Combo with "Chapter 26 – The Great Depression" and 1 other

Causes of the Great Depression
– Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy.
– Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back.
– After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in their growth.

Effects of the Great Depression
– Many banks fail.
– Many businesses and factories fail.
– Millions of Americans are out of work.
– Many are homeless and hungry.
– Families break up and people suffer

on margin (p.747)
practice that allows people to buy stock with a down payment of a portion of the value

Black Tuesday
day the stock market crashed, signaling the start of the Great Depression

Great Depression (p.747)
worst period of economic decline in United States history, beginning in 1929 and lasting until 1943

bankrupt (p.748)
unable to pay debts

relief program (p.750)
government program to help the needy

soup kitchen (p.750)
place where food is provided to the needy at little or no charge

public works (p.750)
projects built by the government for the public

Hooverville (p.750)
group of shacks in which homeless lived during the Great Depression

bonus (p.751)
additional sum of money

Bonus Army (p.751)
veterans who marched to Washington in 1932 to demand immediate payment of a World War I bonus

Smoot-Hawley Tariff or Hawley-Smoot Tariff (not in text)
1930 legislation under Pres. Hoover that raised import duties by as much as 50%, worsening the worldwide depression.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks.

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
Develops rules for doing business

Truth-in-Securities Act
Regulates the stock market.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Insures savings accounts in banks approved by the government.

polio (p.752)
highly infectious disease that causes inflammation of the nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord, leading to paralysis

bank holiday (p.753)
closing of banks four days during the Great Depression

fireside chat (p.754)
radio speech given by Franklin D. Roosevelt while in office

Hundred Days (p.754)
first hundred days of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency

New Deal (p.754)
program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to end the Great Depression

Civilian Conservation Corps [CCC] (p.754)
New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects

National Recovery Administration [NRA] (p.755)
government agency set up during the Great Depression to enforce new codes designed to stabilize industry

Tennessee Valley Authority [TVA] (p.756)
New Deal program that built dams to control flooding and produce cheap electric power

Pros of Roosevelt’s New Deal
– Government has a duty to help all citizens.
– The New Deal helped the nation through the worst days of the Great Depression.
– At a time when people in other countries turned to dictators to solve problems, the New Deal saved the Nation’s democratic system.

Cons of Roosevelt’s New Deal
– Government should not interfere in business or in people’s private lives.
– New Deal spending led to increases in the national debt.
– The New Deal did not end the Great Depression.

Hardships faced by women
faced difficulty finding jobs; men usually hired before women.

Hardships faced by African Americans
often first to lose jobs; faced continued discrimination; a few leaders became advisers to President Roosevelt.

Hardships faced by Mexican Americans
faced discrimination; some forced to return to Mexico.

Hardships faced by Asian Americans
faced discrimination; competition over jobs leads to calls that they leave the country.

Hardships faced by Native Americans
faced terrible poverty; however, Congress passes new laws giving them more control over their own affairs.

Dust Bowl (p.765)
region in the central Great Plains that was hit by a severe drought

migrant worker (p.766)
person who moves from one region to another in search of work

Black Cabinet (p.767)
group of black leaders who unofficially advised President Franklin D. Roosevelt concerning the situation of African Americans

civil rights (p.767)
the rights due to all citizens

Indian New Deal (p.768)
series of laws in the 1930s that gave Native Americans greater control over their own affairs

Gilded Age
(1870-1900) politically corrupt internally. Term coined by Mark Twain. As business boomed, strong North-South divisions remained. Corruption in both business and politics was common

Politics
Weak presidencies (“Forgotten Presidents”) legislative domination by Congress and the Republican Party. Major issues: patronage, monetary policy, and tariffs. Party loyalists were determined by region, religious, and ethnic differences more than issues. Voter turnout for presidential elections averaged over 78% of eligible voters; 60-80% in non-presidential years. Politics was entertainment.

Republican Party
-pro business, anti-labor unions
-advocated “sound currency”
-favored high, “protective” tariffs
-stressed gvt. role in regulating personal morality
-support came from mid-west and rural parts of NE
-african-ameriican supported republican party, mostly prevented from voting
-grand army of republic (union civil war veterans) solid supporters
-marked by factions and break-away groups

Democratic Party
-pro-business, anti-labor unions
-advocated “sound currency:
-favored lowering tariffs
-opposed enforcement of single, moral system
-support came from N industrial cities and S
-in S, democratic party=party of segregation

Republican Party Factions: Stalwarts
led by Roscoe Conkling. embraced spoils system (patronage)

Republican Party Factions: Half-breeds
led by James Blaine. flirted with reform of the patronage system (1/2 republican, 1/2 democrat)

Republican Party Factions: Liberal Republicans
Disgusted with scandals of the Grant Administration, this group supported Horace Greeley, the Democratic candidate, in the 1872 election.

Republican Party Factions: Mugwumps
Reform-minded Republicans who supported Democrat Cleveland for the presidency.

Greenback Party (Greenback-Labor Party)
Formed in 1875, chiefly by Midwestern and southern farmers, its primary aims were the adoption of a new national monetary policy based on bimetallism and federal issuance of paper currency, called greenbacks, not backed by gold. This would create inflation and higher crop prices. Dissolved in 1878, it united with workers to form the Greenback-Labor Party. It conducted its last national campaign in 1884. It was succeeded in the 1890s by the Populist Party.

Soft/Cheap money
This is the theory that a larger supply of money would lead to inflation or rising prices. This could be accomplished by issuing paper currency and by increasing the minting of silver coins. This would benefit farmers who were suffering from lower crop prices as a result of overproduction. It would also help farmers and other debtors pay back loans since they would be repaid with depreciated dollars (dollars that would buy less).

Hard/Sound Money
The metallic or specie dollar is known as hard money. Creditors wanted paper money removed from circulation and to limit or end the minting of silver coins to decrease the money supply. A smaller money supply would lead to deflation (contraction) and falling prices. This would benefit creditors since loans would be paid back in dollars worth as much or more than when lent out. Also, workers were reluctant to see rising prices since their wages might not keep up with inflation.

Crime of ’73
This is what critics called the Coinage Act of 1873 which stopped the coinage of the silver dollar against the will of the farmers and westerners who wanted unlimited coinage of silver. This led to calls for a return to the “Dollar of Our Daddies” which was basically a call for inflation.

(Specie) Resumption Act, 1875
It stated that the government would remove greenbacks (paper money) from circulation and provided for the redemption of all paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879.

Bland-Allison Act, 1878
This act was a compromise concerning the coinage of silver and stated that the Treasury had to buy and coin between $2 and $4 million worth of silver bullion each month. The Bland-Allison Act represented a halting return to bimetallism (gold and silver backing the currency). Gold remained a far greater feature of the monetary picture than silver, so the term “limping bimetallism” has frequently been used to describe this program.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1890
The measure provided for the Treasury to purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver each month. Treasury notes would be redeemable in either gold or silver. As the price of silver continued to decline due to the discovery of new silver, holders of the government notes understandably redeemed them for gold rather than silver. The result of the growing disparity between the two metals was the depletion of the U.S. gold reserves, an event that played prominently during the Panic of 1893.

Ulysses S. Grant
(1869-1877)
Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt in the U.S. up to that time and included scandals such as the Whiskey Ring.

Credit Mobilier Scandal
This was a railroad construction scandal that consisted of many of the insiders of the Union Pacific Railway. The company hired themselves to build a railroad and made incredible amounts of money from it. In merely one year, they paid dividends of 348%. In an attempt to cover their tracks, they paid key congressmen and even the Vice-President with stocks and large dividends. All of this was exposed in 1872.

Tweed Ring
The Tweed Ring or “Tammany Hall” was group of people in New York City who worked with and for “Boss” Tweed. He was a crooked politician and money-maker. The ring supported all of his deeds. The New York Times finally found evidence to jail Tweed. Without Tweed, the ring did not last. These people, the “Bosses” of the political machines, were very common in America for that time.

Thomas Nast
Thomas Nast was a cartoonist for the Harper’s Weekly and drew many famous political cartoons, including many of Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall. The cartoon showed condemning evidence of the corrupt ringleader and he was jailed shortly afterwards.

Panic of 1873, depression
Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster – inflation and strikes by railroad workers. 18,000 businesses failed and 3 million people were out of work.

Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881); Compromise of 1877
Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican, Civil War general, received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden – Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes than Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner. In return, Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction. He took Union troops out of the South.

James Garfield (1881)
Shortly after taking office, Garfield (no relation to the cat) was assassinated by a mentally disturbed job seeker, Charles Guiteau.

Chester Arthur (1881-1885)
Garfield’s vice-president, he assumed the presidency after Garfield was assassinated. His greatest accomplishment was to endorse reform of the spoils system by supporting passage of the Pendleton Act.

Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)
Passed in response to Garfield’s assassination, it’s called the Magna Carta of civil-service reform. It created a merit system of making appointments to government jobs on the basis of aptitude rather than who-you-know, or the spoils system.

1884 Election
This election was marked by heavy mud-slinging. The Republican candidate, James Blaine, was linked to corrupt deals in the so-called “Mulligan letters” while Cleveland was discovered to have fathered an illegitimate son leading to the chant, “Ma, ma, where’s my Pa? Gone to the White House, ha, ha, ha!” Cleveland narrowly won when the Mugwumps, Republican reformers, bolted to him on the theory that personal corruption was less a danger than public corruption.

Grover Cleveland (1885-1889 & 1893-1897)
The only Democrat elected president during the Gilded Age and the only president to serve two-nonconsecutive terms. He made reducing the tariff the centerpiece of his 1887 Annual Address. This probably cost him re-election in 1888. He was elected again in the 1892 election and took office just in time to preside over the Depression of 1893.

Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893)
Grandson of William Henry Harrison (“Tippecanoe”), he defeated Cleveland in the 1888 election by winning the electoral vote, but losing the popular vote. For the first time except in war, Congress appropriated a billion dollars. When critics attacked “the billion-dollar Congress,” Speaker Thomas B. Reed replied, “This is a billion-dollar country.”

Tariffs (custom duties)
Tariffs were one of the major issues during the Gilded Age. Not only were tariffs intended to protect American goods from foreign competition, they were also the major source of revenue for the federal government.

McKinley Tariff (1890)
this compromise tariff extended to industrial and agricultural goods but provided reciprocal trade provisions with countries that opened their markets to American goods. Subsequent price increases led to a popular backlash and a Democratic House victory in the 1890 election.

Wilson-Gorman Tariff (1894)
Democrats promised to lower the tariff but could only reduce it from 48% to 41%. The bill also established a 2% income tax on incomes over $4,000 to appease the Populists. The income tax was declared unconstitutional and the Republicans regained control of Congress in elections that year.

Dingley Tariff ((1897)
raised tariffs to new heights on certain goods in an effort to restore revenues lost by Wilson-Gorman bill.

Sharecropping, Crop Lien System
Sharecropping provided the necessities for Black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant’s share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The results, for Blacks, were not unlike slavery.

New South
Proponents of the New South, such as Henry Grady of the Atlanta Journal, supported building a more diversified Southern economy and championed the expansion of Southern industry. Birmingham became a steel center (“the Pittsburgh of the South”), the introduction of machine-made cigarettes propelled the Duke family to prominence as tobacco producers, and northern capital introduced textile manufacturing to the South. Nonetheless, the South remained primarily agricultural and poor.

Civil Rights Cases, 1883
The Supreme Court overturned the Civil Rights Act of 1875 & claimed that the14th Amendment provided protection from state action, not individual action. This ruling discouraged Congress so that it didn’t pass another Civil Rights law until 1957.

“Jim Crow” (beginning in 1881)
Laws intended to segregate blacks in public facilities such as schools, railroad cars, restaurants, and so forth.

Disenfranchising Black Voters
Literacy test and poll taxes were used to deny blacks the ballot. The grandfather clause exempted these requirements for anyone whose grandfather had voted in the 1860 election. Electoral districts were gerrymandered to favor the Democratic Party.

Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
The case involved a dispute over the legality of segregated railroad cars in Louisiana. The Supreme Court upheld segregation by approving “separate but equal” accommodations for African Americans. The “separate but equal” doctrine was finally reversed in the 1954 landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education.

Booker T. Washington
44% of non-whites were illiterate in 1900; most from the South. Washington became head of the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, AL in 1881. He advocated a policy of accommodation (Atlanta Compromise) in which he grudgingly accepted segregation in return for the right to develop economic and educational resources of the black community. Ironically, Washington labored secretly against Jim Crow laws and racial violence, writing letters in code names and protecting blacks from lynch mobs.

W.E.B. DuBois
The first African-American to graduate from Harvard, he opposed Washington and demanded immediate social and political equality for blacks. His opposition to Washington as well as other blacks led to the formation of the Niagara Movement (1905-1909). He wanted an immediate end to segregation and believed that the “talented tenth” of the black community should be given full and immediate access to the mainstream of American life. His Niagara Movement laid the groundwork for creation of the NAACP.

The Age of Industry
The U.S. became the world’s most powerful economy by the 1890s. The “2nd Industrial Revolution in America was based on ROSE – railroads, oil, steel, and electricity.

Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
Railroad completed on May 10, 1869 when the Union Pacific and Central Pacific linked up at Promontory Point, Utah. An engineering marvel of its time, it was built using thousands of Chinese and Irish immigrants as workers. It linked the entire continent via railroad and by telegraph and paved the way for the incredible growth of the Great West and facilitated a burgeoning trade with the Orient. It was seen at the time as a monumental achievement on par with the Declaration of Independence and the freeing of the slaves.

Bessemer process
Method of cheaply converting iron into steel. Steel could now be readily produced for locomotives, steel rails, and the heavy girders used in building construction. Andrew Carnegie was the first to use this process on a large scale in the U.S. and it enabled him to build a business empire.

Wizard of Menlo Park
Nickname for Thomas Edison. He invented the electric light bulb, phonograph, mimeograph, Dictaphone, moving pictures. He once said, “Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.” Electricity became another cornerstone of the industrial revolution (Cities illuminated, electric railcars, etc.)

Cornelius Vanderbilt
This “Robber Baron” tried to monopolize railroads in the east. He also threw the most lavish and notorious party of the Gilded Age.

Andrew Carnegie, Vertical Integration
The technique of controlling every aspect of the production process. Pioneered by Andrew Carnegie in the steel industry, the goal is to improve efficiency by making supplies more reliable, controlling quality of the product at all stages of production, and eliminate middlemen’s fees.

John D. Rockefeller, Horizontal Integration
Consolidating with competitors to monopolize a given market. John D. Rockefeller pioneered the “trust” in 1882 to control his competition. In these arrangements, stockholders in various smaller oil companies sold their stock and authority to the board of directors of Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company.

Trusts
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are now anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.

J.P. Morgan
This mega-banker developed interlocking directorates, the practice of having members of a corporate board of directors serving on the boards of multiple corporations, to give him influence over many industries.

Social Darwinism
This philosophy sought to justify the extraordinary wealth and power of industrialists through the natural laws of “survival of the fittest.” It was popularized by Yale Professor William Graham Sumner.

Horatio Alger
Author of numerous juvenile books which promoted the ideas of “poor boy works hard and makes good,” and “rags to riches.”

Gospel of Wealth
In this book, Andrew Carnegie admonished fellow tycoons to give most of their wealth back to their communities. Carnegie himself spent the last years of his life giving away most of his fortune, over $350 million (over $8 billion in today’s money), and built over 3,000 public libraries.

Robber barons
A robber baron was a person who made enormous amounts of money in business. An insulting term, it implied that a person used unfair business practices and showed little sensitivity to the common worker. The term “Captains of Industry” was a more positive term applied to the same group.

Granger Laws
These farmer-inspired laws were passed by state legislatures in the Great Plains and Midwest to regulate railroads.

Munn v. Illinois
This 1877 Supreme Court decision was short-lived victory for the Grangers in their quest to regulate railroads. The court ruled that the Public has the right to regulate business operations in which the public has an interest.

Wabash case
In this 1886 case, the Supreme Court ruled that only Congress, NOT the states, could regulate interstate commerce (i.e. railroads).

Slaughterhouse Cases, 1873
These cased molded the Court’s interpretation of 14th Amendment for decades. Court ruled protection of “labor” was not a federal responsibility under the 14th Amendment but a state responsibility. This ruling protected businesses from federal regulation if they engaged only in intrastate commerce (within a state).

Interstate Commerce Act
This 1887 law was perhaps the first ever passed by Congress to regulate big business. This act established a commission to oversee fair and just railway acts, prohibit rebates, end discriminatory practices, and require annual reports and financial statements. The Supreme Court, however, remained friendly to special interests and often undermined the work of the I.C.C.

Sherman Anti-trust Act
Created in response to public demand for curbing excesses of trusts, it prohibited combinations in restraint of trade. It was largely ineffective as it had no significant enforcement mechanism. Ironically, it was used by corporations to curb labor union as they were deemed to be “restraining trade.”

Industrial Age and women
Probably no single group was more profoundly affected by industrialization than women. New invention, such as the typewriter and the telephone switchboard, afforded millions of women with new economic and social opportunities. While the concept of the independent “Gibson Girl,” became the romantic ideal of the era, most women worked out of necessity and earned less than men.

Great Railroad Strike (1877)
Several railroads announced wages to be cut by 10% for 2nd time since 1873. First nationwide strike; paralyzed railroads throughout the East and Midwest and idled some 100,000 workers. President Hayes sanctioned use of federal troops in PA; set precedent for future federal intervention. Led to over 100 deaths and terrified propertied classes. The strike inspired support for the Greenback-Labor party in 1878 and workingmen’s parties in the 1880s.

National Labor Union
Founded in 1866 by William Sylvis, this was the first major labor union in U.S. history. Focused on social reform (such as abolition of the wage system); 8-hour work-day and arbitration of industrial disputes.

Molly Maguires
Formed in 1875 by Irish anthracite-coal miners in PA. Part of Irish American secret fraternal organization (Ancient Order of Hibernians). They used intimidation, arson, & violence to protest owners’ denial of their right to unionize. President of Reading Railroad called in Pinkerton detective agency for help. Mollies destroyed and twenty of its members hanged in 1877. They became martyrs for labor; symbol for violence among conservatives.

Knights of Labor
This socialistic organization sought to create “one big union” under the leadership of Terence Powderly. They campaigned for social and economic change and sought to replace the wage system with worker ownership of factories.

Haymarket Square Bombing
This violent 1886 incident in Chicago effectively killed the Knights of Labor as a viable union even though it was actually Anarchists who were responsible.

American Federation of Labor (AF of L)
This union was most successful because it consisted of only craft workers and focused primarily on “bread and butter” issues such as wages, hours, etc.

Samuel Gompers
He founded the AF of L and fought for: “8 hours for work, 8 hours for rest, and 8 hours for what we will…”

Old Immigrants
Predominately Germans and Irish – These two groups comprised the bulk of the “Old Immigration” in the last half of the 19th century.

New Immigration
This refers to post-1880 immigrants from eastern and southern Europe. They tended to be Jewish or Catholic and more culturally different than the Old Immigrants.

Ellis Island
This was America’s largest processing center for immigrants entering the country by ship.

American Protective Association (APA)
This anti-Catholic organization was the epitome of nativism (anti-foreigners) in the late 19th century.

Chinese Exclusion Act – 1882
Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers, especially the Irish Kearnyites, who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immigrants (“coolies”) who would work for less pay.

Settlement House Movement
This sought to aid immigrants by helping them assimilate to American culture and giving them a place to take classes and socialize. The most famous were Jane Addams’ Hull House in Chicago and Lillian Wald’s Henry Street Settlement in New York.

Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s & early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation. It was popularized by Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden. The Salvation Army was organized in the U.S. as a result of this religious/philanthropic philosophy.

Jacob A. Riis — How the Other Half Lives (1890)
Photo-journalist who exposed the dirt, disease, vice and misery of rat-infested New York slums.

“Comstock Law” of 1873
This act made it illegal to send any “obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious” materials through the mail, including contraceptive devices and information.

Henry George
This reform press writer published Progress and Poverty that advocated a 100% tax on excess land values.

Edward Bellamy
This writer wrote Looking Backwards, a socialistic and utopian view of the future set in the year 2000.

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Organized in 1874, it was led by Frances Willard. Increasingly saw alcoholism as result of poverty, not the cause and put enormous pressure on states to abolish alcohol. Most important female organization in 19th century; most powerful lobbying group. The group also championed planned parenthood and became the most important women’s suffrage group in late 19th century (included blacks & Indians). They also supported the 8-hr work day and the Knights of Labor.

American Women Suffrage Association
Led by Lucy Stone, it included men, supported black suffrage as stepping-stone to female suffrage and worked at state level rather than national level. Successful in gaining suffrage in Wyoming (1869) and Utah (1870). In 1890 they merged with the National Women’s Suffrage Association (Stanton and Anthony’s group) to form the National American Women’s Suffrage Association (NAWSA).

Carrie Nation
Used her hatchet to smash saloon bottles and bars. Her actions hurt the prohibition movement (she was arrested over 30 times)

Victoria Woodhull
She became a colorful and notorious symbol for women’s rights, free love (the “New Morality”), and spiritualism as she fought against corruption and for labor reforms. She is most famous for her declaration and campaign to run as the first woman for the United States Presidency in 1872. (She didn’t win.)

Clara Barton
A former nurse during the Civil War, she founded the American Red Cross in 1881.

Charlotte Gillman Perkins
In Women and Economics, this feminist writer saw women playing a vital role in the workplace and envisioned day care centers.

Louis Sullivan
This architect redefined U.S. city skylines with his philosophy of “form follows function.”

Literary Realism
Romanticism declined in favor of a more realistic approach as novelists explored social problems. Famous authors include Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, and Henry James.

Realist school of art
Includes the works of Winslow Homer (Preeminent marine painter; The Gulf Stream), John Singer Sanger and Thomas Eakins.

Impressionist school of Art
Mary Cassatt and James McNeill Whistler (portrait painter; Whistler’s Mother, “art for art’s sake) were well-known American Impressionists who studied in Europe.

Department stores
This large-scale retail concept destroyed many “Mom and Pop” shops that were too small to compete.

Street-car suburbs
These middle-class areas, located in the outskirts of cities, were made possible by improvements in mass transportation.

