avandia and Actos are very popular in these group

Tiazolidinedione Classification/ Group: Action:
Action: Mimic
* Act as insulin sensitizers and are believed to reduce the amount of insulin needed while improving blood sugar control
* Increase sensitivity of muscle and fat tissue to insulin.

Tiazolidinedione Classification/ Group: uses
effective in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Tiazolidinedione Classification/ Group: Common adverse effects
nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal cramps

Tiazolidinedione Classification/ Group: Serious adverse affects:
hypoglycemia, hepatotoxicity, weight gain

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors Classification/ Group
Drugs:
1. Acarbose ( Precose)
2. Miglitol ( Glyset)

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors Classification/ Group: Action:
Slows the body’s absorption of carbohydrates and allows insulin to work more effectively

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors Classification/ Group: uses
Effective in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors Classification/ Group: common adverse effects:
abdominal cramps, diarrhea, flatulence

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors Classification/ Group: Serious adverse effects:
hypoglycemia and hepatotoxicity

Antihypoglycemic Agents Classification/ Group:
Glucagon

Antihypoglycemic Agents Classification/ Group: Action
Breakdown of stored glycogen to glucose

Antihypoglycemic Agents Classification/ Group: uses
treat hypoglycemic reactions

Antihypoglycemic Agents Classification/ Group:: Common and Serious Adverse Effects:
Nausea and vomiting

The Human insulin whose onset of action occurs within__________minutes is humalog (lispro)?
15 minutes:
fast acting insulin the new formula can be injected 15 minutes before meal

The physician orders an 1800- calorie diabetic diet and 40 units of (Humulin N) insulin U-100 subcutaneously daily for a patient with diabetes mellitus. A mid- afternoon snack of mill and crackers is given to?
prevent an insulin reaction
Humilin N insulin starts to peak in 4 hours. the nurse should be monitor for hypoglycemia reaction

A patient has type 1 diabetes (IDDM). the nurse is teaching her early signs and symptoms of insulin reaction, which include?
perspiration and a trembling sensation
the patient needs to alert the nurse for hypoglycemic reaction

The Physician prescribes Glyburide (Micronase, DiaBeta, Gllynase) for a patient, age 57 when diet and excercise have been able to control her type II Diabetes. Which Information does the nurse include when teaching her about the Glyburide?
Glyburide and other hypoglycemic agents are thought to stimulate insulin production and increase sensitivity to insulin at receptor sites.
oral hypoglycemic are compounds that stimulate the beta cells in the pancreas to increase insulin release

To prevent lipodistrophy, the nurse should administer insulin?
at room temperature and rotate injection site
not straight from the refrigerator to prevent lipodistrophy.

“1. A patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus asks the nurse what “”type 2″” means in relation to diabetes. The nurse explains to the patient that type 2 diabetes differs from type 1 diabetes primarily in that with …

A client asks the nurse why the provider bases his medication regimen on his HbA1C instead of his log of morning fasting blood glucose results. Which of the following is an appropriate response by the nurse? A. HB A1C measures …

A patient with type 1 diabetes has told the nurse that his most recent urine test for ketones was positive. What is the nurse’s most plausible conclusion based on this assessment finding? The patient’s insulin levels are inadequate. Ketones in …

1. A 54-year-old patient admitted with type 2 diabetes asks the nurse what “type 2” means. What is the most appropriate response by the nurse? A. “With type 2 diabetes, the body of the pancreas becomes inflamed.” B. “With type …

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