Three frontiers of the New West
These were farming, mining, and ranching. Farming suffered from low crop prices while mining and ranching came to be dominated by large corporations.

Barbed wire
Invented by Joseph Glidden, this contributed to the death of the “long drive.”

Morrill Land Grant Act
This Civil War-era act gave federal lands to states to establish agricultural colleges—the beginnings of the state college system.

Treaty of Fort Laramie
This 1868 treaty had guaranteed Sioux lands in the Dakotas (yet it was broken after gold was found in the Black Hills).

Battle of Little Big Horn
In this battle, the Sioux, led by Crazy Horse, wiped out General Custer and all his men in the most famous of all the battles of the Indian Wars.

Wounded Knee
This 1892 conflict was the last “battle” between Amerindians and the U.S. government (it was more a slaughter than a battle).

Helen Hunt Jackson
This author wrote A Century of Dishonor chronicling the U.S. government’s mistreatment of American Indians.

Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
This took away some reservation lands from tribes and gave land to individual families. Intended to assimilate the Indians, it significantly undermined Indian tribal life, failed at its goal of assimilation, and severely reduced Indian land.

Oklahoma Land Rush
This event symbolized the closing of the frontier when lands in Indian Territory were opened for white settlement.

1890 Census
The report revealed that for the first time in U.S. History, a frontier line was no longer discernible.

Frederick Jackson Turner
Historian whose 1893 work, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” argued that the frontier experience had molded the American character and provided a “safety valve” for easterners who knew they could always flee to the frontier.

Homestead Strike
1892 – Iron and steel workers went on strike in Pennsylvania against the Carnegie Steel Co. to protest salary reductions. Carnegie employed strike-breaking Pinkerton security guards. Management-labor warfare led to a number of deaths on both sides.

(Panic) Depression of 1893
While it began with a stock market collapse, long-term causes include the overbuilding of railroads, reduced money supply as Europeans withdrew capital from the U.S. in response to the “free silver” agitation, labor disorders, and the existing agricultural depression. It led to 20% unemployment. It lasted four years and is considered the second worst in U.S. History.

Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1893
President Cleveland had concluded that the major cause of the Panic (Depression) of 1893 was the drain on the gold reserves. He persuaded Congress to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Special arrangements were made with banker J.P. Morgan in which powerful financial interests were enabled to purchase government bonds at deep discounts, assuring them enormous profits. The strategy was successful; gold flooded back into the Treasury. Public confidence in the ability of the government to redeem its notes was restored.

Coxey’s army
1893 – Group of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief. The government arrested the leaders and broke up the march in Washington.

Pullman Strike
1894- Eugene Debs’ American Railway Union struck the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago over wage cuts and job losses. President Cleveland broke the violent strike with federal troops. Popular opinion deplored violence and militant labor tactics. It was also the first time that the government used an injunction (a court order) to stop a strike.

William Hope Harvey: Coin’s Financial School (1894)
“Coin” Harvey was a fictional character, “Little professor,” who overwhelmed bankers and professors of economics with brilliant arguments for free silver as an answer to economic problems. Fed public feelings of a national & international conspiracy to elevate gold above silver especially the “crime of 1873.”

Grange
This pro-farmer organization was founded in the late 1860s and provided cooperatives for farmers as well as social functions.

Farmers Alliances
These three large rural organizations became the intermediate step between the founding of the Grange and the creation of the Populist Party. The movement focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. They were not successful.

Populist Party
Officially named the People’s Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was founded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio. This third party won 22 electoral votes in 1892 and elected several candidates to Congress. it represented a crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. Populist wanted to expand the monetary supply and create inflation (and thus higher prices for farm goods) by supporting “free silver.” It sometimes formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 endorsed the Democratic presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan. After Bryan’s defeat the Populist Party went into decline.

Omaha Platform
This set of proposals became the cornerstone of the Populist agenda in the 1892 election. It called for free unlimited coinage of silver; graduated income tax; direct election of senators; government ownership of railroads and telephone & telegraph system and other government reforms to help farmers.

William Jennings Bryan
This fiery Democrat gave a “Cross of Gold” speech that advocated the free unlimited coinage of silver. This speech earned him the presidential nomination of both the Democratic and Populist parties. (But he lost the 1896 election to McKinley anyway).

William McKinley
This 1896 Republican candidate was a staunch defender of the gold standard and had Marcus Hanna as his campaign manager.

1896 Election
This is considered a critical election in U.S. history as it led to a political realignment that lasted until 1932. Democratic candidate Bryan forced the silver issue to the forefront. McKinley’s campaign manger, Marcus Hanna, waged a high pressure campaign against silver while McKinley remained at his Ohio home waging his “front-porch” campaign. McKinley united middle-class voters by characterizing Bryan as a threat to their way of life. McKinley defeated Bryan 271-176 by winning the Northeast and the North while Bryan carried the South & West (except for CA & OR). Last serious effort by a major party to win White House with agrarian votes. Republicans control the White House for 16 consecutive years (28 of next 36 yrs).

Robber Barons
business; corrupt system; businessmen who were viewed as having used questionable practices to amass their wealth

Cornelius Vanderbilt
“Commodore”; transportation industry (railroads); his son William was in steamboat business

Jay Gould
railroad industry; vilified as a robber baron; involved with Tammany Hall (Boss Tweed)

Andrew Carnegie
“On Wealth” book; thought anglo-saxon race is superior; thought inequality was inevitable and good; wrote “Gospel of Wealth” in 1901; thought the wealthy are “trustees” for “poor brethren”; involved in U.S. Steel Industry

John D. Rockefeller
governor of NY; Standard Oil Company; Horizontal integration as business method (a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets)

Sherman Anti-trust Act
1890; no trusts or monopolies; in “restraint of trade”; “rule of reason” loophole so government can regulate prices

U.S. versus E.C. Knight
1895; “Sugar Trust Case”; U.S. Supreme Court held that Manufacturing is not considered an area that can be regulated by Congress pursuant to the commerce clause; limited government’s power to control monopolies;

Social Darwinism
capitalist thinking; Herbert Spencer (British economist); Laissez-faire; “survival of the fittest” applied to humans and business; William Graham Sumner

Gospel of Wealth
religion; God’s approval that wealth isn’t bad; Christian duty to accumulate wealth; should not help the poor; Russell H. Conwell (founded Temple University); article written by Andrew Carnegie

Thomas A. Edison
“Wizard of Menlo Park”; electricity; light bulb

Horatio Alger
American Dream; writer; Protestant “work ethic”; work hard means good life; self made man

Railroad Strike of 1877
railroad workers striked v/c of unfair work conditions; spread and turned into national issue; violent

Boss Tweed
“Tweed ring” in NYC; political machine; jailed for corruption

Thomas Nast
took down Boss Tweed with political cartoons

Social Gospel
Carnegie; help poor; inequality is good and inevitable

Gilded Age
Grant’s corrupt president; shallow glittery life; characterized social and political life; coined by Mark Twain; politicians avoided fundamental issues

Yellow-dog contract
employees agree not to join a labor union

Open shop
employment place where one is not required to join or support a union

Closed shop
union security agreement; employer hires members of union; employees must remain members of union to stay employed

Knights of Labor
Terrence V. Powderly; workers labor union; 8 hr workday; workers’ cooperatives; worker-owned factories; abolition of child and prison labor; increased circulation of greenbacks; equal pay for men and women; safety codes in workplace; prohibition of foreign labor contract; abolition of National Bank

Haymarket Riot 1886
Haymarket Square, Chicago; peaceful striking workers; someone threw bomb; police fired and people died

AFL
American Federation of Labor; skilled laborers; represented workers in matters of national legislation; maintained national strike fund; evangelized cause of unionism; closed shops; prevented disputes among craft unions; mediated disputes between management and labor

Samuel Gompers
founded AFL; joined Anti-Imperialist League; against immigration

Homestead Strike 1892
Iron and steel workers strike; Carnegie sends in Pinkertons and Scabs; strikers oppose; governor sends in help and stops strike

Pullman Strike 1894
unsuccessful b/c government injunctions; mail delivered by Pullman Cars; Government (Grover Cleveland) stops strike; Pullman, Illinois; a “company town”; because of wage reductions; led by Eugene Debs, who got arrested

In re Debs
U.S. Supreme Court decision; government had right to regulate interstate commerce and ensure operations of Postal Service

Henry George
single tax on land; wrote “Progress and Poverty”; inequality of industrial economy

Jacob Riis
“How the Other Half Lives” 1890; muckraker; photographer; tenement/slum living

Edward Bellamy
“Looking Backward”; Utopian novel; socialist; influential writer

Settlement Movement
1890s middle-class reformers; settlement houses to help immigrant families adapt to U.S.; give college-educated women meaningful work

Jane Addams
Hull House in Chicago 1889; women’s suffrage;rights movement

Carrie Nation
Carrie Amelia Moore Nation; member of the temperance movement

Louis Sullivan
American architect; father of modern skyscraper; form follows function

Chicago School of Architecture
Louis Sullivan was a critic

William Lloyd Wright
American architect; pupil of Sullivan; “Prairie House” school of architecture”; function follows form; Guggenheim Museum

“Melting Pot” theory
cultural assimilation (immigrants)

Emma Lazarus
American Jewish Poet; wrote “The New Colossus”; forerunner of Zionist movement

Pendleton Act 1885
Civil Service Reform; government jobs given based on merit; created U.S. Civil Service Commission; Chester A. Arthur administration

Bland-Allison Act 1878
Congress required U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as U.S. dollars; Congress overturned Haye’s veto

Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890
U.S. Treasury must buy $4.5 million ounces of silver per month; government deposited most of the silver into the U.S. Treasury rather than circulation

Panic of 1893
Railroad business crashes; economic depression; railroad overbuilding; shaky financing which led to bank failures

Coxey’s Army 1894
Protest march of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey; “Army of the Commonweal in Christ”

William Jennings Bryan
1896, 1900 and 1908 democratic candidate; “The Great Commoner”; for silver; revivalist style of oratory; the “Farmer’s Friend”; his platform included tariff reductions, free silver, income tax, stricter control of trusts

Mark Hanna
1896 republican political manager William McKinley; “The Front Porch Campaign” for William McKinley; gold and silver

Populism
working-class activism; People’s Party

“Cross of Gold”
Speech given by William Jennings Bryan; advocate bi-metalism

Silver bugs
supporters of the silver standard

Gold bugs
People who support gold standard; popularized in 1896 election; McKinley supporters

Progressivism
movements promoting political and social reforms through government actions or sometimes revolutions

Lincoln Steffens
California journalist; wrote articles exposing connections between respectable businessmen and corrupt politicians; “The Shame of Cities”

Ida Tarbell
Teacher turned journalist; revealed ruthlessness in John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company

Upton Sinclair
wrote “The Jungle”; exposed the horrors of Chicago’s meatpacking industry; a muckraker

Florence Kelley
crusade against child labor; member of first generation of college women in U.S.; Hull House resident; argued for child labor laws

Margaret Sanger
nurse; one founder of American Birth Control movement; wrote “The Woman Rebel” and “Family Limitation”; 1921 founded the American Birth Control League which became Planned Parenthood Foundation in 1942

Lewis Hine
muckraker who used photography

Alice Paul
Quaker from New Jersey; leader of group that broke from NAWSA called National Women’s Party (NWP) in 1916; picketed and chained themselves to fences; militant tactics

Carrie Chapman Catt
efficient administrator and organizer;devised strategy that eventually gave women the vote; joined Iowa Woman Suffrage Association; 1915 became president of National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA); state campaigns

John Dewey
Pragmatist; established philosophical foundation for reform; said schools should be child oriented, not subject oriented; movable chairs; education reform movement; schools should be instruments for social reform; wrote “The School and Society”

Frederick Winslow Taylor
1880s became chief engineer at Midvale Steel Company; 4 principles of scientific management: centralized planning, systematic analysis of each job; detailed instructions and close supervision of each worker; incentive wage system to encourage workers to work harder and faster

Eugene Debs
co-founded the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World); international labor union; candidate for Socialist Party for president of U.S.; became socialist after reading the works of Karl Marx in prison from the Pullman Strike of 1894; Socialist Party Platform

Socialist Party Platform
government ownership of railroads and utilities; guaranteed income tax; no tariffs; 8 hour work days; better housing; government inspection of factories; women’s suffrage

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn
labor rights movement leader; activist; feminist; leader in IWW; founding member of American Civil Liberties Union; advocate of women’s rights, women’s suffrage, and birth control

Gilded Age
era of American history when the US appeared to be wealthy and powerful but in truth very few citizens were becoming rich

tycoon
a wealthy & powerful person whose fortune comes from one industry

Second Industrial Revolution
period in American history (late 1800s) in which there was a rapid increase in the use of machines/factories in production, and new innovations were made in all areas of life

urban
area of high density population; city

suburban
area of mostly residential neighborhoods located outside the heart of a city

rural
area of small towns & farms

Edwin Drake
first man to drill for oil on land; 1859

land, labor, capital
the three factors of production

labor
work / employment

capital
money available for investment

corporation
a public company that sells stocks or shares

trust
a group of similar companies that come together under one name, usually to increase profits and lessen competition; most result in monopolies

monopoly
when one person or company has total control of a resource or production

stock
a share in a company; available for purchase by the public

shareholder
someone who owns stock in a company

dividend
profits from owning stock; usually a check once every 3 months

vertical integration
business model where a company purchases and controls all steps in production

horizontal integration
business model where a company buys out all companies it is in competition with (similar production)

Tesla
inventor of Alternating Current (AC)

Edison
inventor and proponent of Direct Current (DC)

Westinghouse
marketer of Tesla; encouraged Americans to use AC power in their homes; wins War of Electricity

auto
morpheme meaning “self”

chron
morpheme meaning “time”

photo
morpheme meaning “light”

graph
morpheme meaning “to write or print”

phon
morpheme meaning “sound”

aero
morpheme meaning “air”

tele
morpheme meaning “far off”

trans
morpheme meaning “across”

con
morpheme meaning “together or with”

Darwin
published Origin of Species; Theory of Evolution

Origin of Species
name of the book published by Darwin that introduced the Theory of Evolution

Survival of the Fittest
basis of the Theory of Evolution; only the strongest survive

Social Darwinism
applying the idea of survival of the fittest to humans and people; used during the Gilded Age to explain why few people were mega rich and most were poor

Morse
inventor of the telegraph

Bell
inventor of the telephone

Eastman
inventor of the Kodak camera

Wright Brothers
inventor of the airplane

Edison
refined the light bulb; responsible for over 1000 patents

phonograph
first modern recording device; invented by Edison

chronophotograph
first modern video camera; invented by Edison

Benz
held the first patent for the automobile in Germany (1885)

Ford
made the auto industry more efficient with the assembly line

gilded
something that has a thin layer of gold and appears attractive on the outside, but on the inside is hallow, dull or poor

Vanderbilt
the wealthiest RAILROAD tycoon

Carnegie
STEEL tycoon; philanthropist

Rockefeller
OIL tycoon

McCormick
invented the Reaper (predecessor to the combine)

Deere
invented the Steel Plow

McCoy
CATTLE tycoon; established Abilene as a major cow town

Bessemer Process
cheap and efficient way of producing steel

Fe
Chemical abbreviation for Iron

C
Chemical abbreviation for Carbon

Promontory Point, UT
place where the Transcontinental RR was finished

Standard Oil
Rockefeller’s Oil Trust; broken up in 1892 for being a monopoly

US Steel
Carnegie’s Steel corporation; broken up for being a monopoly

JP Morgan
Billionaire banker who bought US Steel and helped form powerful trusts; BANK tycoon

sub
morpheme meaning “under”

sweatshop
crowded and dangerous factory; no breaks

union
group of workers who work together to better pay, benefits, and working conditions

Knights of Labor
first major union in the US

Knights of Labor
union that recruited women, African Americans, immigrants and UNSKILLED workers

Terence Powderly
leader of the Knights of Labor

American Federation of Labor
the largest union during the Gilded Age; still active today

American Federation of Labor
union that recruited mostly SKILLED workers

Samuel Gompers
leader of the American Federation of Labor

collective bargaining
the process in which the Union meets with the owners to establish a working contract for ALL workers

Mary Harris Jones
the “most dangerous woman in America” because of her ability to unite and motivate workers

Triangle Factory Fire
over 100 women were killed in 1911 because of poor work conditions, including locked doors and no fire escapes

strike
when a group of workers refuse to work

Railroad Strikes of 1877
strike during 1877 of workers protesting pay cuts; froze transportation in the US; President Hayes sent in Federal Troops to stop the strike

Haymarket Square
strike in Chicago in which a police officer was killed when a bomb went off; caused labor unions to be associated with terrorism

Homestead Strike
strike in a Carnegie US Steel Mill in PA; strikebreakers were brought in as well as militia and private security to break up the protesting workers; 10 workers killed

Pullman Strike
strike over railway car production; Eugene V. Debs led a group of workers on a massive strike that included other unions, soon locking up the railroad system in the US; President Cleveland sent in Federal Troops to break up the strike

injunction
court order

Eugene V. Debs
powerful speaker and union leader of the Pullman Strike

strikebreakers
new NON-UNIONIZED workers brought in to replace workers who are on strike

philanthropist
a person who believes in charity; a desire or effort to promote goodness

phil
morpheme meaning “morals”

anthro
morpheme meaning “human”

ist
morpheme meaning “one who believes in”

Carnegie
tycoon most closely associated with being a philanthropist; donated millions to the poor and to education

Hull House
founded in Chicago to provide assistance to new immigrants; provided shelter, food, and education (English)

Jane Addams
founder of the Hull House; first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize; one of the main leaders of the Women’s Suffrage Movement

tenement
an apartment building in the slums; large numbers of people living in a small area

nativism
fear of immigrants; thinking native born Americans are better

12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.

13th Amendment
1865 – Freed all slaves, abolished slavery

13th, 14th, 15th Amendments
13th – Ended slavery, 14th – Gave blacks civil rights, 15th – Black suffrage

14th Amendment
1866 — Ratified in 1866. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.

15th Amendment
1870 — No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color, or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.

16th Amendment
Enacted income tax.

17th Amendment
Direct election of US Senators

1893 Depression
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.

18th Amendment
Banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. It was ratified on January 16, 1919 and repealed by the 21st Amendment in 1933. In the over 200 years of the U.S. Constitution, the 18th Amendment remains the only Amendment to ever have been repealed.

1992 – what went wrong (GB1)
(GB1) American economy favored powerful not middle class, natioanal debt, employment fell, forced into low paying jobs, losing benefits of pensiosn and health, black and hispanic = hit hardest

19th Amendment
Granted women the right to vote (finally). (1920)

20th Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the “Lame Duck Amendment,” it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.

20th Amendment
(FDR) , change of dates for start of presidential/congressional terms

21st Amendment
(FDR) , 1933, repeal of prohibition

22nd Amendment
limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve

23rd Amendment
(JFK), gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote

26th Amendment
(RN) , lowered the voting age to 18

27th Amendment*
(RN) , regulates pay raises for members of Congress

3/5 Compromise
The South wanted slaves to count of citizens in order to increase the population, and therefore increasing the number of Southerners in the House of Representatives. The North argued that slaves were property and couldn’t be counted. In the end, slaved came to be counted as 3/5 of a person.

54/40 of fight
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk’s slogan — the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54 40 latitude. Polk settled for the 49 latitude in 1846.

A. Mitchell Palmer
He was chosen to round up immigrants that were questionably communists, and he ended up rounding up about 6000 people.`

A. Philip Randolph
President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.

Aaron Burr
Was VP for Jefferson. Later killed Hamilton in a duel. Later still involved in a conspiracy to sever the western states.

ABC Powers
(WW) 1914 Argentina,Brazil,Chile offered to negotiate dispute between US and Mexico

Abraham Lincoln
Initially Senator from Illinois, rose to prominence through Lincoln Douglas Debates, led Union during Civil War, issued Emanciptation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address and Homestead Act. Killed after the war.

Acquisition of Florida from Spain
(JMon) Jackson gets Spain, praised by Adams and Monroe, not by Senate or House

Adam’s “midnight judges”
A group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms

Adamson Act
(WW) , 1916; established an 8-hour work day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime

Adams-Onis Treaty
The negotiated sale of Spain’s territories in eastern and western Florida to the U. S. for $5 million.

Adkins v. Children’s Hospital
Reversed Muller v. Oregon, declared laws to protect women workers were unconstitutional. (1923)

Adlai Stevenson
ran against Eisenhower, , The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower in 1952. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term “eggheads”. Lost to Eisenhower. Ambassador to UN during Cuban Missile Crisis.

Admiral Nimitz
Commander of US fleet during WWII.

Aftermanth of Persian War
(WJC) UN wanted to inspect Iraq for weapons, so imposed economic santions, France, China and Russia oppose (since they had contracts with Iraq), then eventually UK and US considered ending sanctions, and Saddam ordered UN out of Iraq

Aftermath of the Vietnam War
(RN), 1973, when Nixon replaced American forces in Vietnam with South Vietnam, withdrawal caused hostilities between North and South in which as a result, all of Vietnam became Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (1976)

Agricultural Adjustment Act
(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.

Aid To Somalia
(GB1) civil war, UN peacekeeping mission, US forces limited humanitarian, Bush Adminstration rejected disarm warrin factiosn and pressed for negotiations, later turned over control to UN, results, back to fighting

Al Capone
Mob leader in 1920s. Sent to prison for income tax evasion.

Al Jolson
Starred in the first “talkie” movie with sounds called “The Jazz Singer.”

Alabama (Geneva Tribunal)
*1869-1872, Seward negotiates with England on recovering damages from Civil War, Treaty of Washington 1871, solved dispute over fisheries, boundaries, and Alabama

Alamo
Where a group of Americans made a heroic stand against a much larger Mexican force. Their massacre became a rallying cry for eventual Texan independence.

Alaska National Interest Lands
(JEC) total area of national park doubled

Alaska purchased from Russia?
1867

Albany Congress/Plan of Union
A conference in the summer of 1754. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French. Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.

Albany Plan
Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.

Alexander Hamilton
Helped write the Federalist Papers. A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.’s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey. His programs were designed to pay off the U.S.’s war debts and stabilize the economy; he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.’s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.

Alexis de tocqueville
French historian whose book Democracy in Amerca was the first impartial study of institutions in the new nation.

Alf Landon
Ran against FDR in the 1936 election. He was weak on the radio and weaker in personal compaigning, and while he criticized FDR’s spending, he also favored enough of FDR’s New Deal to be ridiculed by the Democrats as an unsure idiot.

Alfred Thayer Mahan
“In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on and that control of the sea as the key to world.

Algeciras Conference
(TR) alliance (germany, austria, and italy),1906- settled the First Moroccan Crisis- started with Germany wanting an international conference on the Moroccan question of who gets what- Germany left with nothing and was further isolated- result of conference was that Britain, France, Russia, and the US began to see Germany as a potential threat that might seek to dominate all Europe- Germany began to see sinister plots to “encircle” Germany and prevent their development as a world power

Alger Hiss
State Department official convicted of being a secret agent for the Soviet Union, based largely on the accusation of a communist. Congressman Nixon became known nationwide due to his involvement with the investigation.

Alice Paul
A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.

Alien & Sedition Acts
Laws aimed at restricting the public activities of political radicals who sympathized with the French Revolution and criticized Adam’s Federalist policies. They provoked the Virgina and Kentucky Resolutions by Madison and Jefferson asserting State’s rights.

Alien Registration Act?
AKA – Smith Act of 1940 made it a criminal offense for anyone to conspire to overthrow the government. It also required all non-citizen adult residents to register with the government. The Act is best known for its use against political organizations and figures, mostly on the left. A series of United States Supreme Court decisions in 1957 threw out numerous convictions under the Smith Act as unconstitutional.

Alliance for Progress
(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military

American Anti-Slavery Society
Formed in 1844, a major abolitionist movement in the North.

American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.

American Expeditionary Forces
(WW), The Us forces led by General John Pershing who fought with the allies in Europe during WW1

American Federation of Government Employees?
An American labor union representing over 600,000 employees of the federal government. (State and municipal employees are represented by other unions, most notably the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) and the Service Employees International Union (SEIU). It is a member of the AFL-CIO. Its current president is John Gage (labor leader).

American Federation of Labor
(GC2) , Samuel Gompers, a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.

American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) ?
Founded in 1932, is currently the second- or third-largest labor union in the United States and one of the fastest-growing, representing over 1.4 million employees, primarily in local government and in the health care industry. Employees at the federal level are represented by other unions, such as the American Federation of Government Employees, with which AFSCME was once affiliated.

American Party
Political organization that was created after the election of 1852 by the Know-Nothings, was organized to oppose the great wave of immigrants who entered the United States after 1846

American Protective Association
A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.

American Railway Union
Founded by Eugene V. Debs.

American System*
1824 (JMon), Henry Clay, response to Tariff of 1824, program proposed by Henry Clay and others to foster national economic growth and interdependence among the geographical sections. It included a protective tariff, a national bank, and internal improvements.

American Temperance Union
(AJ) , 1836, It united temperance groups and distributed tracts warning against strong drink

Amnesty Act
Pardoned many of the rebels and allowed them to reenter public acts. (1872)

Amtrak*
(RN), first major attempt to re establish adequate railroad passenger service

Andrew Carnegie
Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL. Philantropist

Andrew Jackson
1829-1837, (King Andrew, Old Hickory) Democrat, issue = 2nd Bank of America (Jackson and Clay), Whig Party emerged

Andrew Jackson and Florida
Jackson took military control of Spanish Florida, which encouraged the treaty with Spain 1819.

Andrew Johnson
Became president when Lincoln was assassinated. Later impeached for illegally dismissin a government official.

Annapolis Convention
Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation

Anne Hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson was a dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, Hutchinson’s faction lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with a number of her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island

Annie Oakley
A performer in wild west shows around the turn of the century.

Antebellum
Term used for objects originating before the Civil War

Anthracite Coal Strike
Large strike by coal miners led by Miner’s Union president George F. Baer

Anti Poverty Act
(LBJ) 1964, his act of war on poverty

Antietam*
(AL), 1862, the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this “win” for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation

Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution’s powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states

Anti-Imperialist League
A league containing anti-imperialist groups; it was never strong due to differences on domestic issues. Isolationists. They fought against the McKinley administration’s expansionist moves.

Anti-Masonic Party
Party that spoke against the famous secret society of the Masons, but was also considered to be very anti-Jackson. Followers often sought moral and religious reform.

Anti-Saloon League
National organization set up in 1895 to work for prohibition. Later joined with the WCTU to publicize the effects of drinking.

Apaches
Native Americans in SW

Appomattox
(AL) 1864, , This was the last battle of the Civil War that ended in a Union victory.It ended the war. Grant defeats Lee

Appomattox Court House
Where General Lee surrendered to General Grant ending the Civil War

Archduke Ferdinand
His assassination sparked numerous alliances that led to WWI.

Aroostook War
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook River in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.

Article X
Part of the Treaty of Versaille that created the League of Nations

Articles of Confederation
Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn’t govern the country’s finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789

Association
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods.

Assumption
Hamilton’s idea that the federal government would assume all state debts.

Assumption of State Debts
(GW) Plan by Hamilton meant to tie the states more securely to fed gov; states pay debt, created huge national debt, assumption bill. logrolling – one support another

Atlanta Compromise
Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice

Atlantic Charter
product of a secret by FDR and Churchill; discussed post war aims and goals; advocated self determination of peoples

Bacon’s Rebellion
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia’s royal governor questioned Bacon’s actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon’s Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.

Baker v. Carr
(LBJ) 1962 Baker v. Carr, case decided in 1962 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Tennessee had failed to reapportion the state legislature for 60 years despite population growth and redistribution. Charles Baker, a voter, brought suit against the state (Joe Carr was a state official in charge of elections) in federal district court, claiming that the dilution of his vote as a result of the state’s failure to reapportion violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The court dismissed the complaint on the grounds that it could not decide a political question. Baker appealed to the Supreme Court, which ruled that a case raising a political issue would be heard. This landmark decision opened the way for numerous suits on legislative apportionment.

Bakke decision
Major decision in which the court upheld the general principle of Affirmative Action.

Balle of Bull Run
The first battle of the Civil War, which the North lost.

Ballinger/Pinchot Affair
Taft lost popularity when he supported Ballinger, who bended the government’s environmental policies.

Banking Acts
(FDR) 1933, 1935 , AKA (Steagall Act) June 16. Separated commercial from investment banksing (recently overturned), established FDIC*** (Federal Deposit Insurance Corp) which guarantees deposits.

Barbary pirates
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson’s refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Barry Goldwater
Leading spokesman for American conservatism. Lost to Johnson in 1964.

Bataan Death March
American troops were treated with vicious cruelty in the 80-mile Bataan Death March to prisoner-of-war camps.

Battle of Britain
(FDR) 1940, German air forces invaded Britain but the British Royal Air Force drove them out with the help of the new invention radar that let them know where the German planes were

Battle of Bunker Hill
The first great battle of the Revolutionary War.

Battle of Chancellorsville
Major battle in Civil War. South won. Stonewall Jackson accidentally shot and killed by his own men after the battle.

Battle of Gettysburg
Greatest battle of Civil War fought in PA. Considered to be the turning point in the War in favor of the North.

Battle of Lexington and Concord
First battle in the Revolutionary War. Paul Revere’s ride and Emerson’s poem ‘shot heard around the world.’

Battle of New Orleans
(JM), Jackson defends city against British frontal attack, becomes national hero

Battle of Quebec
1759 – James Wolfe lead and army to meet French troops near the Plains of Abraham. Both he and the French commander, Marquis de Montcalm, died. The French were ultimately defeated and the city of Quebec surrendered. It was considered to be one of the most significant engagements in British and American history, and when Montreal fell in 1760, that was the last time French flags would fly on American soil.

Battle of Saratoga
Major battle in revolutionary war, lead to victory by Benedict Arnold (before he became traitor). Considered to be the turning point in the war, leading to France backing the Americans.

Battle of the Little Bighorn?
(1876): Also called Custer’s Last Stand, it was the most famous incident of the Indian Wars. Cheyenne and Sioux indians killed Custer and all of his men.

Battle of Yorktown
Last battle of Revolutionary War. Cornwallis surrendered to Washington here.

Battles during War of 1812*
Battle of Lake Erie (Oliver Perry), Battle of Tippecanoe (Harrison and Tecumseh), Fort McHenry (Francis Scott Key), Battle of New Orlean (Jackson)

Battles of Lexington and Concord
The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston

Bear Flag Republic?
A republic that lasted for 25 days, started in Sonoma, CA in 1846 when Americans took over the town from the Mexicans. Once the Mexican-American War had begun, they joined America.

Benedict Arnold
An American general who betrayed the US to the British in the Revolutionary war

Benjamin Franklin
Founding father, signer of the declaration of independence, Ambassador to France and Britain, early researcher of electricity,

Benjamin Harrison
Gilded Age president. Congress under him known as the “Billion Dollar Congress” for showering veterans with pensions, passing the McKinley Tariff Act and

Benjamin Harrison’ Party*
VP – Morton, SS – Blaine

Bernard Baruch
Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.

Bessemer Process
Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.

Betsy Ross
Believed to have sown the first American flag in the form of the Stars and Stripes.

Betty Friedan
Wrote The Feminine Mystique, a book that proved fundamental to the women’s movement of the 1960s. Founder of National Organization for Women.

Big ten
A group of pominent midwestern universities known for high academic standards and keen atheletic competition.

Bill Of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.

Billy the kid
Gunslinger in New Mexico.

Black Codes
Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.

Black Muslims
A radical movement for black power under the leadership of Malcolm X.

Black Panthers
Militant black power organization of the 1960s founded by Huey Newton.

Black power
Called for independent development of political and social institutions for black people.

Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929-The day that the stock market crashed.

Bland Allison Act*****
(RBH) 1878 , 1878 law passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices, no less than $2 million and no more than $4 million

Bleeding Kansas?
Sometimes referred to as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving abolitionists (anti-slavery) and pro-slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1856. It led up to the civil war.

Blue law
a type of law restricting activities or sales of goods on Sunday, which had its roots in accommodating Christian Sunday worship, although it persists to this day more as a matter of tradition. The term blue law may have been first used by Reverend Samuel Peters in his book General History of Connecticut, which was first published in 1781, to refer to various laws first enacted by Puritan colonies in the 17th century which prohibited the selling of certain types of merchandise and retail or business activity of any kind on certain days of the week (usually Sunday).

Bonnie and Clyde
Outlaws on a two year spree of murder and bank robbery in

Booker T. Washington
Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.

Border States
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did no secede.

Boss Tweed
Most famous political boss – HQed in NYC

Boston Massacre
British soldiers killed protestors of British rule. This increased the colonists inclination toward revolution.

Boston Tea Party
A “revolt” on the Tea Act passed by Parliament; Sons of Liberty dressed up like Indians raided English ships in Boston Harbor. They dumped thousands of pounds of tea into the harbor. Led to Coercive Acts. (1773)

Bounties
(AL) , payments to encourage volunteers (North not South)

Boxer Rebellion
(WMc) , A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

Braceros
Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren’t enough workers.

Brady Bill
(WJC) 1993; handgun violence prevention act; legislation that established a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases

Brain trust
A group of intellectuals and planners who act as advisors, especially to a government.

Bretton Woods Conference
1944, (FDR) , The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.

Brigham Young
Leader of Mormons

British Orders in Council
A law passed by the English while fighting the French in 1793. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn’t get supplies, but American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy, leading to the War of 1812.

British Proclamation of 1763
English law enacted after French and Indian War which forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. It helped spark the American revolution.

Brook Farm
A Massachusetts commune that wanted to created a perfect union between intellect and manual labor. It failed because nobody really wanted to work.

Brooklyn Bridge
Added to the seductive glamour of gleaming cities.

Brooks-Sumner incident
SC Congressman Brooks (pro-slavery) took a cane to MA Senator Sumner (abolitionist) after he insulted SC and slavery.

Browder v. Gayle
(1956) Ended segregation in the public transportation system after the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Budget Priorities
(WJC) cut federal deficit, edu. for the poor (operation head start), inc. energy taxes, increase income taxes on upper classes, min. wage raised, did not act on health care, Kennedy Kassebaum bill (change jobs doesn’t lose med. insurance, cannot be denied based on preexisting condition), did little to hasten economic and provide better jobs.

Buffalo Bill
Soldier against Native Americans, later founded the celebrated ‘Wild West Show.’

Buffalo Soldiers
Members of one of the African American regiments within the U.S. Army after the Civil War, serving primarily in the Indian wars of the late 1860s.

Bull Moose Party
Teddy Roosevelt’s party in the election of 1812

Bunker Hill
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed’s Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle centered around Breed’s Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill.

Burr-Hamilton duel
When Hamilton lobbied for Jefferson when Jefferson and Burr were up for the presidency, Burr became so angered he challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton accepted, and lost.

Buying stocks on margin
This is when you buy a stock with a small downpayment and say that you will pay the rest later because you don’t have the money now. It’s buying something with money you hope that you’ll be getting in the future.

California enters Union
Entered as a free state as part of Compromise of 1850, threw off balance.

Calvin Coolidge
President in 1923. Worked to restrain growth of government and especially to interfere with private enterprise.

Camp David Acccord
(JEC) 1979, Anwar el-Sadat (egypt), Menachem Begin (Israel) and Carter (US) talked about rejecting war, and also Israel aggred to return all of Sinai Peninsula to Egypt within three years, treaty signed in Washington

Campaign Finance Reform
cleaning up way they are financed, house campaign skyrocketed, (PAC pays half), 2 distortions = 1) predominance of politlcal influence disprotionate to real number 2) soft money (Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.)

campaign money mess
(WJC) both parties accused of illegal practices, (violating = allowing foreign influence in US elections) hard money (campaign gifts to individual candidates) should be reported to federal election commission

Captain John Smith
One of the original settlers of Jamestown. Captured by Native Americans, saved by Pocahontas.

Carolina
Colony (ultimately split in two) used as outpost for West Indies trade. Where American slavery is said to have started.

Caroline Incident
In 1837 a steamer, the Caroline, was attacked by the British. They burned it on the shore of New York. This steamer was carrying supplies across the Niagara River. Luckily, it sank before going over the falls and only One American died.

Carry Nation
a leading proponent of prohibition.

Carter’s Energy Plan
(JEC) 1979, he wanted cut down on foregin oil supports and on American reliance on petroleum, alternate sources he wanted were solar poewr and synthetic gasoline, also (1) commit funds to develop alternative enrgy sources through windfall taxes, but sadly none of these happened.

cash and carry
countries such as Britain and France would have to pay for American goods in cash and provide transportation for them. This would keep US ships out of the war zone and eliminate the need for war loans

Central Pacific Railroad
(USG), A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Irish immigrants

Change in the Eighties
(RR), reduced the domestic funds of government by choking off its revenue, weakened civil rights enforcement, dealt with education (Willaim Bennett), rich benefited, poor didn’t, women started working male jobs, rising benefits of social security, chidren had it worse, worked part time or temporary, but few or no benefits, North – computer industry, South – decline in manufacturing

Change to Win Federation?
A coalition of American labor unions originally formed in 2005 as an alternative to the AFL-CIO. Includes the Teamsters, Laborers’ Union, the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, and the SEIU.

Charles Cornwallis
British general during the revolutionary war, who surrendered to Washington at the Battle of Yorktown.

Charles Coughlin
He ran against FDR and disliked the New Deal. He voiced his opinions on the radio.

Charles Lindbergh
Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.

Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837) interest of community are above corporate rights case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract

Charles Sumner and Preston Brooks
(FP) , Radical Republican against the slave power who insults Andrew Butler and subsequently gets caned by Preston Brooks

Charles Townshend
reated the Townshend Acts. British Prime Minister (Grenville’s replacement) Townshend Acts formed a program of taxing items imported into the colonies, such as paper, lead, glass, and tea; it replaced the direct taxes of the Stamp Act. Townshend Acts led to boycotts by Boston merchants, a key contributor to the Boston Massacre

Charlotte Gilman
Wrote Women & Economics (1898), a plea for female economic independence. The vote alone is not enough. Her thinking inspired feminists, especially in 70s and 80s.

Chatauqua Movement
American Adult educational movement which was popular through the 19th and 20th movements – brought people into communities to lecture

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
(1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a seperate nation and therefore not under Georgia’s jurisdiction. Marshall said they were not, but rather had “special status”

Cherokees
Major tribe that lived in the Southeast. Were forcibly removed to reservations west of the Mississippi.

Chesapeake Affair
The Chesapeake was boarded by the British, who forced the crew to sail on British ships. This is one of the more famous cases of impressment, and led to the War of 1812.

Chester Arthur
Followed Garfield, favored civil service reform.

Chester Nimitz
Forced Japanese back when they were trying to weize Midway Island.

Chief Joseph
Tried to lead his people to Canada to avoid forced resettlement, but captured at border and surrendered.

Child labor laws
Laws passed forbidding employment of children except in specific circumstances. Later Supreme Court ruled these unconstitutional. Later still 1930s, Fair Labor Standards Act upheld by the Court, banning employment of children in manufacturing jobs.

China and Clinton
(WJC) even though turmoil, us had to keep good relations with China

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Suspension of chinese immigration for fear they were driving down wages for whites. By 1902, Chinese immigration banned completely. Became eligible for citizenship in 1943.

Citizen Genet
He was a represenative of the French Republic who came to America in order to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Revolution.

Civil Rights Act
(LBJ) 1964 , LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin, had to take literacy test

Civil Rights Act of 1866
Gave more rights to Blacks after Civil War

Civil Rights Acts
Officially made blacks citizens of the US

Civil rights movement
Movement in 50s and 60s to eliminate segregation and gain equal rights. Major moments were when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus for a white person, MLK’s ‘I have a Dream Speech’, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and Fair Housing Act of 1968.

Civil Service Commission
A federal agency which regulates the hiring of government employees.

Civil Service Reform
(CAA) , Congress took action in the late 19th century to protect ethical politicians and create standards for political service; including, a civil service test for those seeking a job in government.

Civil War
War between Northern and Southern States. South wanted to secede to preserve economic model, including slavery, and autonomy. North won.

Civilian Conservation Corps
(FDR) 1933, , March 31, 1933; unemployment relief act; hired young men for reforestation programs, firefighting. flood control, spawn drainage, etc;

Clara Barton
Founder of the American Red Cross

Clarence Darrow
Defense attorney in the Scopes trial.

Clay, Calhoun, Webster
Leaders who came about during the debate over the Tariff of 1816. (This put a 20-30% tariff on imported goods to protect American’s economy). Webster was from the North and supported partial protection, but not the entire amount. Calhoun was from the South and was in favor of the tariff. Clay was from the West and also supported the tariff. He believed in the American System. This system entailed first, the protective tariff, and then with the benefits of the tariff and increase in national industry, the money could then be used to improve roads and transportation among the states.

Clayton Antitrust Act*
(WW) 1914, New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it’s effectiveness against labor unions, also made labor unions not dependent on antilaws

Clayton Bulwar Treaty*****
(MF) 1850, Both U.S. and England wanted to build a Panama Canal. This said that if either of us built it, we’d get the builder’s permission to use it and would share the profits.

Clean Air Act
(RN), 1970 reaction to Rachel Carson in her 1962 in Silent Spring, It describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution in general. The legislation forced the country to enforce clean air standards to improve health and showed that American was moving towards certain environmentalist measures.

Clipper ships
Sleek ships that sacrificed cargo space for speed.

Coal Strike
(TR), 1902, , Coal mines of Pennsylvania. 140,000 workers, many illiterate immigrants had been frightfully exploited and accident plagued. Demanded a 20% increase in pay and reduction of the working day from 10 to 9 hours. Mine owners refused to negotiate., TR threatens to bring in troops, then they listened

Cohens v. Virginia
Supreme Court has right to review the decisions of all state supreme courts.

Cold War Renewwed
(RR), 1985, Reagan believe SALT II Treaty favored Soviet Union – evil, soon Mikhail Gorbachev party leadership, Reagan’s view caused anxieties among America’s Western European allies, antinuclear demonstrations in Europe start, the Yuri Andropov proposed arms reduction that he knew Reagan would reject, he wanted to corrupt Europe’s and US’s relations, but that didn’t really work

College of William and Mary
Founded in 1693, it was the first college of the Jamestown area.

Committee on Public Information
Was created to “sell” the war to those people who were against it and gain support for it. To do this, men devlievered speeches and gave out pamphlets. It was headed by George Creel

Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters. They were used to sustain opposition to British policy. The committees were extremely effective and a few years later almost every colony had one.

Commodore Dewey
(WMc) , surprise victory over the Span in Spanish- American War in the Philippines

Commonwealth v. Hunt
Labor unions ruled not illegal conspiracies, that methods were honorable and peaceful

Compromise of 1850
(MF) by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation’s capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.

Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.

Compromise Tariff
Promised to gradually reduce the Tariff of 1832 by 10% over a period of eight years.

Confederate Advantages
in the Civil War — Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the nation’s best military leaders, and most of the existing military equipment and supplies.

Confederate States of America
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861, Jefferson Davis, Montgomery, AL

Confiscation Act
Allowed Union to liberate those slaves used by the Confederacy for “insurrectionary purposes.”

Congress of Racial Equality
1941-42 – CORE – Interracial until 1962, when it became predominately Black, after 1964, only Blacks were allowed to join. It concentrated on organizing votes for Black candidates and political causes, successful even in states like Mississippi and Alabama.

Congressional Reform
(GF) created the seniority system to appoint chairpersons of commitees, incease the size of the Ways and Means Committee from 25 to 37, and no member of other commitees could be chairperson of two major committes at the same time

Connecticut
Founded by Thomas Hooker who brought groups of Puritans to new colony.

Conrail*
(GF) 1976, combined 7 railroads in NE US in an attempt to revitalize service, last ditch attempt to avoid outright govt ownerships and operation

Constitution
(1787-1989) The fundamental law of the US. Established strong central government in place of the Articles of Confederation

Constitutional Convention
The gathering that drafted the Constitution of the United States in 1787; all states were invited to send delegates. The convention, meeting in Philadelphia, designed a government with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. It established Congress as a lawmaking body with two houses: each state is given two representatives in the Senate, whereas representation in the House of Representatives is based on population.

Consumer Proection Agency
(RN), influenced by Ralph Nader, effectively protected from fraud and deceit through law, enforced by govt agencies, attracted many lawyers and others to the cause

Containment
Truman policy to contain spread of Communism. Lead to the formation of NATO.

Continental Army
The Continental Army was the unified command structure of the thirteen colonies fighting Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War. The Army was created by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded on November 3, 1783, after the Treaty of Paris. A small residual force remained at West Point and some frontier outposts until Congress created the United States Army by their resolution of June 3, 1784.

Continental Congress
Assembly of the 13 colonies that rules during the Revolutionary War under the Articles of Confederation. It passed the Declaration of Independence

Contract with America
(WJC)Gingrich, President can delete specific items passed by the Congress, proposed constitutional amendment to limit the term of office was ignore, imposed federal mandates on states without providing the money

Controversial Visit
(RR), 1985 Regan visits German cemetry at Bitburg, graves of victims of Nazis

Coolies?
The term “coolie” refers to unskilled laborers from Asia in the 1800s to early 1900s who were sent to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Peru, North Africa, Sri Lanka and the West Indies. The term usually referred to Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Korean laborers and was often used in a derogatory way. In India, “coolie” refers to porters who work at railway stations. In Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and other parts of the Caribbean, as well as Sri Lanka and South Africa, the word is considered an offensive racial slur on par with “n*gger.” In the British Empire, a “coolie” was an indentured labourer with conditions resembling slavery. Chinese coolies contributed to the building of the Transcontinental Railroad in the United States, as well as the Canadian Pacific Railway in Western Canada, but many of the Chinese laborers were not welcome to stay after its completion. California’s Anti-Coolie Act of 1862 and Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 also contributed to the oppression of Chinese laborers in the United States.

Copperheads
(AL) , a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War, Vallandigham

Cordell Hull
Chief architect of the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934. He also succeeded in negotiating pacts with 21 countries by the end of 1939. These pacts were essentially trade agreements that stated if the United States lowered its tariff, then the other country would do the same.

Cornelius Vanderbilt
A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad.

Corrupt Bargain
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.

Cotton Gin
1798 — Eli Whitney developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.

Cotton Mather
Religious leader behind the Salem Witch Trials.

Council of Economic Advisors
This council was created by the Employment Act and was made to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power.

Covered wagon
A typical conveyance for settlers moving west.

Coxey’s Army
A band of unemployed people who marched to DC during the depression of 1894 under the leadership of Jacob S. Coxey. They urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements to create work.

Crazy Horse
Sioux chief at the Battle of Little Bighorn.

Credit Moblier Scandal
1872 – Union Pacific Railway created a ficticious construction company and hired itself to work (using government funds) – scandal broke loose and leaders attempted to bribe Congress with Union Pacific stock

Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty

Crittenden Compromise
1860 – attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden – offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30′ line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves – defeated by Republicans

Crop Lien System
System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.

Cross of Gold Speech
Responsible for gaining Bryan popularity. To supporters of gold: “You shall not crucify mankind upon this cross of gold.”

Cult of Domesticity
Belief in Middle and Upper Classes in US and Britain – women embodied perfect virtues in all senses

Cumberland (National) Road
Highway that stretched across nation, providing much aid to Westerners. (1811)

Custer’s last stand
Custer pursuing Sioux indians, but underestimated their force. His whole group was killed in the Battle of Little Bighorn.

Cyrus McCormick
Invented mechanical reaper

D.W. Griffith
Produced the move “The Birth of Nations” in 1915 which glorified the KK of Reconstuction days and defamed both blacks and Northern carpetbaggers.

Daniel Boone
A frontier settler who explored and settled Kentucky

Daniel Shays
He was a captain in the American Revolutionary War. He is mostly known for leading a small army of farmers in Shays’ Rebellion, which was a revolt against the state government of Massachusetts from 1786-1787.

Daniel Webster
Defended national unity in the Senate against advocates of States rights such as Calhoun.

Dartmouth College Case
1819 (JMon), contract, Daniel Webster, Jurisdictional dispute between the college’s president and board of trustees led to a Supreme Court ruling favoring the educational freedom of private institutions (which is what colleges are considered to be)

Davy Crockett
Settler and politician. Killed at the Alamo.

Dawes Act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.

de Lome letter
Hearst’s Journal published a private letter written by Spanish minister to the United States Depuy de Lôme regarding his reservations for Cuban independence and disparaging President McKinley. Helped spark war.

Declaration of Indendence
The fundamental document establishing the US as a nation, adopted on July 4, 1776. Written largely by Jefferson. Declared principles upon which Revolutionary War was fought.

Declaratory Act
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.

Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.

Deists
Influenced by the spirit of rationalism, Desists believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws.

Delaware
Established by Lord de la Warr. Had a strong Swedish influence.

Democratic party
Political party that arose in 1820s. Jackson was the first Democratic president. Supported limited government and represented farmers, laborers and settlers. Since the New Deal, Democrats have emphasized the role of the federal government in promoting social, economic and political opportunities for all citizens.

Democratic-Republicans
One of the first two American political parties, together with the Federalist Party. Founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Those two and James Monroe were the only Democratic-Republican presidents. Party disbanded in the 1820s, splintering into two factions, the Democratic Party and the Whig Party. Members of the Democratic-Republican Party believed that a strong federal government would weaken and not respect the rights of the states and the people.

Democrats 1836-1850
TRADITION, opposed banks and corporations as state legislated economic privilege, anti state legistlaed reforms and preferred individual freedom of choice, TJ agrarians, expansion, progress thru external growth, SOUTH

Denis Kearney
Irish immigrant who settled in San Francisco and fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of the growing number of imported Chinese workers who worked for less than the Americans. Founded the Workingman’s Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.

Dennis vs. the United States
In 1948, the Attorney General indicted two key Communist leaders for violation of the Smith Act of 1940 which prohibited conspiring to teach violent overthrow of the government. They were convicted in a 6-2 decision and their appeal was rejected.

Department of Labor and Commerce
Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor, it was combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create the Department of Labor. The Bureau of Corporations helped break the stronghold of monopolies.

Dewey/Manila
Spanish-American war was started when Dewey’s fleet seized or destroyed all ten Spanish ships anchored in Manila Bay (Philippines).

Direct Primary
(TR) run for office may circulate a petition and get the required number signatures, voters a more direct role in govt

Dixiecrats (States’ Right Party)*
(HT) Southern Democrats who opposed Truman’s position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party, leader is Governor Strom Thurmond

Domestic and Foreign Debts
(GW), Hamilton, funding at a par

Dominion of New England
In 1686, New England, in conjunction with New York and New Jersey, consolidated under the royal authority — James II. Charters and self rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system. The Dominion ended in 1688 when James II was removed from the throne.

Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients – created first wave of US mental asylums

Doughboys
US infantry in WWI

Drago Doctrine*****
(TR) 1902 No nation should use force to collect debts unless debtor nation refused arbitration, Luis Drago

Dred Scott Case
(JB) , Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south

Dust Bowl
A parched region of the Great Plains in OK, ARK, and TX, where a combination of drought and soil erosion created enormous dust storms in 1930s.

Dwight Eisenhower
Supreme Commander of Allied forces in WWII. Later organized NATO, President 1952-60, negotiated end of Korean War. Cold War.

Earl Warren
Chief justice 1953-1969. Bold interpretation of the Constitution “the Warren Court” in favor of the disadvantaged. Involved in Brown vs. Board and Miranda decisions. Investigated assassination of Kennedy.

Economic Growth and Deregulation
(RR) wanted free enterprise system, which would help pour revenue into the pockets of taxpayers, as a result, dismantled govt programs like Clean Air and Water Acts and OSHA, economic regulations Environmental Protection Agency, accused of making deals with industries, America doing well in Europe since they were good customers (huge trade surpluses), they had private saving ans invested in US Treasury bills, however downfall was unbalanced budgets

Edison
Edison invented the light bulb at the turn of the century, revolutionizing the American way of life.

Edward (Ted) Kennedy
Younger brother of JFK. A leading liberal and Senator. Chappaquiddick undermined his chances at President.

Edward Murrow
Radio commentator during WWII, opposed McCarthyism, created TV shows going to homes of celebrities for interviews.

Edwin Meese
(RR) helped minority workers

Eighteenth Amendment!
(WW) , banned the sale of alcohol in 1919, in comes in the Volstead Act

Eisenhower Doctrine*
(DDE) 1957, , policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country, Arab states said to leave Lebanon alone

El Salvador Dilemma!
(RR) 1979-1990, Civil was there, US and Pres. Jose Napoleon Duarte against leftist, but then soon death squads and threat leftist, two main problems (1) ones in power supported govt. in limit and (2) used power to delay and hurt agriculture, but soon guerilla attacks stopped after US invested money in El Salvador’s newly privatized electrical markets

Electoral Count Act
As a belated result of the disputed election of 1876 involving Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes, the Electoral Count Act of 1887 placed the responsibility of deciding electoral disputes mainly on the states themselves. Congress now counts the votes (a mere formality) on Jan. 6.

Elenor Roosevelt
First lady to FDR, involved in humanitarian and diplomatic efforts around the world. Represented US in UN.

Eli Whitney
1798 — He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.

Elizabeth Blackwell
First female to graduate from medical college.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Called for Seneca Falls Convention, worked in close partnership with Susan B. Anthony for Women’s suffrage.

Elkins Act
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers

Embargo Act
A law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Jefferson hoped to weaken the warring France and Britain by shutting off trade, but the act ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It helped to revive the Federalists and caused New England’s industry to grow. It was repealed in 1807 and eventually led to the War of 1812.

Emergency Banking Relief Act
March 6, 1933 – FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks. It gave the president power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to reopen solvent banks.

Emergency Quota Act of 1921
1921 – First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890.

Emerson and Thoreau
Two transcendentalist authors. Emerson – Poet, philosopher, “The American Scholar.” Thoreau – Poet, mystic, “Walden: Or Life in the Woods.”

Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) led a Filipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader of the provisional government but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Philippines independent before the U.S. felt it was ready for independence. He was captured.

Emma Willard
(AJ) , in 1821 founded Troy Female Seminary in New York which was a model for girls’ schools everywhere

Emmett Till
A fourteen year old black boy who was lynched by a Mississippi mob for leering at a woman.

Ending Nuclear Testing
(WJC) us wouldn’t test unless another nation did it first

Energy Crisis
(RN), following Yom Kippur War, so they planned to use Alaskian pipeline, but eventually went back to foreign

Energy Problem 1979
(JEC), Iran revolution ended oil shipment, so in spring of 1979, gas and oil priced were raised

Environmental Protection Agency
(RN), 1970 an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment

Equal Rights Amendment!
(RN) , in 1972 and 1988, constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender

Era of “Good Stealings”
The 1870’s-1890’s was a dark period in American politics filled with corruption, which rivaled today’s. Dubbed “The Era of Good Stealings,†the gilded age was arguably when politicians first recognized the seemingly deep pool of corporate money and also when many of them signed their souls over to the corporations.

Era of Good Feelings?
Period from 1815-1821 that followed the War of 1812 where the last Federalist candidate was defeated and the issues of slavery were emerging as a result of the Missouri Compromise. James Monroe defeated the last Federalist candidate in 1816, and won unopposed in 1820.

Erie Canal
Linked the Great Lakes region to New York (and European shipping routes), opened up new era of industry for farmers. (1825)

Ernest Hemingway
He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I. He shot himself in the head with a shotgun in 1961.

Esch Cummins Act*
(WW) 1920, railroads given to private operations, now US digresses from railroad and more into automobiles and ships

Espionage Act and Sedition Act
Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.

Ethics in Govt
(GB1) main issue = larges fees for lobbying and weak laws governing campaign spending

Eugene McCarthy
Was challenging Johnson and had a good chance of winning until Robert Kennedy decided to run.

Eugene V. Debs
Supreme Court case that upheld state restrictions on the working hours of women

Evergalades Restoration Fund
(WJC) largest environmental operation ever, in Florida, buffer zones north and east

Excise Tax
(GW) a tax on certain items such as alcohol, tobacco, and gasoline

Excise taxes and tariffs
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton’s program.

Exodusters
Blacks who knew what fate awaited them in the South and moved to the Midwest to start anew.

Exposition and Protest
1828 (JQA) , John C. Calhoun wrote this in protest to the Tariff of 1828. In it, he said that a state should be able to nullify a federal law (The Tariff of 1828)

F. Scott Fitzgerald
Most critics regard “The Great Gatsby” as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.

Fair Employment Practices Commission
Enacted by executive order 8802 on June 25, 1941 to prohibit discrimination in the armed forces.

Family and Medical LeaveAct 1993
(WJC) company with more than 50 employees, allow 12 weeks of unpaid keave

Farewell Address George washington
maintain national unity, obey principles and authority, create permanent allience but not embroil in European affairs

Farmer’s Alliance
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.

Federal Budget Deficit (Reagan)
(RR), hated big govt and wanted to cut taxes through offering increased defense spending, he was convinced that Soviet Union was a threat so he raised money for greater military like MX missile and Star Wars, this caused FBD (what govt took in and what it spent) of $200 billion, refused to support tax increases and refused lower social security benefits

Federal Campaign Finanace Law
(GF) (1) fines up to 10,000 for each violation of the law in a civil case, (2) PAC no more than 5000 per candidate

Federal Election Commission*
(GF) investigate alleged violations of the law

Federal Farm Board
(HH) , Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.

Federal Reserve Sytem under Paul Volcker
(RR), aided in keeping money from growing too fast, reduced inflation

Federal Securities Act
(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds

Federal Trade Commission
(WW) 1914 , A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits

Federalists
Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.

Felix Frankfurter
Supreme Court Justice 1939-1962, argued for judicial restraint (not legislate from the bench).

Fifteenth Amendment
(AJohn) , Banned states from denying African Americans the right to vote

Filipino insurrection
Emilio Aguinaldo led a Filipino movement for independence in 1896, and wrote constitution when Spain surrendered. When US received Philippines, they tried to fight again, but quickly gave up.

Fiorello La Guardia
Beloved mayor of NZC in 30s and 40s.

First Bank of the United States
Caused debate between Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Hamilton felt that it was in the implied powers of the Constitution that the government could establish the bank to strengthen the economy, but Jefferson felt that while it would be helpful, the government did not have the power to create it. Washington ultimately sided with Hamilton.

First Bank of the US
(GW) 1791-1811, by Hamilton, came about strict vs loose construction

First Bull Run*
(AL) , 1861– First battle of the Civil War. Union soldiers were commanded by McDowell and defeated by the Confederate soldiers under Beauregard (Stonewall Jackson)

First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.

First Continental Railroad
(USG) Central Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific, Irish and Chinese, meets at Promontory Point, Utah

First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.

First Labor Unions*
(AJ), in Philly, wanted 1) abolition of imprisonment for debt 2) free education 3) abolition of prison contract 4) 10 hour work day

First Protective Tariff
1816 (JM) In 1816, Congress passed the nation’s first protective tariff. It was designed to protect textile factories, because the British were dumping cloth in the United States at bargain prices in their attempt to regain markets they had lost during the War of 1812.

Fisk-Gould scandal
Jim Fisk and Jay Gould exploited US Treasury to benefit themselves. Exemplified corruption in America when proven guilty.

Five Civilized Tribes
The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes, all located in the southeast. They were considered civilized by whites because they followed many of their practices, such as slavery.

Five Power Pact
(WH) , (maintain status quo) An agreement on ship ratios between the US, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy. For every five ships the US had, Britain would have five, Japan would have three, and France and Italy would each have 1.67. The major Pacific naval powers—Britain, Japan, and the United States—with some specific exceptions, agreed not to increase fortifications on their Pacific bases. This provision was included to help Japan overcome its reluctance to accept a smaller naval role.

Flappers
Wild women (relatively speaking) of the 1920s.

Florence Kelley
Founded the National Consumer’s League, which wanted legislation to protect consumers from being cheated or harmed by big business. Also was the state of Illinois’ first chief factory inspector and lead an advocate for improved factory conditions.

Florida Purchase Treaty
1819 – Also known as the Adams-Onis Treaty. Spain sold Florida to the U.S. and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas. Drawn up by John Quincy Adams.

Food Administration
Created by Wilson during WWI – Led by Herbert Hoover – set up ration system to save food for soldiers

Foraker Act
1900 Gave the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government. In 1917 they got US citizenship.

Force Acts
The four Force Acts passed by the Congress of the United States shortly after the American Civil War helped protect the voting rights of African-Americans.

Force Bill
1833 – The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina’s ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.

Ford and Congress
(GF)relations weren’t that good

Fordney McCumber Tariff**
(WH) 1922, This tariff raised the tax on imports to its heights level- 60%

Ford’s Asian Trip*
(GF) Ford and Brezhnev talked about continuing policy of detente, to prevent a third world war

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Signed?
1978. it was a reaction to the abuses of the Nixon whitehouse.

Forest Reserve Act of 1891
(BH) Authorized the President to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves

Fort Sumter
In 1861 Confederates attacked the fort, which led to its surrender and was the opening engagement of the Civil War. It is located in Charleston, South Carolina.

Forty Acres and a mule
failed attempt to help freed blacks during reconstruction – had promised blacks forty acres of land and a mule to plow with

Founding Fathers
John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington.

Four Freedoms
Freedoms FDR said are worth fighting for: speech, worship, want and fear. Used to justify US involvement in WWII.

Four Power Pact
(WH) , An agreement made by the United States, Britain, France, and Japan to not seek further Pacific expansion or increased naval strength in the region. The countries also agreed to respect the Pacific holdings of the other countries signing the agreement. The signatories agreed to consult each other in the event of a dispute over territorial possessions

Fourteen Points
(WW) 1918, program for world peace, freedom of seas, removal of barriers to international trade, reduction of armaments

Fourteenth Amendment
(AJohn) , made “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” citizens of the country

Frances E. Willard and the WCTU
Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union which she build to become the largest organization of women in the world.

Frances Perkins
First women to hold a cabinet position (Secretary of Labor under FDR). She assisted in drafting of New Deal and creation of Social Security system.

Francis E. Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week’s salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.

Francisco Coronado
Spanish explorer of the 16th century. Travelled through the southwest, and ‘discovered’ the Grand Canyon.

Franco-American Alliance
Negotiated by Ben Franklin, brought French into war on Americans’ side. Helped determine outcome of war.

Franklin D. Roosevelt
President from 1933 to 1945, elected 4 times. Launched the New Deal, held fireside chats explaining them. Supported the Allies with his Four Freedoms speech. After Pearl Harbor entered the war snd started the Manhattan Project. Neogitated the Yalta Agreement. Died just before the end of the war.

Franklin Pierce
Fourteenth President. Democratic president from New Hampshire. Supported Manifest Destiny despite Northern concerns that it would lead to the spread of slavery. Signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Sent Commodore Matthew Perry into Japan to open the country to diplomacy and commerce (Treaty of Kanagawa). Opened Canada to greater trade. Pierce’s diplomats failed in their attempt to purchase Cuba from Spain, leading to the drafting of the Ostend Manifesto.

Franklin Roosevelt
1933-1945, Democrat, “forgotten man,” broke two term rule, platform – prohibition, help farmers, prevent fraud, balanced budget, decrease public spending, third election – two groups: “Defend America by Aiding the Allies” and “America First”

Frederick Douglass
An escaped slave who became a prominent speaker for Abolitionist movement.

Frederick Jackson Turner/”The Significance of the Frontier in American History”
Declared America no longer had a frontier, changed American psyche completely. (1893)

Free Enterprise and Competition
An economic system characterized by private ownership of property and productive resources, the profit motive to stimulate production, competition to ensure efficiency, and the forces of supply and demand to direct the production and distribution of goods and services.

Free Soil Party?
The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States organized in 1840 that faded out by about 1856. Its main purpose was opposing the extension of slavery into the territories, as well as advocating the abolition of slavery itself.

Freedmen’s Bureau
1865 – Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs

Freedom Riders
White and Black Northerners who rode busses into the South to challenge racial segregation. Regularly attacked, seldom protected.

Freeport Doctrine
During L-D debate, Lincoln asked if the people of a territory voted against slavery despite Supreme Court, who would prevail. Douglas said the people.

French Alliance
“The colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain. France was Britain’s rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga. He served under President Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange for the U.S. dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams’ work.”

French and Indian War
Part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquians, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceded Florida to Britain, but received Louisiana in return.

French Indochina
(DDE) a French colony that included Vietnam , Laos, and Cambodia, but Vietminh captured the fRench fortress of Dien Bien Phy, North was a Communist State, south independent, they wanted to resist of Communism

Fuel Administration!!!
(WW) , Harry Garfield, Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with “heatless Mondays” and “gasless Sundays.” The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.

Fugitive Slave Act
A law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, which provided southern slaveholders with legal weapons to capture slaves who had escaped to the free states. The law was highly unpopular in the North and helped to convert many previously indifferent northerners to antislavery.

Fulbright scholarships
Scholarships for the exchange of students between US and other nations.

Fulton’s steamboat
Steamboat faster than any other form of transportation at the time, revolutionized industry.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the firdst constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states’ charters and constitutions.

Funding
Based on the natural laws of supply and demand and Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations. (1776) The government would sell bonds to people. Then so many would be in circulation that they would loose value and the people would sell them back to the government for a profit to the government. The rich would also benefit because they could buy the cheap bonds to decrease the amount in circulation, increasing the demand, and increasing the value. The rich could then sell them to make a profit.

Funding at par
(GW)This meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton’s establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government. This made paper money essentially useless do to inflation.

Gadsen Purchase
(MF) 1853, $10 million land purchase in the desert of flat land for the Southern railroad completion in 1853. completes manifest destiny!

Gag Resolution
(MVB) 18-36-1844, Strict rule passed by prosouthern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives

Gays in Military
(WJC) “dont ask, dont tell”, end ban of homosexual in military, but under conditions 1) no open engagement, 2) remained quiet about orientation

General Francisco Franco
In July, 1936, Gen. Fransisco Franco and other army leaders staged a coup and installed a right-wing fascist government, touching off a civil war between loyalist Republican forces (aided by Russia) and Franco’s Fascist party (aided by Mussolini and Hitler).

General John Pershing
1916 – Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico by America because he was leading an American front. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.

Genet Affair
(GW), refused to give aid Washington objected to this French ministers plan to hire American Privateers to fight on the high seas for France and against England.

Gentlemen’s Agreement
(TR) , 1907 Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them

George Creel
Headed the Committee on Public Information

George Dewey
Was the Commander of the US Asiatic Squadron in Hong Kong when he was ordered to go to the Phillipines in the event of a war. He was victorious over an attacking Spanish fleet but was unable to continue battle on land due to insufficient numbers and had to wait for backup to slowly assemble in America.

George III
King George the third was the king of England in the 1770’s.Though he was a good man he was not a good ruler. He lost all of the 13 American colonies and caused America to start to gain its freedom.

George Kennan
(containment) A member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.

George Marshall
Secretary of State after WWII, oversaw Marshall Plan for Europe. Received Nobel prize.

George McClellan
A Union general in the Civil War. In 1861 he was commander of the Army of the Potomac (name of the Union Army). He was an excellent drillmaster and organizer of troops but he was also a perfectionist and would always believe he was outnumbered. He never took risks, and held the army for months until Lincoln ordered him to advance.

George McGovern
Lost election to Nixon, was a liberal democrat opposed to involvement in Vietnam.

George Wallace
Alabama govenor who opposed integration. National Guard forced him to back down when he tried to block entry into the U. of Alabama.

George Washington
Founding father, commander of revolutionary army, first president. Considered the father of his country.

George Washington Carver
First black scientist to gain national prominence.

Georgia
Founded by James Oglethorpe for those burdened by debt. The English used the colony as a buffer between the propserpous Carolinas and the French and Spaniards.

Gerald Ford
Became President when Nixon resigned. Pardoned Nixon and lost to Carter in 1976.

German and Irish immigration
Wave of German/Irish immigration in 1840s-50s that was met with wave of resentment due to competition for jobs. Irish especially, for Catholicism.

Geronimo
An Apache leader who was one of the last to lead Native Americans against white settlers.

Gettysburg
(AL) 1863 (meade and lee), July 1-3, 1863, turning point in war, Union victory, most deadly battle

Gettysburg Address
Major speech delivered by Lincoln during the Civil War (‘Fore score and seven years ago… government of the people, by the people and for the people shall not perish from the Earth.”

Gibbons v. Ogden
Congress alone is allowed to control interstate commerce.

Gilded Age?
The Gilded Age (c.1876-1914) was a period of intense economic development and wealth transfer in the United States. Following the generation of the American Civil War and Reconstruction of the South, this period corresponded with the Second Industrial Revolution and the greatest economic, territorial, industrial, and population expansion in American history. The explosion of commerce and heavy industry, supported by mercantilist economic policies and federal railway subsidies, the innovation of new techniques in steel production and the use of electric power, and the continued development of the American West catalyzed dramatic social changes, created a number of immensely wealthy businessmen, the “Robber Barons”, and also galvanized the American Labor Movement.

Give me liberty or give me death
From speech by Patrick Henry urging American colonies to revolt against England.

Glorious Revolution of England
Bloodless revolution in England that overthrew King James II and replaced him with William and Mary. Ended Dominion of England, Massachusetts became a royal colony, and it inspired the Americans for their own revolution.

Gold in California
When gold was discovered in California, it led to a massive migration to the state. These miners pushed for statehood.

Gold Standard abandoned and turn to silver
1933 (FDR)

Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.

Gramm Rudman Act
(RR) , It provided automatic spending cuts, balancing budget act

Grandfather Clause
(AJohn) , Law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867

Granger Laws
(GC) , Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional

Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a religious revival held in the 1730’s and 1740’s to modivate the colonial America. Modivational speakers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped to bring Americans together.

Great Compromise
It resolved between the small and large states that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate (2 senators each). All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems. (1787)

Great Migration (colonial times)
Flood of Puritan immigants from Europe to the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1629-42.

Great Migration (circa WWI)
(WW) , movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

Great Society
President Johnson called his 1`version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.

Great White Fleet
1907-1909 – Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the “Gentlemen’s Agreement.”

Greenback Labor Party
(JG) Political party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenabackers w/ program for improving labor

Greenbacks
(AL) , Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)

Grenada Dilemma!
(RR) 1983, America wanted to rid the communist pressure in Grenada, Castro threats revolution in the Americas, Organization of Eastern Carribean States ask for US intervention, America remain long enough to remove Cuba supported govt from power and stop civil war, major sucess, earned credibility throughout Caribbean Basin

Griswold vs. Connecticut
1965 Court decision that overturned CT law making it illegal to use or disseminate information about contraceptives.

Grover Cleveland
President 1885 and 1893 (2 non-consecutive terms). Fought against corruption and tried to solve national financial problems.

Guadalcanal
In August 1942, American forces gained a foothold on Guadalcanal Island, the Solomon Islands, in an attempt to protect the lifeline from America to Australia through the Southwest Pacific. After several desperate sea battles for naval control, the Japanese troops evacuated Guadalcanal in February 1943.

Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Required Mexico to cede the American southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, and California, to the U.S. The U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution*
(LBJ) , The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.

H.L. Mencken
In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken’s criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.

Hague Conference
(TR) , 1899 (first under McKinley) conference at which the Great Powers discussed arms reduction, demonstrated internationalism

Haiti DIlemma
(RR) 1990s, had 30 year dictatorship, soon ends, then Bertrand Aristide overthrows with military, and UN awith US use mandate to restore constituional rule and Aristide’s presidency.

Halfway Covenant
In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial church membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church. It lessened the difference between the “elect” members of the church from the regular members. Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

Harding scandals
Major incidents of corruption in government that occurred while Harding was president. Most notable, lease of federally owned oil reserve land to private interests in return for bribes.

Harpers Ferry
(JB), 1859 John Brown’s scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged

Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.

Harrison at Tippecanoe Creek
Harrison defeat Tecumseh at Battle of Tippecanoe. (1811)

Harry Truman
President 1945-1953 after FDR died in final months of WWII. Made decision to drop bomb on Japan. Enthusiastically supported the UN and put forward the Marshall Plan. Sent troops to support UN in Korean war.

Hartford Convention
A secret convention of Federalists held in Hartford to discuss their party status and War of 1812. When they wrote their “resolutions†and considered secession, many viewed them as traitors, which ultimately led to the downfall of their party. (1814)

Harvard College
Founded in 1636, it was the first college in the colonies.

Hawaiian Incident
(GC2) 1893, Queen Liliuokalani had Hawaii, Americans wanted land to grow sugar, Queen was depost, US govt petitioned to annex Haiwaii, but Cleveland against it, did it in favor of Queen, but it was annexed anyways in 1898

Hawley-Smoot Act?
Tarriff act enacted in 1930, it imposed record tariffs to protect US companies. Some say it made the depression worse.

Hay Bunau Varillia Treaty
(TR) Panama allowed US a 10 mile strip of land, work down under the army of Colonel Gorgas and direction under Colonel Goethals. U.S. garantee of independence for newly created Republic of Panama

Hay Pauncefote Treaty
(TR) , negotiations with Colombia, six mile strip of land in Panama, $10 million, US could dig canal without British involvement

Haymarket Riot?
Began in 1886 with a riot at the McCormick Harvester plant in Chicago where unionized workers were striking for shorter work days and then a few days later moved to Haymarket Square where a protest meeting was called to denounce the events of the previous day; resulted in several deaths.

Healthcare Coverage
(GB1) cost of health care rose as well as those without it

Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War. The most famous yellow journalist.

Helen Keller
Blind and deaf, overcame her adversities. Known for her persistence and courage.

Helent Hunt Jackson/”A Century of Disorder”
Detailed the injustices of the reservation system, and inspired reformers to push for a change.

Helsinki Accords
(GF) first signed by Canada, US, Soviet Union, and 32 others which pledged cooperation between East and West Europe and to reduce tension associated with the Cold War, eventually Communist Party died in East Europe in 1991

Henry Cabot Lodge
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.

Henry Clay
Helped orchestrate the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 to hold the Union together.

Henry Clay’s American System
Plan for economic growth: establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, and improve the country’s transporation system

Henry Ford
1913 – Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project.

Henry Kissinger
Secretary of State to Nixon, opened diplomatic relations with China. Helped negotiate end of Vietnam war. Won Nobel prize in 1973.

Henry L. Stimson and Manchuria
1932 – Japan’s seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover’s Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that the U.S. would not recognize any changes to China’s territory, nor any impairment of China’s sovereignty.

Hepburn Act
(TR) 1906, , Gives the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates, finally giving the agency enforcement power

Herbert Hoover
1929-1933, Republican, “rugged individualism”, first time Catholic runs for president (Alfred E. Smith), “pump priming”

Hessians
German mercenaries who, because they were lured by booty and not duty, had large numbers desert and remained in America to become respectful citizens.

Hinton R. Helper
Hinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave-owing Whites in his 1857 book, which as a violent attack on slavery. It wasn’t written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.

HMOS
(WJC) care come from large range of doctors and hospitals, large businesses and ogvt, trouble getting health care when needed, managed care sure patients get better, not sicker, he failed to reform nation’s healthcare system

Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, was an ardent Communist, and became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.

Home Owners Loan Act
(FDR) 1934, refinancing mortgages at lower rates, preventing foreclosure of home mortgages

Homestead Act
Allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for five years, improving it, and paying $30. Urged many to move out West.

Homestead Strike
Strike that turned violent at Carnegie’s Homestead steel plant. (1892)

Hoovervilles
Encampments of the poor and homeless that sprang p during the Great Depression.

Horace Mann
Secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education – created public school system in MASS – became model for nation

Horatio Alger
Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys

Horizontal Integration
Owning many different businesses who sell the same thing. Ex: Gap owns Forth and Towne, Banana Republic, Old Navy, and the GAP company itself.

House Divided speech
Speech given by Lincoln early on saying that crisis was inevitable on issue of slavery.

House of Burgesses
The House of Burgeses was the first representative assembly in the New World. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgeses. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America.

How did the AFL and CIO differ historically?
The AFL was a craft union, while the CIO was an industrial union.

How long did reconstruction last?
1865 to 1877 the states of the Confederacy were controlled by the federal government before being readmitted to the Union. First were occupied by Union armies, then readmitted to the union after elections which saw many former slaves vote, and blacks even win positions of power.

HUAC
Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.

Huey Long
Senator from Louisiana who founded The Share the Wealth society 1934 by He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million.

Hugo Black
Supreme court justice 1937-1971, strong defender of civil liberties.

Hurrican Andrew
(GB1) 1992, delayed so critizied Federal Emergency Managment Agency (FEMA)

Ida Tarbell
Wrote History of the Standard Oil Company in 1904 which exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.

Immigration Act
(LBJ) 1965, law discontinued quota based on national origin

immigration act of 1924?
Set immigration quotas of 2 percent of the number of foreign-born persons from a given nation, based on the Census of 1890. Drastically cut immigration from south and east europe, as well as asia.

Immigration act of 1986?
In 1986, Congress passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act, a comprehensive overhaul of immigration policy designed to nationalize all of the country’s permanent inhabitants and prevent illegal entrance in the future. The bill granted temporary resident status to illegal aliens who had lived continuously in the United States since before January 1, 1982. With a basic understanding of English and American civics, these temporary residents could become permanent residents after 18 months. Illegal aliens who had lived in the United States for three years and worked at least 90 days each year in American agriculture could also claim temporary resident status and could become permanent residents three years after the bill’s enactment if they worked in agriculture at least one more year. To discourage people from entering the country illegally, Congress authorized over $400 million per year for two years to the INS and strengthened penalties for knowingly hiring an illegal immigrant or smuggling illegal immigrants into the United States.

Immigration act of 1990?
In 1990, Congress passed the Immigration Act, approving a substantial increase in immigration. The United States would now admit 700,000 new immigrants annually, up from 500,000 before the bill’s passage. The new system continued to favor people with family members already in the United States, but added 55,000 “diversity visas” for countries from which few were emigrating as well as 40,000 permanent job-related visas and 65,000 temporary worker visas. Additional provisions strengthened the U.S. Border Patrol and altered language regarding disease restrictions in a way that permitted the secretary of Health and Human Services to remove AIDS from the list of illnesses making a prospective immigrant ineligible to enter the country.

Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965?
The Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Celler Act or the INS Act of 1965) abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. An annual limitation of 170,000 visas was established for immigrants from Eastern Hemisphere countries with no more than 20,000 per country. By 1968, the annual limitation from the Western Hemisphere was set at 120,000 immigrants, with visas available on a first-come, first-served basis. The democratic controlled Congress (House of Representatives voted 326 to 69) in favor while the Senate passed the bill by a vote of (76 to 18). President Lyndon Johnson signed the legislation into law.

Impeachment of Johnson
Congress, who strongly disliked Johnson, finally got it’s chance to impeach him when he violated the Tenure of Office Act (even though it was unfair).

Impressment
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.

Income Tax Cut
(LBJ) 1964, income tax was reduced to some extent, cuts were made in govt. spending, armed forces installations were shut down

Independent Treasury Act
“Divorced” US government from banking. Passed in 1840 but was repealed by Whigs (who wanted to revive Bank of US) the next year.

Independent Treasury System AKA Subtreasuries
(MVB), 1840 Meant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.

Indian Removal Act?
(1830): A law passed by Congress in order to facilitate the relocation of American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands further west. It authorized President Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living within the boundaries of existing U.S. states. Resulted in the forcable movement of tens of thousands of native americans. The most well known was the Trail of Tears (1838), when 4,000 cherokees were killed during their forced relocation.

Indian Removal Bill
(RBH), put down of Sioux uprising in Minnesota and the Dakota (last tribe)

Initiatives
People have the right to propose a new law. Made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.

Insular Cases
(WMc) , These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos. It was congress who had the power

Intermidate Nuclear Forces Treaty*
(RR), 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed treaty to eliminate Soviet and American medium range nuclear missiles, Soviet economy cut back on military, treaty was gain for the West, more critical problem was nuclear testing, first joint reduction, on site inspection for the first time.

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions?
Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). Central to the ICFTU’s work has been the struggle to defend workers’ rights. The ICFTU lobbies for the ratification of what it calls “core labour standards” — the various conventions of the International Labour Organization.

International Military Tribunal*
(HT) Robert Jackson, defined crime as something against – peace, humanity, and international law

International Trade Agreement*
(WJC) Mickey Kantor, agreement in Tokyo, cut tariff to reduce consumer prices and raise living standards around the world, however didn’t resolve tariff cuts on apparel and textiles, to achieve success, US had to open its border wider to foreign textiles

Internment of Japanese Americans
More than 100,000 people put in relocation camps during WWII.

Interstate Commerce Act
(GC) 1887, a law that made a federal Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate unfair railroad practices

Interstate Commerce Commission
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.

Interstate Highway Act
(DDE), now rapid growth of suburban housing, like Levittown, NY , 1956 law that authorized the speding of $32 billion to build 41,000 miles oh highway. The scale of suburban growth would not have been remotely possible without a massive federal program of highway building. Committed to the idea of easing automobile travel, President Eisenhower authorized the first funding of the Interstate system in 1953. Further legislation passed by Congress in 1956 resulted in the Interstate Highway Act. This consisted of multilane expressways that would connect the nations major cities. Biggest public works expedenture in history even bigger than any New Deal program. The new highways eased commutes from suburbs to cities, boosted travel and vacation industries.

Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts, passed in 1774, were the combination of the four Coercive Acts, meant to punish the colonists after the 1773, Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. The Intolerable Acts were seen by American colonists as a blueprint for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress.

Iron Curtain
(HT) , Term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide in postwar Europe between communist and democratic nations

Irreconcilables
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations

IWW?
The IWW was founded in Chicago in June 1905 at a convention of two hundred socialists, anarchists, and radical trade unionists from all over the United States (mainly the Western Federation of Miners) who were opposed to the policies of the American Federation of Labor. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is a famous international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. It contends that all workers should be united within a single union as a class and the wage system abolished. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. Its membership declined dramatically after a 1924 split brought on by internal conflict and government repression. Today it numbers about 2,000 members world-wide, but with a recent renewal of organizing activity membership appears to be rising again. IWW membership does not require that one works in a represented workplace, nor does it exclude membership in another labor union.

J. Edgar Hoover
Director of FBI 1921-1972. Vigorous investigation of gangsters and spies. Controversial because seen as overzealous with respect to communists.

J.P. Morgan
Business man -refinanced railroads during depression of 1893 – built intersystem alliance by buying stock in competeing railroads – marketed US governemnt securities on large scale

Jackie Robinson
First black to play major league baseball.

Jacksonian Democracy
The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public schools, more women’s rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the Electoral College were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.

Jacob Riis
Early 1900’s writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel, How the Other Half Lives. It shocked the middle class and deeply influenced Theodore Roosevelt.

James A. Garfield
1881, Republican, Greenback Labor Party, Republican – protective tariff, Democrats – revenue tariff, shot by Julius Guiteau (mental unstable, thought unfair spoils system)

James Buchanan
1857-1861, Democrat, Know-Nothings Party (Fillmore), Democrats (Compromise of 1850 and Kansas Nebraska Bill)

James G. Blaine
The 1884 nomination for the Rebublican presidential candidate. Pan-Americanism stated that events in the Americans affected the U.S. and we thus had reason to intervene. Pushed the “Big Sister” Policy and said we should open Latin American markets to Yankee traders.

James Garfield
President 1881. Assassinated by a man who had been angered by not having received a public job under the Spoils System. Gave momentum to abandon this system.

James K. Polk
Polk was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a “dark horse” candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay’s American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.

James Madison
The author of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, Madison was also the father of the Federalist party and the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and was also Vice-President under Jefferson. He was a great statesman but was not a strong president.

James Meredith
James tried to attend the University of Mississippi and encountered violent opposition so Kennedy sent in troops for him to graduate.

James Monroe
President after Madison. Issued the Monroe doctrine and the Missouri Compromise took place during his presidency.

Jamestown?
The first successful English colony, established in 1607 on a small river near Chesapeake Bay. It was headed by John Smith, who befriended Pocahontas. It was all male.

Jane Addams
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English. Provided such services as English lessons, day care, child care classes, and playgrounds.

Japan Trade
(FP), Matthew C. Perry with Japan, Japan dominant power in Far East

Japanese Strike?
It has the workers maximizing their output. They are nominally working as usual but the surplus can break the planning, especially in just-in-time systems.

Jay’s Treaty
1794 — It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restriction on the rights of neutrals.

Jazz Age
1920s jazz popular, also time of attacks on convention in many areas of American life.

Jeanette Rankin
First woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist and pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI and WWII.

Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy

Jeffersonian democracy
Less radical than Jacksonian democracy, called for leadership by those with greatest ability, not common man.

Jeffersonianism vs. Hamiltonianism
Rival ideas of American Government. Jefferson preferred strong states and focus on agriculture. Hamilton said strong federal government and focus on industrial development.

Jesse Owens
African American who won 4 gold medals at Olympic games in Germany under Hitler (a blow to Nazi notions of a master race).

Jim Crow Laws
State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.

Jim Fisk / Jay Gould
Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.

Jim Thorpe
Native American olympic athelete in 1912 games.

Jimmy Carter
Peanut farmer who became President. Helped negotiate peace between Egypt and Israel. Seen as too weak, especially after Iran hostage situation. Lost to Regan and became international peacemaker.

Jimmy Hoffa
Labor leader who build the Teamsters Union. Considered corrupt and was likely killed.

John Dewey
Philosophical driver of progressive education in late 19th, early 20th century.

John Adams
Founding father, signer of the declaration of independence, second president. Avoided war with France. Alien & Sedition Acts passed while he was president.

John Birch Society
Conservative group in 50s and 60s, particularly concerned about Communists. Seen as extreme.

John Brown
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.

John Calhoun
Southern leader who championed slavery and States’ rights. He led nullification movement, and his thinking helped point the way to the civil war

John D. Long
He was a Navy secretary and much of the readiness of the army was owed to him and Theodore Roosevelt.

John D. Rockefeller
American businessman – founder of Standard Oil Co. (major monopoly)

John Dewey
American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.

John Dillinger
Famous bank robber in 1930s.

John F. Kennedy (JFK)
President 1961-63. Brought US out of Cuban Missile Crisis, negotiated the NTBT of 1963. Responsible for the Bay of Pigs disaster. Domestic Agenda called New Frontier. Strongly supported space program and the civil rights movement. Shot by Lee Harvey Oswald. First roman catholic.

John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.

John Hay
September, 1899 – Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.

John L. Lewis
Boss of the United Mine Workers who succeeded in forming the Committee for Industrial Organization.

John Marshall
Chief of Justice that established judicial review and laid the groundwork for a broad interpretation of the Constitution. Chief justice of Supreme Court during Marbury vs. Madison.

John Pershing
Commander of US troops in WWI in Europe.

John Quincy Adams
“Helped negotiate the Treaty of Ghent. He served under President Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange for the U.S. dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams’ work.”

John Slidell
1845 – He went to Mexico to pay for disputed Texas and California land. But the Mexican government was still angry about the annexation of Texas and refused to talk to him.

John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath
1939 – Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath was about “Okies” from Oklahoma migrating from the Dust Bowl to California in the midst of the Depression.

John Tyler
tenth President. President following the death of William Henry Harrison. States’ righter, Southerner, and strict constitutionalist.Rejected the programs of the Whigs who had elected Harrison, which led them to turn against him. Settled Webster-Ashburton Treaty between the United States and Britain. Helped Texas achieve statehood in 1845

John Wilkes Booth
The assassin of Lincoln, fanatically devoted to the Confederate cause.

John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony’s government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a “city upon a hill” from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Johnny Appleseed
An American folk hero who traveled throughout the mid-west encouraging people to plant orchards.

Johnson Impeachment
(AJohn) fired someone who was on tenure, only republican, democrats looking for reason to get rid of him

Joint-Stock Company
A group of investors who bought the right to establish New World plantations from the King.

Jonathan Edwards
An American clergyman who was a leader of the Great Awakening in the 1730s.

Jones Act
(WW) 1916, Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.

Joseph McCarthy
Senator who led an effort to identify ‘communists’ who he said had infiltrated the federal government. Often used ‘guilt by association.’

Joseph Pulitzer
Owner of the “New York World,” helped originate and title the practice of sensationalistic “yellow journalism.”

Josiah Strong
“Enivisioned a “”final competition of races,”” in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious. In the book Our Country, Strong argued that the American country and people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon. Helped write the Yellow Press.”

Judicial Nationalism
The Constitution and Federal Law is superior to State Constitutions and State Law—Article VI of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the final arbiter on Constitutional Questions

Judiciary Act of 1789
It organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general’s office. This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government and thus helped to shape the future of this country.

Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories

Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
Prohibited the sale of interstate commerce goods produced by children

Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
1928 “Pact of Paris” or “Treaty for the Renunciation of War,” it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.

Kennedy Assassination
(JFK) , Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas 1963, LBJ took the oath of office

Kent State
National Guard killed 4 students who were demonstrating against the Vietnam war. Served to turn moderates against the war.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Jefferson and Madison’s response to Alien and Sedition Acts. Promoted states’ right to nullify federal laws considered unconstitutional (1799)

Key Players of Mexican War
Fremont – “Pathfinder” California, Kearny – New Mexico, Winfield Scott – Vera Cruz to Mexico City (ended war), Zachary Taylor – Buena Vista

King Cotton
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the south’s cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, “You daren’t make war against cotton!…Cotton is king!â€

King George’s War
War between British and Spaniards on American soil.

King Philip’s War
Bloodiest English-Native American conflict of the time. Leader of the Pokanokets, Metacomet, led attacks on several expanding colonist settlements. He formed an alliance with other tribes, but soon they were defeated due to lack of supplies.

King William’s War
War against French and Natiive Americans on Canadian Border (1689-97)

Kit Carson
Helped open up California, a general in the Civil War, and displacer of Navajo

Klondike Gold Rush*
(WMc) occurred in the Yukon Territory in 1897 after gold was discovered there

Knights of Labor
(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot

Know Nothing
1850s – Nativist movement – against Irish Immigrants and Roman Catholics

Korematsu v. United States
(1944) Japanese American was convicted of not reporting to internment camp. Court upheld the president’s power to intern probable threats during wartime

Ku Klux Klan
A secret society dedicated to the supremecy of White People in the U.S. Began during reconstruction, and has waxed and waned since. Burn crosses to intimidate people to leave an area.

Kyoto Accord*
(WJC), multilateral environmental agreement which called on industrial nations to cut the discharge of harmful gases

Labor during Reagan
(RR) 1980s, decline in industrial unions and less factory workers, but more service industry personnel, United Auto Workers and United Mine Workers diminished contracts, gave up wages and benefits in exchange for greater job security, mostly made of the middle class.

Land Ordinance of 1785
A red letter law which stated that disputed land the Old Northwest was to be equally divided into townships and sold for federal income. Promoted education and ended confusing legal disagreements over land.

Land Ordinance of 1787
Once a territory reached 60,000 citizens, it could become a state.

Lecopmton Constitution
Proslavery Kansans drafted constitution, but voters had to vote for it “with slavery” or “with no slavery.” Win-win situation for them, because constitution w/o slavery protected rights of slave-holding Kansans. Buchanan supported it, but Douglas made sure entire constitution went up for vote instead.

Lend Lease Act*
(FDR) , 1941 March; Congress’ act which allowed the president to lend or sell war materials to any country he deemed vital to that country’s defense,

Letter from Birmingham Jail
Letters written by MLK encouraging non-violent protest against segregation.

Liberal Republicans*
(USG) , wanted to end Reconstruction, sought honest government, and the riding of “grantism’, so they nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley, hoping that Grant would be defeated if they united against him. But Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.

Liberty Loans
(WW) , War bonds to help fund the war

Liberty Party
Antislavery party that won 16,000 votes in election of 1844, hurt Clay’s chance at victory.

Lincoln Steffens
(TR) , United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936)

Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (10% Plan)
Proclaimed a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and emancipation, and then formally erected a state government.

Lincoln’s second inaugural address
Delivered after victory in Civil War. Called for malice toward none, reconciliation and reconstruction.

Little Rock
(DDE) , Governor Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to surround Central High School to keep the nine students from entering the school, because he believed black and whites should be segregated, despite Federal laws on integration. President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the 101st Airborne Division to keep them safe

Lochner v. New York
Invalidated a New York law establishing a ten-hour day for bakers, was later repealed. (1905)

London Economic Conference
In the summer of 1933, 66 nations sent delegates to the London Economic Conference. The delegates hoped to organize a coordinated international attack on the global depression. They sought to stabilize the values of various nations’ currencies and the rates at which they could be exchanged. President Roosevelt, at first, agreed to send delegates to the conference, but had second thoughts after he realized that an international agreement to maintain the value of the dollar in terms of other currencies wouldn’t allow him to inflate the value of the dollar. He declared that America wouldn’t take place in the negotiations. Without support from the United States, the London Economic Conference fell apart. The collapse strengthened the global trend towards nationalism, while making international cooperation increasingly difficult.

Lone Star State
Perhaps one of the most recognized nicknames of any state, “The Lone Star State” comes from the symbolism of the star on the 1836 flag of the republic, the “National Standard of Texas.” The single golden star on a blue background signified Texas as an independent republic and was a reminder of the state’s struggle for independence from Mexico. A single star was part of the Long Expedition (1819), Austin Colony (1821) and several flags of the early Republic of Texas. Some say that the star represented the wish of many Texans to achieve statehood in the United States. Others say it originally represented Texas as the lone state of Mexico which was attempting to uphold its rights under the Mexican Constitution of 1824.

Los Angeles Riots
(GB1) , Outbreak of violence in 1992 caused by the acquittal of four white policemen of beating an African American = Rodney King, motorist in Los Angeles

Lou Gehrig
Famous contemporary of Babe Ruth. Later developed rare nervous system disease now known as ‘Lou Gehrig disease.’

Louis Brandeis
Supreme court justice 1916-1939, argued that economic and social facts had to take precedence over legal theory.

Louis Sullivan
Known as the father of the skyscraper because he designed the first steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor of Frank Lloyd Wright.

Louisiana Purchase
1803. Jefferson feared Napolean’s imperial ambitions so wanted to buy the land. Napolean just wanted the cash ($15 million). Effectively doubled the size of the U.S.

Lowell System
Guaranteed employees housing in respectable, chaperoned boardinghouses, cash wages, and participation in cultural and social events.

Loyalists
“Those who supported the King. They often went to battle against fellow Americans, and were called “Tories.†They were generally conservatives. They were most numerous where the Anglican Church was strongest. They were less numerous in New England, where Presbyterianism and Congregationalism flourished.”

Lucretia Mott
(AJ) , was an American Quaker minister, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of women’s rights. She is credited as the first American “feminist” in the early 1800s but was, more accurately, the initiator of women’s political advocacy.

Lusitania
(WW), British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons US decided to join the war.

Lynch law
The punishment of supposed criminals, especially by hanging, by agreement of a crowd. Used in the West as a way of maintaining minimum law and order before courts set up.

Lyndon Johnson
President 1963-69. Became president when Kennedy assassinated. Guided Kennedy’s New Frontier, including Voting Rights Act of 1965. His domestic program was the Great Society. Sharp buildup of forces in Vietnam.

Macon Act
(JM), 1810, The Macon Bill stated that if either Britain or France agreed to observe the neutrality of the United States, the US would resume trading with that country and continue the embargo on the other. The French soon agreed to American demands.

Manhattan Project
Name of program to develop atomic weapons in WWII.

Mann-Elkins Act
Further extended the regulatory ability of the ICC by letting it regulate cable and wireless companies dealing with telephone and telegraph lines.

Marbury v. Madison
1803 (TJ) , The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court’s power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789

Marcus Garvey
Black separatist and nationalist of 1920s. Helped ship Blacks back to Africa. Was later deported for fear of his influence on the black community.

Margaret Sanger
Founder in 10s and 20s of Birth Control movement. Later headed Planned Parenthood Federation.

Marquis de Lafayette
French General who helped American Revolution and later became important in French Revolution.

Martin Van Buren
Supported by Jackson and became his successor, but did little as president and is often forgotten.

Mary Lyon
(AJ) in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary

Mary McLeod Bethune
Founded National Council of Negro Women, promoted teaching of black history

Maryland
Declared by Lord Baltimore as haven of religious tolerance for all Christians. Became first major Catholic enclave in the New World.

Maryland Toleration Act
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland. Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland, and this protected the Catholics from Protestant rage of sharing the land. Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.

Mashall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.

Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the first settlements in New England. Established in 1629 and led under John Winthrop, it became a major Puritan colony.It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community

Massachussets Body of Liberties?
(1641): First established legal code in New England. Compiled by the Puritan minister Nathaniel Ward.

Mayflower
The ship that carried the pilgrims to America, landed near Plymouth Rock.

Mayflower compact
An agreement reached before landing. Bound Pilgrims to live in a civil society according to their own laws. First written consitution in North America.

Maysville Road Veto
Jackson withheld funds from localized roads and vetoed a bill for improving the Maysville Road (local road connected to interstate). This was a great setback for the internal improvements of the American society.

McCarran Walter Act*
(HH) 1929 , immigration law that discriminated against Asians and south Europeans

McCarthyism
Extreme opposition to communism shown by McCarthy.

McCulloch v. Maryland
Ruled state has no right to control an agency of the federal government.

McKinley Tariff Act
A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.

Meat Inspection Act
Response to “The Jungle,” created strict sanitary requirements for meat, began a quality rating system, and provisioned for a federal department to inspect meat.

Medgar Evers
Was shot by a white man the night of Kennedy’s television address.

Medicaid*
(LBJ) , medical expense assitance provide by the state goverment to needy families

Medicare
(LBJ) 1965 , a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older

Memorial Day massacre of 1937?
At the Memorial Day massacre of 1937, police shot and killed ten demonstrators. The incident took place during the “Little Steel Strike” of 1937 in United States. The incident arose after U.S. Steel signed a union contract, but smaller steel manufacturers (called “Little Steel”), including Republic Steel, refused to do so. In protest, the Steel Workers Organization Committee of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) called a strike. On Memorial Day, hundreds of sympathizers gathered at Sam’s Place, headquarters of the Steel Workers Organizing Committee. As the crowd marched across the prairie towards the Republic Steel Mill, a line of Chicago policeman blocked their path. When the foremost protestors argued their right to continue, police fired on the crowd. As the crowd fled, police bullets killed ten people.

Merit System*
(CAA), A system of public employment in which selection and promotion depend on demonstrated performance rather than political patronage.

Merrill Tariff Act
This increased tariff rates by about 5 to 10%, but war soon drove these rates even higher.

Mexican Cession
Texas, California, all area in between.

Mexican War?
(1846-1848) A war between the United States and Mexico, resulting in the cession by Mexico of lands now constituting all or most of the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado.

Midnight Judges
(JA), 1801, , The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

Midwest Folloding
(WJC) Miss. River overflowed, so Federal Emergency Management Agency work with state and local, gave up levees, cooperated with nature more

Military Base Closing
(WJC) 70 major bases were closed by Congress, politicians have no control

Military Reconstruction Act
Imposed martial law on the South, called for new state constitutional conventions, forced the states to allow blacks to vote for convention delegates, and required each state to ratify 14th Amendment and sent its constitution to Congress for approval.

Militia movements of the 1990s
Self-sytled militias in western states who mix racism with anti-semitism and conspiracy theories and hostility towards any government.

Millard Fillmore
1850-53 Took over for Taylor, had to deal with North and South hostilities.

Mills Bill*
(GC) 1887, lowered tariff and put some goods on the free list, failed

Minutemen
Militia during the Revolutionary war ready to fight at a moment’s notice alongside regular troops.

Missouri Compromise
Admitted Missouri as a slave state, Maine as a free state and prohibited Kansas and Nebraska from becoming slave states. The Dred Scot decision ruled this compromise unconstitutional.

Molasses Act of 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.

Monitor vs. Merrimack
Battle during the civil war showing wooden warships were now obsolete

Monroe doctrine
Statement that the US would not tolerate intervention by European nations in the affairs of nations in the Americas. And US would not intervene in European colonies.

Moon Landing
(RN) 1957, Sputnik by Russia, US had Explorer I, and Neil Armstrong had Apollo 11

Mormon Church
After facing extreme hostility in the Midwest, Mormons moved to Utah and established their influential church there.

Morrill Act
This increased tariff rates by about 5 to 10%, but war soon drove these rates even higher.

Morrill Land Grant Act
Provided money for agricultural colleges.

Moscow Conference*
1943, (FDR), US, GB, and USSR, talked about principle of sovereign

Muckrakers
Authors in late 19th/early 20th century who specialized in exposing corruption in business and government.

Mugwamps
(GC) , a group within the Republican party who could not accept Blaine and supported the Democrats

Muhammad Ali
Flamboyant boxing Champion in 1960s and 70s. Converted to Islam, refused to go to Vietnam.

Muller v. Oregon
1908 Ruled laws to protect women workers were constitutional.

Munn V. Illinois
(1877) United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads

My Lai massacre
Massacre by US soldiers of innocent villagers during Vietnam. Became a symbol for those opposed to the war in Vietnam.

NAACP
Founded in 1909 by a group of black and white intellectuals. Stands for National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Founded in 1909 to improve living conditions for inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights for Blacks.

Nashville Convention
Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.

Nat Turner
Led first effective and sustained slave revolt in American history. His rebellion demonstrated that not all slaves accept their circumstances passively.

Nathan Hale
Executed by the British during the Revolutionary War who famously said ‘I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.’

National Banking System
(AL) , Authorized by Congress in 1863 to establish a standard bank currency. Banks that joined the system could buy bonds and issue paper money. First significant step toward a national bank. (North)

National Comsumers League
Made female comsumers push for laws safeguarding women and children in the work place.

National Housing Act
(FDR) 1934 , June 28, 1934- It created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. It was designed to stop the tide of bank foreclosures on family homes, it instead gave loans

National Housing Act #2
(FDR) 1937 , 1937-Wagner=Sponser. Rasied $500mill for urban slum clearance & public housing projects

National Industrial Recovery Act
(FDR) 1933, focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA, established Public Works Administration and National Recovery Administration to help economic recovery from Great Depression; NRA was ruled unconstitutional in Schechter Poultry v. US

Wagner Act
(FDR) A 1935 law, also known as the National Labor Relations Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations. *, Made sure workers were treated and payed well and not getting abused by their business. *this law created the National Labor Relations Board to enforce the law and supervise shop elections

National Labor Union?
The first national labor federation in the United States. Founded in 1866 and dissolving in 1872, it paved the way for other organizations, such as the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor.

National Municipal League
Organization to improve city standards and reform the system.

National Origins Act of 1924
Immigration law that was blatantly discriminatory against Eastern and Southern Europeans and virtually excluded Asians.

National Service Trust Act
(WJC) college = everyone, high school graduates volunteer to earn minimum wage, affordable student loans directly by govt.

National War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.

National Woman Suffrage Association
Organization founded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, fought for women’s equality in courts and workplaces as well as the polls.

National Youth Administration
(FDR) , (NYA)1935, provided education jobs counseling and recreation for young people. part time positions at schools for students allowed for aid in h.s. college and grad school. part time jobs for drop outs

National-Republicans
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic – Republican Party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson’s radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830’s.

Nativism
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840’s and 1850’s in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.

Naturalization Act
1798, (JA) Act that increased the time to become a US citizen from 5 to 14 years

Navajos
Most numerous Native American tribe in the U.S. Located in the Southwest. Forced to move in 1864.

Navigation Acts?
The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted foreign shipping. Resentment against the Navigation Acts was a cause of the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the American Revolutionary War.

Nelson Rockefeller
Govenor of NY and VP to Ford. Considered a moderate Republican.

Neutrality Act 1935
(FDR) , reaction from Italy’s act on Ethopia, no selling arms, The 1935 act, signed on August 31, 1935, imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war. It also declared that American citizens traveling on warring ships traveled at their own risk. The act was set to expire after six months

Neutrality Act 1936
(FDR) forbade loans or credit for belligerents

Neutrality Act 1937
(FDR) The Neutrality Act of 1937, passed in May, included the provisions of the earlier acts, this time without expiration date, and extended them to cover civil wars as well. Further, U.S. ships were prohibited from transporting any passengers or articles to belligerents, and U.S. citizens were forbidden from traveling on ships of belligerent nations, however private ships can come at on risk

Neutrality Act of 1939
(FDR) European democracies might buy American war materials on a “cash-and-carry basis”; improved American moral and economic position

Neutrality Proclamation
Washington’s declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria, and Prussia. Washington’s Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.

New Amsterdam
City founded by Dutch settlers that later became NYC.

New Deal
Program of FDR to get out of Great Depression. Included Social Security System, Tennessee Valley Authority and Works Progress Administration

New Economic Policy
(RN), Phase 1, at least 90 days, phase 2, wage and price controls for 90 day period, rate of inflation incresae of 2% to 3%. wage gains through collective bargaining were cut of labor members, which was unfair since there were no provisions for cutting profits.

New England Confederation
New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown’s authorization.

New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson’s domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.

New Frontier
JFK’s slogan to describe his goals and policies, in particular equality of opportunity for all.

New Immigration
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.

New Jersey
Colony granted to friends of King.

New Left
Radical movement in 60s and 70s which opposed the military industrial complex and US involvement in Vietnam. Also urged public attention of blacks and poor.

New Nationalism
Theo Roosevelt’s system in which the government would cordinate economic activity – government would regulate business

Newlands Reclamation Act
Insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. Funding came from public-land sales and was used to build irrigation projects.

Ngo Dinh Diem
Leader of the pro-Western government in South Vietnam.

Niagara Movement
A group of black and white reformers who organized the NAACP in 1909

Nicaragua Dilemma
(RR), 1979, Sandinistas took over, Reagan no look, so he hired Contras, but Congress didn’t want another Vietnam, however later found out the US govt was in Nicaragua’s harbors trying to crippe its economy, and soon many became concerned whether it would make Soviet Union mad and strain European relations, so Congress voted to cut off military

Nicholas Biddle
Became the Second National Bank’s president, and he made the bank’s loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn’t destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.

Nicholas Trist
Sent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.

Nikita Khrushchev
Stalin’s successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.

Nine Power Pact
(WH) , Signed by the United States, France, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, Belgium, China, Netherlands, and Portugal. This treaty, created during the Washington Naval Conference, was third in a set of three treaties created during the conference. These treaties were all ways that President Harding tried to keep the Untied States isolated. The Treaty made the open door policy international law. The United States and Japan replaced Great Britain and Russia as major powers in the south Pacific

Nineteenth Amendment
(WW) , granted women the right to vote in 1920 (Susan B Anthony started campaign)

Nisei
Parents Japanese, but born abroad. Were largely inturned during WWII.

Nixon’s War on Inflation(RN),
(RN), 1971, no longer held long-held position against govt controls, now prices were frozen, dollar no longer valued as gold, it became floating dollar, federal jobs cuts

Noah Webster
Created American English. Dictionary named after him.

Nobel Peace Prize for Carter
2002, Habitat for Humanity, helped low income families

Nominating Convention
(AJ) , meeting at which a political party chooses a candidate, religious qualification dropped

Non Intercourse Act
1809 (TJ), 1809 law that allowed Americans to trade with all nations except Britain and France.

Nonintercourse Act, Force Act, Macon’s Bill #2
Replaced Embargo Act, if either Britian or France repealed their restrictions on US trade, US would embargo other.

Normalcy
The calm Harding wanted to return to after the idealism of Wilson.

Norris LaGuardia and the Anti-Injunction Act
1932-Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Injunction Act, which protected the rights of striking workers, by severely restricting the federal courts’ power to issue injunctions against strikes and other union activities.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(HT) 1949, created in 1949 organization whose members include the US, Canada, most western european nations and turkey all of whom agreedd to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against one as a war against all.

Northwest Ordinance
The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation

Nothern Securities Co. v. U.S.
Upheld Roosevelt’s antitrust suit, ordered the Northern Securities Co. to be dissolved. Jolted Wall Street, angered big business, increased Roosevelt’s popularity.

NSC-68
The National Security Council Memorandum #68 said the that US should quadruple defense spending. This marked a major step in the militarization of America’s foreign policy and reflected a sense of almost limitless possibility that pervaded postwar American society.

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
(JFK) 1963, Wake of Cuban Missile Crisis (climax of Cold War, closest weve ever come to nuclear war) Soviets & US agree to prohibit all above-ground nuclear tests, both nations choose to avoid annihilating the human race w/ nuclear war, France and China did not sign

Nullification
The doctrine that states can set aside federal laws championed by Calhoun. Foreshadowed Jefferson’s draft of the Kentucky Resolutions

Nullification crisis
Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void, Jackson responded with Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff; John C Calhoun was a big advocate

Oberlin College
(AJ) , first college to teach women and African Americans

Office of Price Administration
Government agency which successful combatted inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.

Oil in Mexico
(CC) now Mexico saying the mineral wealth belonged to there govt, America agreed as long as their property rights weren’t disturbed, Obregon become President, then Calles, (CC) sends Morrow to settle dispute

Old Republicans
(TJ) thought he deserted Republican principles

Oliver H. Kelley*
(GC), considered the “Father” of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as “The Grange”). a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good.

Oliver Wendell Holmes
Supreme court justice 1902-1930. He viewed the law as a social instrument, rather than a set of abstract principles. Famous decision on preserving freedom of speech except when clear and present danger.

Oneida
Group in NY that shockingly lived a communal life and shared everything, even marriages.

Open Door Notes
Policy that explained the importance of American commercial influence on foreign policies, but urged world powers to respect Chinese rights and ideal of fair competition.

Open Door Policy*
(WMc), Caleb Cushing said US had right of China, John Hay , A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Operation Desert Shield
(GB1) Bush place embargo on Iraq, put miltary in Saudi, West Europe and Arabs now against Iraq

Operation Desert Storm
(GB1) , Deadlines pass and Sadam doesnt move. Op desert shield becomes operation desert storm. Phases of the war = 1-air attack on Sadam 2-troops push him out of Kuwait.

Operation Just Cause
(GB1) Dec.1989;Bush’s invasion of Panama

Operation Overload
(FDR) , Name given to the planned Allied invasion of France

Operation Rolling Thunder
A full-scale bombing attack against North Vietnam. There were approximately 184,000 Americans involved.

Oregon trail
The route over which settlers traveled to Oregon in the 1840s and 1850s.

Oregon Treaty
British were tired of fighting for Oregon, proposed 49 degree line to Polk. Senate accepted. (1846)

Ostend Manifesto
(FP) 1854, a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S., found out, Pierce repudiated

Pacho Villa
1916 – attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding him

Palmer Raids
The 1918’s and 1921’s were a series of controversial raids on American citizens and resident and non-resident aliens in the United States, based on their assumed political beliefs.

Panama and Noregia
(GB1) after Omar Torrijos comes dominating Manuel Noriega, charged by US for drug trafficking, US sanctions attempted military coup (Operation Just Cause, largest since Vietnam), Noriega fled and surrendered

Panama Canal
(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.

Panama Canal Treaty
(JEC), decision whether extend for a considerable period or exterminate, decided the latter since he didn’t want bitter relations with Panama

Panay Incident
(FDR) Dec. 12, 1937, The Panay incident was when Japan bombed a American gunboat that was trying to help Americans overseas. This greatly strained U.S-Japanese relations and pushed the U.S further away from isolationism even though Japan apologized.

Panic of 1819?
The Panic of 1819 was the first major financial crisis in the United States. It featured widespread foreclosures, bank failures, unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing. It marked the end of the economic expansion that had followed the War of 1812. The worst of the crisis was over by 1824.

Panic of 1837
(MVB) , When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.

Panic of 1873
(USG) , Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant’s poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver

Panic of 1893
(GC2), Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.

Panic of 1907?
The Panic of 1907 was a relatively serious economic downturn in the United States caused by a New York credit crunch that spread across the nation and led to the closings of banks and businesses. The severity of the downturn was such that it prompted the United States Congress to form the Federal Reserve System. It was the fourth Panic in 34 years. In March 1907, the stock market crashed because of over-expansion and poor speculation. Money became extremely tight. A second crash occurred in October 1907, and was precipitated when, using money borrowed from F. Augustus Heinze, Heinze’s brothers failed in their attempts to corner United Copper. To bring relief to the situation, United States Secretary of the Treasury George B. Cortelyou ponied up $35 million of Federal money to quell the storm. Complete ruin of the national economy was averted when J.P. Morgan stepped in to meet the crisis. Morgan organized a team of bank and trust executives. The team redirected money between banks, secured further international lines of credit, and bought plummeting stocks of healthy corporations. Within a few weeks the panic passed, with only minimal effects on the country. By February 1908, confidence in the economy was restored.

Patriots
Those who supported rebellion and were called “Whigs.†Patriot militias constantly harassed small British detachments. They were generally the younger generation, like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry.

Paul Revere
Rode through MA warning people that the British were coming at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War.

Payne Aldrich Tariff
(WT) 1909, , Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).

Peace Corps
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America

Peace in Nicaragua
(GB1) 5 central american countries end the civil war their, violeta chamotto won presidency over sadinistas in 1990, now free to farm land

Peggy Eaton affair
Scandal that involved Jackson’s Secretary of War Eaton and his wife, Peggy, the daughter of a boardinghouse keeper.

Pendleton Civil Service Act
(1883): Did away with the “spoils system” and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.

Pennsylvania
Established by William Penn, it was a colony founded for the Quakers and practiced religous toleration and civil liberties.

Pennsylvania Dutch
Swiss and German settlers of PA. Known for tidy farms. Many were Amish.

Pentagon Papers
Classified study of Vietnam war leaked to the NYT. Supreme court upheld the right of the newspapers to publish the documents.

Pequot War
After Pequots attacked Puritan settlement, killing nine, the colonists responded by burning Pequot village, killing 400.

Perry/Japan
Perry pursuaded Japanese to sign treaty that opened up commerce and marked the beginning of a tumultuous relationship.

Persian Gulf War
(GB1), 1991, a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders

Personal Liberty Laws
(FP) , Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves

Pet Banks
(AJ) , State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.

Peter Stuyvesant
Dutch govenor who surrendered New Netherlands to English who renamed it New York.

Peter Zenger Case
John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, protested the royal governor in 1734-35. He was put on trial for this “act of treason.” The jury went against the royal governor and ruled Zenger innocent. This set the standards for democracy and, most importantly, for the freedom of the press.

Phony War
The months following the collapse of Poland were known as the “phony war.”

Pilgrims
A group of persecuted English Puritans who arrived on the Mayflower.

Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy
(WT) Pinchot found out that Ballinger had taken a series of ‘no-bid’ contracts out (to friends, with the promise of substantial kickbacks to Ballinger) companies intent on mining coal on federally protected land. Pinchot went to Taft, Teddy Roosevelts hand picked successor, and informed him. Taft basically told Pinchot that it was ok, and that the contracts would be allowed to stand. This caused a heated argument between Pinchot and Taft with Pinchot getting fired by the President.

Pinckney’s Treaty
Gave America what they demanded from the Spanish: free navigation of the Mississippi, large area of north Florida. (Helped America to have unexpected diplomatic sucess) (1795)

Platt Amendment
(WMc) 1) Cuba makes no treaty with others if in endangers independence 2) can’t borrow money if they can’t pay back 3)US can get involved with Cuba affairs 4)US has navy there

Plymouth Bay Colony
Founded by the Pilgrims in 1620. They were headed towards Virginia, but their ship was blown off course.

Political Action Committee
(FDR), committee formed by a special-interest group to raise money for their favorite political candidates

Pontiac’s Rebellion
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac’s Rebellion in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Pontiac’s Rebellion led to Britain’s Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Pony Express
A system of mail service between Missouri and California.

Pools
The first industrial pools in the 80’s tried to fix the price of their goods (be it salt, whiskey, cattle, iron, oil …) no matter the circumstances, to a level high enough to earn them a nice living, but not too high so as not to attract outside competitors.

Populism
“A political doctrine or philosophy that aims to defend the interests of the common people against an entrenched, self-serving or corrupt elite. Flourished among western farmers. Based largely on its opposition to the gold standard”

Populist Party
(BH) , Founded 1891 – James B. Weaver, problem was overproduction, called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers

Portsmouth Treaty
(TR) , 1905, Roosevelt and representatives from Russia and Japan work out treaty, Japan takes over Korea, Roosevelt wins Nobel Peace Prize

Postal Service
(RN) establish a postal service that was efficient and self supporting, greatly lessened political interference. 1970

Powhatan Confederacy
A group of local tribes who taught the English how to grow cropts. Saved Englishmen, and when princess Pocahontas married John Rolfe, tensions were eased.

Presidential Nominating Conventions
(GF) 1976, James E. Carter and Ronald Reagan

Presidential Succession Act*
(HT) , allowed for the speaker of the house to take over as president if there is no vice president

Problem of the Gold Reserve
(GC2) ppl used cheaper money (silver) and kept sounder money (gold), soon with the repeal of the Sherman SIlver Purchast Act, gold came into the Treasury, this profited bankers

Problems in Africa
(RR), drought and famine = US humanitarian efforts, apartheid = Americans apartheid, soon Nelson Mandela (opposed apartheid) released by F.W. de Klerk, soon got Nobel Prize and became president

Problems in the MIddle East
(RR), American Marines Lebanon suffered losses but Muslim groups, so Americans teamed up with Israeli to evacuate the Marines, Israel announced withdrawal of troops and Jerusalem conceded, Operatio nPeace for Galilee ended PLO attacks from Lebanon, Israel under Ameican pressure to improve its economic performance to get their assistance, then TWA jetliners was hijacked by Lebanese Shiite Muslim demanding Israel to relase 700 Muslim hostages, so Reagan faced AMal militamen and Party of God, soon successful negotiations with Syria and Lebanon, but now start terrorist attacks

Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
Progressive Party created by TR, advocated primary elections, women’s suffrage, and prohibition of child labor.

Progressive education
Educational movement focusing on educating the child, not the subject. Rejects traditional approaches for more practical ones.

Progressive Era in the US?
1880s to start of WWI.

Progressive movement
1920s movement that held that irresponsible actions by the rich were corrupting both public and private life. Called for trust busting, and progressive income tax.

Progressive Party*
led by Henry Wallace, wanted to expand New Deal and good relatiosn with USSR.

Progressive Republican Party
Roosevelt ran under this party, it was a third party.

Prohibition
Outlawing of alcohol in 1920-33, enforced by the Volstead Act. Later repealed by new constitutional amendment in 1933. Example of how more harm than good can come from enactment of laws sure to be widely disobeyed.

Proprietary Colony
Colony with chartered ownership given to a proprietor. (Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware)

Protective Tariff
Imposed 8% on the value of dutiable imports. Passed to increase revenue and protect small industries. Due in part to Hamilton’s plan.

Public Works Administration
(FDR) , 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.

Pueblos
Native American people in AZ and NM who lived in peublos.

Puerto Rico, Samoa, Guam
Islands (along with the Philippines) given to the US for $20 million from Spain after Treaty of Paris.

Pullman Strike
(GC) 1894, , Strike of 1894. Eugene V. Debs organized the American Railway Union (150000 members). Maintained a company town, and when the Depression hit, wages were cut one third, but the rent and living expenses remained the same. Strikers overturned Pullman cars, paralyzed railway traffic from Chicago to Pacific Coast. Eventually, bayonet militia came in from Washington from Cleveland himself. Strikers were imprisoned without jury trials. He was charged since he interfered with mailing service, The beginning of the end of company towns. People who helped keep law and order was Mayor Hopkins and Governor Altgeld

Pump Priming
(HH) the spending of government funds in commercial enterprises, to stimulate the national economy

Purchase of Alaska*
(AJohn) , In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called “Seward’s Folly” and “Seward’s Icebox”, the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska’s resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.

Pure Food and Drug Act
(TR) 1906 , 1906 – Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the “patent” drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

Puritans
A group of religious reformists who wanted to “purify” the Anglican Church based on the ideas of John Calvin. Notable voyages were in 1620 (Pilgrims) and 1629 (Massachusetts Bay Colony).

Quakers
They believed human religious institutions were, for the most part, unnecessary. They believed they could receive revelation directly from God and placed little importance on the Bible. They were pacifists and declined to show customary deference to their alleged social superiors. Their aggressiveness in denouncing established institutions brought them trouble in both Britain and America. They opposed slavery and favored decent treatment of Native Americans.Elements of this culture would play a role in shaping the characterizations of a United States that valued independence and social equality.

Quarantine Speech*
(FDR) 1937, , The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan’s invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.

Quebec Act
1774 — It was passed by Parliament. It alarmed the colonies because it recognized the Roman-Catholic Church in Quebec. Some colonials took it as a sign that Britain was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies. The First Continental Congress met to discuss their concerns over Parliament’s dissolutions of the New York (for refusing to pay to quarter troops), Massachusetts (for the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. The First Continental Congress rejected the plan for a unified colonial government stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilance. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion.

Queen Anne’s War
British vs. French (1702-13)

Queen Liliuokalani/Hawaii
Queen of Hawaii who disliked Americans and was overthrown when sugar prices dropped. Planters wanted the independent Republic of Hawaii and requested annexation from the US.

Quids*
(TJ) old democratic republicans who believed was of 1812 violated democratic prinapals

Quirin affair?
8 germans who had lived in America and returned to Germany before WWII snuck into the US to sabatoge the war industries. They were caught and executed by a military tribunal established by FDR.

Radical Reconstruction
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war

Radical Republicans
(AJohn) , Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war

Radical Whigs
The Radical Whigs were “a group of British political commentators” associated with the British Whig faction who were at the forefront of Radicalism. They played a significant role in the development of the American Revolution, as their republican writings were widely read by the American colonists, many of whom were convinced by their reading that they should be very watchful for any threats to their liberties. Subsequently, when the colonists were indignant about their perceived lack of democratic representation and taxes such as the Stamp Act, Sugar Act, and Tea Act, the colonists broke away from the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United States.

Ralph Bunche
African American diplomat who won Noble Prize for helping negotiate armistice between Israelis and Arabs.

Ralph Waldo Emerson
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.

Reaganomics
(RR) The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side(cut income taxes), and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth, umemployed started going back to work

Recalls
The people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. Made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.

Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934
It was designed to lower the tariff, and it aimed at both relief and recovery. The president was empowered to lower existing rates by as much as 50% provided that the other country involved would do the same. During these years of trade agreements, U.S. foreign trade increased dramatically. The act paved the way for the American-led free-trade international economic system that took shape after WWII.

Reconstruction
The period after the Civil War during which the South was reintegrated. Southern governments often included carpetbaggers. Former officials in the Confederacy were banned from being in government. Once a State passed 13th and 14th amendment, it was readmitted to the Union. Ended in 1877 when troops left. Was viewed as more harsh on Southerners than Lincoln called for. Ill feeling then lead to formation of KKK and hatred among Southerners for the Republican Party.

Reconstruction Act of 1867
Pushed through congress over Johnson’s veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the south and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district. Law that threw out the southern state governments that had refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment

Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.

Red Scare
Rounding up of immigrants of radical political views in 1919 and 1920 in wake of Russian Revolution.

Redemption (redeemers)
When the south was returned to Conservative Democratic rule after the Radical Republicans of Reconstruction

Referendums
A law passed by the legislature could be put on the ballot can for the people to approval/veto. Made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.

Reform movements
Movements supported by a group of people to change society for the better regarding moral, religious, and social issues.

Regulators Uprising
A movement during the 1760’s by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.

Relief and Construction Act*
(HH) $3 billion towards public works of a self-liquidating type (once completed, would bring revenue to pay for itself)

Relief, recovery, reform
The first step in FDR’s relief program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chief measure designed to promote recovery was the National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most often classified as reform measures were those designed to guarantee the rights of labor and limit the powers of businesses.

Religious Right
A coalition of right wing Protestant fundamentalist who have become increasingly active in politics since Roe v. Wade.

Remember the Maine
A slogan of the Spanish-American war referring to the sinking of a battleship in Cuba. Stirred up by yellow journalism, this lead McKinley to declare war.

Republican Party (Lincoln)
In 1854, it formed from the antislavery Whigs and Democrats, the Free-Soilers and various other groups. Ran Lincoln in 1860 and won.

Republicanism
“Idea made by Paine. Idea that there should be a “republic†where senators, governors, and judges should have their power from the consent of the people. He laced his ideas with biblical imagery, familiar to common folk. His ideas about rejecting monarchy and empire and embrace and independent republic fell on receptive ears in America, though it should be noted that these ideas already existed.”

Republicans 1780-1801
States’ rights, strict interpretation, encouraged agriculture and rural life, South and West, France, Civil liberties and trust in people

Reservationists
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made – led by Henry Cabot Lodge

Resolution Trust Corporation
(GB1) managed the assets and liabilities of institutions that became insovlent between 1989 and 1992.

Resumption Act
1879 – Congress said that greenbacks were redeemable for gold, but no one wanted to redeem them for face gold value. Because paper money was much more convenient than gold, they remained in circulation.

Revolution of 1800
What Jefferson considered his election to be because

Revolutionary War
War for American independence from Britain. Started with the Battle of Lexington and ended with the Battle of Concord. Americans aided by French.

Rhode Island
Established by Roger Williams, it practiced religious tolerance and did require voters to be church members.

Richard Byrd
Explorer of North and South poles.

Richard Daley
Chicago mayor and political boss 50s-70s. Credited with helping elect JFK in Illinois and for using force against protestors during Democratic convention in 1968.

Richard Nixon
Prosecution of Alger Hiss. VP of Eisenhower. Lost to JFK. President in 1968. Restored relations with China. Withdrew from Vietnam. Watergate scandal led to his resignation.

Richard Olney
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn’t stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.

Roanoke
Lost Colony. Founded by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1587 in current North Carolina, disappeared within three years.

Roaring Twenties
1920s era of freewheeling popular culture. People defied prohibition and indulged in new styles of dancing and dressing, rejected many traditional moral standards.

Robert E. Lee
Commanding General of Confederate troops during the Civil War. Victory in Chancellorsville but loss in Gettysburg.

Robert Kennedy
Attorney General and champion of Civil Rights Movement and foe of organized crime. Was assassinated while running for President by a Palestinian.

Robert La Follette
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.

Robert McNamara
Kennedy’s Defense Secretary who helped to come up with and push the “flexible response” strategy.

Robert Peary
Thought to be the first to reach the North Pole.

Roger B. Taney
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S. As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.

Roger Williams
Puritan leader, expelled from MA for being too religiously tolerant. Went on to found colony of Rhode Island as place of total tolerance.

Ronald Reagan
1981-1989,”Great Communicator” Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with consevative Democrats or “boll weevils” , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presdiential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman)

Roosevelt Corollary
Addition to Monroe Doctrine, justified U.S. intervention in Latin American affairs if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action.

Roosevel’ts “Quarantine” Speech
1937 – In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations.

Roosevelt’s Court packing plan
FDR expanding the size of the supreme court in order to change its balance in favor of the New Deal.

Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 – Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other’s territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China. (TR) Japan recognized American power in Phillippines and US recognized Japan’s power in Manghuria and Korea

Rosenberg case
Couple excecuted for allegedly being Soviet Spies. Some thought falsely accused in McCarthyism.

Rough Riders
Nickname of cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt in Spanish American war. Victorious charge in Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba.

Royal Colony
Colony governed directly by King. Almost all colonies became royal at some point. (Virginia, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, North Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Carolina, Georgia)

Rush-Bagot Agreement
Severely limited British and American naval guard on Great Lakes. (1817)

Russo-Japanese War
War between two foriegn powers that Roosevelt helped negiotate a peace treaty for, and recieved a Nobel Peacy Prize for his work

Rutherford B. Hayes
1877-1881, Republican, against Tilden (played role to crush Tweed Ring), ended Reconstruction through election bargain

Sacco and Vanzetti
Two anarchists executed in early 1920s for two murders. Liberals and Anarchists around the world thought they were executed for their political views.

Salem witch trials
Trials and execution of 20 women for allegedly practicing witchcraft. Gives rise to saying ‘witch hunt’.

SALT
(RN), Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- A pact that served to freeze the numbers of long-range nuclear missles for five years in 1972. This treaty between Nixon (U.S.), China, and the Soviet Union served to slow the arms race that had been going on between these nations since World War II.

SALT II
(JEC) 1979, Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.’s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.

Salutary Neglect
Throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the English government did not enforce those trade laws that most harmed the colonial economy. The purpose of salutary neglect was to ensure the loyalty of the colonists in the face of the French territorial and commercial threat in North America. The English ceased practicing salutary neglect following British victory in the French and Indian War.

Sam Houston
Led Texans in their struggle for independence from Mexico. Later became govenor and removed when he opposed secession.

Samuel (Golden Rule) Jones
American Political reformer – advanced employee-management relations

Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Adams was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..

Samuel Gompers
Founded AFL, wanted to achieve social reform through better standards for laborers, opposed political involvement.

San Francisco Conference
(FDR) 1945 – This conference expanded the drafts of the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conferences and adopted the “United Nations” Charter.

Saratoga
In 1777, British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link up with General Howe in New York City, thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777 at the Battle of Saratoga, surrendering the entire British Army of the North.

Savings and Loan Associations
(GB1) A financial institution that lends money in which depositors maintain savings and checking accounts = insolvent, poor security, Bush did bailout to find more insolvents, for now insurance provided by Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation

Scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners

Scandal at HUD
(GB1) former top officials milked low income housing rehab programs by selling their services as “consultants” to developers seeking valuable contracts, $5.7 million been paid in “consulting fees”, 20 receipients, Jack Kemp investigates

SCLC
Headed by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a coalition of churches and Christians organizations who met to discuss civil rights.

Scopes trial
Scopes taught theory of evolution in violation of TN state law in 1925. Trial seen as sign of deep conflict between science and religion.

Scotish Irish
A group of Scots who fled to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.

SDS
Formed in 1962 in Port Huron, Michigan, SDS condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, and called for a participatory Democracy.

Secession
After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.

Second Bank of the United States
(AJ) , chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.

Second Bull Run
(AL) , McClellan gets his butt kick and the South defeats North, 1862

Second Continental Congress
Met just after first battles of war. Established Continental Army, printed money, created government offices, and chose George Washington to lead army.

Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.

Sectional Tariff*
1824, (JMon)was a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry in the face of cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods., Calhoun thought South suffered

Sectionalism
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South, and West). This can (and did) lead to conflict.

Sedition Act
1798, (JA) , made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government

Selective Service Act*
(FDR) 1940, first peace time draft, 21 through 35 years old

Self Governing Colony
Colony allowed to self-govern. (Connecticut, Rhode Island)

Seminoles
A tribe of Native Americans who inhabited Florida. Lost war and were removed to west of the Mississippi in 1840s.

Senator Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism)
(HT) , claimed he had a list of 205 people who were communist in the state department. He said there were communist in the army, that’s when he went to far

Seneca Falls Convention
Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)

Service Employees International Union (SEIU)?
The SEIU was founded in 1921 in Chicago, currently the fastest growing labor union in the United States, representing 1.8 million workers in about 100 occupations in the United States and Canada. The main divisions are Health Care (almost 50% of the union’s membership, including hospital, home care and nursing home workers.), Public Services (government employees), and Property Services (including janitors and security officers). With over 300 local branches, SEIU is affiliated with the Change to Win Federation.

Settlement houses
Social and Cultural centers established in slum areas in the 1890s and early 1900s.

Seventeenth Amendment
(WW) , direct election of senators

Seward Purchase of Alaska
Paid $7.2 million for “Seward’s icebox,” but later proved to be useful addition.

Shakers
“Universal Friends” – Promoted celibacy (died out unsurprisingly)

Sharecropping
A system of farming that developed in the South after the Civil War. Laborers were given a third of the crop.

Shawnees
Tribe of Native Americans from the Mid-West. Joined the British against the Americans in war of 1812.

Shay’s Rebellion
An uprising in MA in 1786, whose occurance demonstrated the need for a stronger national government.

Sherman Antitrust Act
Federal law passed in 1890s against Monopolies. Used against Standard Oil and American Tobacco Company.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Forced the treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver each month. However, the price of silver did not rise and precious gold was being drained away from the treasury while cheap silver piled up. Led to panic of 1893.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act (repeal of)
1890 – Directed the Treasury to buy even larger amounts of silver that the Bland-Allison Act and at inflated prices. The introduction of large quantities of overvalued silver into the economy lead to a run on the federal gold reserves, leading to the Panic of 1893. Repealed in 1893. 1893 – Act repealed by President Cleveland to protect gold reserves.

Sherman’s march to the sea
March by Union General in Georgia that sought to destroy anything the South could use for the war (railroads, factories, houses, livestock, etc.)

Shot heard round the world
A phrase from poem by Emerson about the first shots of the first battle of the Revolutionary War, encouraging worldwide movements towards democracy.

Silent majority
Term used by Nixon to indicate his belief that the majority supported his policies, not the vocal protesters.

Sioux
Native Americans in the Dakotas. Massacred Custer at Battle of Little Bighorn. Many were later massacred at Wounded Knee in 1890.

Sioux Wars
Series of clashes that insued as railroads intruded into Native American lands.

Sit ins
A form of non-violent protest in the 60s. Would sit in public place and refuse to leave. Provoked arrest, which was then used to gain attention to the demonstrators cause.

Sitting Bull
Sioux chief who took up arms against settlers in the Great Planes. Present at the Battle of Little Bighorn.

Sixteenth Amendment
(WW) , The constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax.

Slidell Mission
John Slidell was sent to Mexico City in 1845 to offer a $25 million maximum for California and other territory. Mexicans rejected.

Smith Act of 1940********
(HT) , made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the US government by force or violence

Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
Let the government seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes.

SNCC
Organized in the fall of 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote.

Social Changes during (GC)
more industrial nation, child labor soared

Social Gospel
Movement aimed at making churches more responseive to social problems, such as poverty. Said Christ’s message was also about social reform. Movement led by Washington Gladden – taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization

Social Issues under Reagan
New Right’s push for organized prayer public schools and ban on abortion ((RR) against) first female in SC, (RR) also opposed Equal Rights Movement

Social Reforms
Abolition of debtors’ prisons and changes in criminal codes allow people to be punished but also rehabilitated. Reforms of insane asylums. Pacificism — American Peace Society 1828. American Temperance Society 1826. Women’s Rights Movements — Seneca Falls 1848. Utopian societies

Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

Sons of Liberty
An organization established in 1765, these members (usually in the middle or upper class) resisted the Stamp Act of 765. Even though the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766, the Sons of Liberty combined with the Daughters of Liberty remained active in resistance movements.

South Carolina Exposition and Protest
A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature speaking against the “Tariff of Abominations.” It proposed nullification of the tariff to prevent secession.

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
(DDE), A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the “fall” to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

Spanish-American war
1898. Spanish mistreatment of Cuban natives aroused resentment in the US, encouraged by yellow journalism. Trigger was explosion of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor. Best remembered for Battle of San Juan Hill. US acquired Puerto Rico, Guam and Philippines in the war, and temporary control over Cuba. As a result, America became a world power. Yellow journalism had role in starting war.

Specie Circular
Issued by Jackson – attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything – required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver

Spiro T. Agnew
(RN), , VP under Nixon, resigned for extortion and bribery charges

Sputnik
October, 1957 – The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.

Square Deal
Name of TR’s programs of reform. Focused on busting trusts, gov’t regulation of big biz, fair chance for labor, and environmental conservation

Stalwarts
(GC) , Bosses of Republic political machines who practiced patronage and elected officials due to status not experience.

Stamp Act
1765 law requiring payment of a tax to Britain on a great variety of papers and documents. Americans rioted in opposition, petitioned for repeal. Was repealed in 1766.

Standard Oil
Rockefeller’s oil monopoly, many held stocks in it. Exemplified “horizontal integration.”

Stanton, Anthony, Chapman Catt
All suffregettes Stanton was a suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women’s rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women’s Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869. Anthony was an early leader of the women’s suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women’s Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in 1869. Catt was a suffragette who was president of the National Women’s Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.

Star-Spangled Banner
National Anthem, written by Frances Scott Key during war of 1812.

Starving time
The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the “starving time” to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.

Stephen Douglas
Political who debated Lincoln prior to 1860 election – advocated annexation of Mexico and strong supporter for Compromise of 1850

Stimson Doctrine
(FDR) 1932, , 1932, Hoover’s Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan’s invasion of Manchuria

Stock “Watering”
Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.

Stock Market Crash 1987
(RR) 1987, due to use of computerized program trading in stocks and stock-index futures by a few large institutional investors, however spring of 1988 steady growth but many jobs were lost

Stonewall Jackson
Confederate General who lead victorys in the First Battle of Bull Run and the Chattle of Chancellorsville. He was accidentally shot by his own troops.

Stonewall Riot
Raid on gay club, where clients fought back. Led to the creation of the Gay Liberation Front and greater solidarity among homosexuals.

Stono Rebellion
One of the first and most successful slave rebellions in which twenty slaves met and killed many colonists before fleeing and being captured.

Strong Navy
(CAA)

Suez Crisis*
(DDE) 1956, , when President Nasser of Egypt announced his intention to build a damn in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, the United States offered its financial support, withdrawing it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject. Nasser responded by nationalizing the Suez canal, which was previously owned by British and French stockholders. This hurt Europe by crippling their oil supply, most of which came from the Persian Gulf. The French and British retaliated by striking Egypt, confident that the United States would supply them with the oil they needed while they foughtwith the Middle East. President Eisenhower refused to do so, forcing the allies to withdraw their troops. As a result, U.N. troops acted for the first time to maintain peace and order in the world. Soviets tried to interfere. Eisenhown put the Strategic Air Command on alert.

Suffolk Resolves
The First Continental Congress endorsed Massachusetts’s Suffolk Resolves, which declared that the colonies need not obey the 1773 Coercive Acts, since they infringed upon basic liberties.

Sugar and Currency Acts
Sugar – Established a number of new duties and contained provisions aimed at deterring molasses smugglers. It was explicity designed to generate revenue for the British government. (1764) Currency – Forbade Americans from producing their own paper currency. (1764)

Summit Conference
(DDE), Eisenhower, discuss nuclear testing and disarmament with Soviet Union, but then U-2 incident, US first said it was just for meterological plan but the Russians caught Francis Powers, Khrushchev demanded apology, and violation of Russian territory, but Eisenhowr refused both demand.

Summit Conference in China*
(RN), America opposed entrance to UN of Mao-Tse-tung’s Communist People’s Republic of China, however they saw Kai-shek’s Nationalist CHina on island of Taiwan, but Nixon relaxed restricitons, also on trade, and US support People’s Republic of and General Assembly did to, and also expelled Nationlist China, from the UN, also after Nixon returned from China, Okinawa Island was returned to Japan, but US retained its military base there.

Summit Conference in USSR
(RN), along with two top advisiors, Henry Kissinger and Gerard Smith, talked with USSR about conduct joint space teams, scientists cures of cancer and heart disease, cease from any further incidents, warships, pretty much cooperate together, and also talked about SALT

Sumner-brooks Affair
1856 – Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.

Susan B. Anthony
leader of woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement’s goals and beliefs and to lead its actions

Suspension of Habeas Corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually helped the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.

Sussex Pledge
(WW) , A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning, Germany block promise

Sweatt vs. Painter
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.

Taft-Hartley Act
Major law concerning labor passed in 1947. Was reversal of pro-labor policies of FDR.

Taft-Katsura Agreement
The US and Japan pledged to maintain the Open Door principles in China, Japan recognized US control over the Philippines, and the USgranted a Japanese protectorate over Korea.

Taiwan Quemoy Matsu****
(DDE) 1953, Eisenhower said that they would aid Nationalist China, but if they acted against Taiwan, they would repel

Tallmadge Amendment
(JMon) , This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.

Tammany Hall?
The democratic political machine controlling New York City politics from the 1854 to the 1934 by Boss Tweed.

Tariff 1789
(GW) Hamilton, aka 10 percent tariff, protection of domestic manufacture by tariffs

Tariff of 1832
(AJ) , The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.

Tariff of 1833*
(AJ) set up by henry clay, it was a way to prevent jackson from victory. clay aptly deserves his title as the great comprimiser. it allowed for the tariff of 1832, with a 10 percent decrease every year for 10 years, when the tariff rate would be back to where it was in 1816. it was squezed through congress.

Tariff of Abominations
An extremely high tariff that Jacksonian Democrats tried to get Adams to veto. Greatly angered Southerners, who were heavily reliant on manufacturing, were angered by what they considered to be the unfair tariff. (1828)

Tax Reform Act
(RR) 1986, wanted to lower taxes (progressive taxes), however impossible since lower rates was to be made up by losing previous tax loopholes. richest however didn’t suffer that much, only paid 28 not 33 percent.

Taxation without representation is tyranny
Important right since Magna Carta, not granted to colonists. Was one of the principal motivations for the declaration of independence.

Taxpayer Relief Act 1997
(WJC) Pres and Republicans agree to balanced federal budget, provide first federal tax, expanded coverage to uninsured children, helped with 70 billion, but failed with SS and Medicare

Tea Act
Only duty not repealed from Townshend Acts. Forced colonists to buy tea at high prices due to monopolies.

Teapot Dome
(CC), a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921

Tehran Conference*
(FDR) December, 1943, a meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war’s conclusion to help ensure international peace

Teller Amendment
April 1896 – U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but this amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba

Teller Resolution*
(WMc) Congress granted the presiden the power to liberate Cuba, stating that the United States intended only to free Cuba from tyranny

Temperance
The American Temperance Society was formed in Boston in 1826. It persuaded people to stop drinking or lesson their drinking.

Ten Percent Plan*
(AL) , 1863, when 10 percent of the voters of a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union, the State could form a government and adopt a new constitution that banned slavery

Tenure of Office Act
1866 – enacted by radical congress – forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent – was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet (Johnson violated, led to impeachment)

Terrence Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.

Terrorist Plot
(WJC) garage – Twin Tower, Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Tim McVeigh and Terry Nichols, bomb Olympic Stadium because = abortion there

Texas enters Union
Texas officially entered Union as slave state in 1848 after Mexican American War with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.

That National Recovery Administration
It was designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed. there were maximum hours of labor, minimum wages, and more rights for labor union members, including the right to choose their own representatives in bargaining.

The “Bloody Shirt”
The practice of reviving unpleasant memories from the past. Representative Ben F. Butler waved before the House a bloodstained nightshirt of a carpetbagger flogged by Klan members.

The “Bonus” Army
1932 – Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.

The “Bull Moose” Campaign
Roosvelt’s campaing under the Progressive Party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson. It was called “Bull Moose” because Roosevelt said he felt as strong as a bull moose.

The “island hopping” strategy
Take over one island after the other as American troops slowly moved closer to Japan.

The “Sun Belt”
“Smiling crescent” of 15 states in Southern America. The population increased in this area at double the rate of old industrial zones in the Northeast (Frostbelt)

The “tricle down” Theory
If the rich become richer then the money will “trickle down” to the middle and poor classes making them more wealthy.

The “triple wall of privilege”
Wilson called for a war against these three things, tariff, banks, and trusts.

The America First Committee
1940 – Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war. They wanted to do anything they could to stay out of war.

The American Crisis
Pamphlets written by Thomas Paine to rally support for the Revolutionary war.

The American System
Proposed after the War of 1812 by Clay. It included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.

The Atlantic Charter
August 1941-Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met and discussed common problems of the world. The two men came up with the eight-point Atlantic Charter, outlining the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at the war’s end. The Atlantic Charter promised that there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants; it affirmed the right of a people to choose their own form of government and to regain the governments abolished by the dictators; and it declared for disarmament and a peace of security, pending a new League of Nations.

The Berlin Wall
1961 – The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.

The Budget, the National Debt , and the Overvalued Dollar
(RR) after FBD, became a debtor nation, closed gap between income and military expenditures, govt had to borrow money through selling bonds, so they borrowed from foreign nations, foreigners lent because interest rates were high in US, but Treasury only accepted “dollar”, price of the dollar increased 60 percent, “strong dollar” = good, “overvalued dollar” = severe economic problems

The counter-culture
Young hippies rose as a self-conscious culture that was opposed to traditional American ways.

The Destroyer Deal
1940 – U.S. agreed to “lend” its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries’ navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.

The Dixicrats
A group of people from 15 southern states that were embittered by Truman’s nomination and nominated J. Strom Thurmond on a states’ Rights Party ticket.

The Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.

The FHA
1934 – Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages for home construction and repair.

The Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy toward the countries of Latin America. Under this policy the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.

The Grange/Oliver Kelley
Led the National Grange of the Pattrons of Husbandry, first real organization of the populist movement.

The Hundred Days
March 9, 1933 – At Roosevelt’s request, Congress began a special session to review recovery and reform laws submitted by the President for Congressional approval. It actually lasted only 99 days.

The Impending Crisis of the South
Hinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave-owning Whites in his 1857 book, which was a violent attack on slavery. It wasn’t written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.

The Jay Treaty
Treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the US western frontier (1794)

The Marshall Plan
(HT) , 1947, by George Marshall, against “hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos” a massive aid package offered by US they gave food and economic assistance to europe to help countries rebuild

The Mexican War
(JP) 1846-1848 , Mexico broke relations with USA after annexation of Texas. Also, dispute over boundary of Texas (Rio Grande or Nueces River?) Americans interested in New Mexico and California, as well. Polk sent Slidell to try and buy off the Mexicans… they wouldn’t budge.Polk ordered Taylor to move army across Nueces River to the Rio Grande- stayed stationed for a while,finally Mexicans crossed river and attacked “MEXICANS” started the war (NOT). America got New Mexico and California, ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

The National Bank
Part of Hamilton’s Plan, it would save the government’s surplus money until it was needed.

The National Road
Also called the Cumberland Road The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.

The National Security Act of 1947
1947 – Created the cabinet post of Secretary of Defense, the CIA, and the National Security Council. 1949 – Created NATO.

The Neutrality Act of 1939
It stated that the European democracies could buy American war materials as long as they would transport the munitions on their own ships after paying for them in cash. America thus avoided loans, war debts, and the torpedoing of American arms-carriers. Overseas demand for war goods brought a sharp upswing from the recession of 1937-1938 and ultimately solved the decade-long unemployment crisis.

The nomination of Theodore Roosevelt as the presidential candidate for the “Bull Moose” party led to the election of which of the following presidents?
Woodrow Wilson

The only thing to fear is fear itself
Statement in FDR’s first inaugural, at one of the worst points of the Great Depression.

The Open Door Note
“Asked Imperialist Nations to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.

The Panama Canal
Buit to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster because there were many Navy ships that needed to get from Gulf of Mexico out to the Pacific to help protect American islands in case of invasion.

The Philippines
Recieved these islands after S-A War. Although he considered giving them up after insurrections, McKinley ultimately kept them.

The Pinckney Treaty
Treaty with Spain which opened trade and redefined Florida boundary (1795)

The Potsdam Conference
July 26, 1945 – Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.

The public be damned
Spoken by Vanderbilt (railroad executive). Used when business leaders are accused of shirking responsibility toward the public.

The Rights of Man
Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution.

The Rome-Berlin Axis 1934
A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the “Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.” The coutries were thereafter refered to as the Axis Powers.

The Rosenbergs
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

The Settlement House Movement
At this time many settlement houses were created, which helped newcomers cope with American big-city life and exposed middle class women to American big city problems. the most prominent settlement house (but not first) was the Hull House.

The Smith Act
Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.

The Social Security Act of 1935
One of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer.

The Sussex Ultimatum and the Sussex Pledge
The ultimatum said that Germans must stop sinking ships or the US will break their neutrailty (and almost certainly neter the war). The Pledge was that the Germans promised to stop submarine warfare.

The Teapot Dome Scandal
1929 – The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as “Teapot Dome” was taken out of the Navy’s control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.

The Teheran Conference
December, 1943 – A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war’s conclusion to help ensure international peace.

The Truman Doctrine
1947 – Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.

The United Nations
Only the Security Council could take action on substantive issues through investigation. The General Assembly met and talked. A secretariat, headed by a Secretary-General, was to perform the organization’s administrative work.

The Volstead Act (18th Amendment)
Prohibition – 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act – 1919: Defined what drinks constituted “intoxicating liquors” under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition.

The Voting Rights Act of 1965
Passed by Congress in 1965, it allowed for supervisors to register Blacks to vote in places where they had not been allowed to vote before.

The Washington Conference of 1921
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.

The Whiskey Rebellion
group of farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey, Washington responds decisively with troops (1794)

The Wright Brothers
Launched the air age.

The XYZ Affair
Three French agents asked for over ten million dollars in tribute before they would begin diplomatic talks with America. When Americans heard the news, they were outraged. Adams decided to strengthen the Navy to show France that America was a force to be reckoned with

The Yalta Agreement
February, 1945 – Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.

The Zimmerman Note
1917 – Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.

Theodore Roosevelt
President 1901 to 1909. Lead the Rough Riders in Spanish-American war. Upheld many of the interests of the Progressive Movement. Was a Trust Buster. Said needed to ‘walk softly but carry a big stick.’ Received Nobel prize for negotiating peace in Russo-Japanese war. Began construction of the Panama Canal.

These are the times that try men’s souls
By Thomas Paine in the America Crisis

Thirteenth Amendment
(AJohn) , abolished slavery

Thomas Jefferson
Founding father, principal author of the Declaration of Independence, President 1801-9. Arranged the Louisiana Purchase, founded the U. of VA. Champion of political and religious freedom.

Thomas Paine
Wrote Common Sense and American Crisis, urging American independence.

Three Mile Island
Location of a nuclear power plant accident in 1979. Caused panic and intense criticism of nuclear power programs in general.

Thurgood Marshall
First black appointed to the Supreme Court in 1967. Was lawyer in Brown vs. Board of Education. Consistently liberal record.

Tobacco
(WJC) Pres sued industry to stop marketing cigars to kids and accept great federal regulation

Tories
The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution.

Townshend Acts
These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation. (1767)

Trail of Tears
(AJ) , The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

Transatlantic cable/telegraph
Cable from Newfoundland to Ireland to revolutionize international communication.

Transcendentalism
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830’s and 1840’s, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.

Transcontinental railroad
Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.

Treaty of Alliance 1778
(JA) ended

Treaty of Ghent
: Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions

Treaty Of Grenville
After their defeat at the Battle of the Fallen Timbers in 1794, 12 Native American tribes signed the Treaty of Grenville, which cleared the Ohio territory of tribes and opened it up to U.S. settlement

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Ended Mexican War – US received Texas (with Rio Grande border) and other states – US paid Mexico $15 million dollars

Treaty of Paris (1763)
Ended French and Indian War

Treaty of Paris (1763):
The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi.

Treaty of Paris (1782)
The British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland.

Treaty of Paris (1783)
While there have been many Treaties of Paris throughout history. The most important in American History is the treaty signed in September 1783 and ratified by Congress in January 1784, which ended the Revolutionary War and granted the United States its independence. It further granted the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River. While generally accepted, the Treaty of Paris opened the door to future legislative and economic disputes.

Treaty of Paris (1898)
Ended the Spanish-American War and developed an American empire overseas. Spain agreed to abandon Cuba and exchange Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to America for $20 million.

Treaty of Paris 1898
(WMc) , The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.

Treaty of Portsmouth
Ended Russo-Japanese War. (1905)

Treaty of San Lorenzo
Signed with Spain in 1795, the Treaty of San Lorenzo – also known as Pinckney’s Treaty – gave the U.S. unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and established the border between the U.S. and Spanish Florida.

Trent Affair
Two Confederate diplomats were dispatched to go to Europe on a mail steamer to try and gain support from Britain and France. The Union stopped this steamer and removed the two Confederate diplomats.

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
Accidentally killed 141 workers, prodded concerns that raised new questions of human and immigrant rights and of existing labor laws.

Triple Alliance
Original Allies in WWI: Britain, France, and Russia.

Triple Entente
Original Central Powers in WWI: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy.

Truman Doctrine
(HT) , 1947, President Truman’s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey

Truman-MacArthur controversy
MacArhur called for air strikes on China during Korean War. Truman said no, MacArthur disagreed publicly. Truman removed him for insubordination.

Tweed Ring
(USG) , the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, started by Burly “Boss” Tweed that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing, Thomas Nast exposed through illustration in Harper’s Weekly

Twelfth Amendment
1804 (TJ) , Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President

Ty Cobb
Record for lifetime batting average.

Tydings McDuffie Act
(FDR) 1934, provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution for a 10-year “transitional period” which became the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines. The nation did not want to have to support the Philippines if Japan attacked there.

U.S v. Butler
(FDR) 1936 as a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional.

U.S. Steel Corporation
J.P. Morgan’s steel empire, first billion-dollar corporation.

U.S. v. Knight Co.
Let sugar refinery slip through loophole of Sherman Anti-Trust Act, thereby weakening it.

U.S.S. Maine
Ship that exploded in Havana harbor, blamed on Spanish, sparked war.

Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin
(MF) 1852, , a novel published by harriet beecher stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral (caused Civil War), Europe applauds

Undeclared naval war with France
The French were infuriated with the US after Jay’s Treaty, so began to attack American ships at sea.

Underground Railroad
(FP) 1830, Harriet Tubman, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North

Underwood Tariff Bill
October 13, 1913 – Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.

Union Advantages
in the Civil War — Larger number of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South’s initial material advantage.

Union Pacific and Central Pacific joined/transcontinental line
Central Pacific and Union Pacific lines met at Ogden, Utah, creating the first transcontinental railroad line.

Union Pacific Railroad*
(USG) , railroad that started in Omaha, Nebraska and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Chinese immigrants

United Food and Commercial Workers International Union?
A labor union representing approximately 1.3 million workers in the United States and Canada in many industries, including health care, meatpacking, poultry and food processing, manufacturing, textile and chemical trades, and retail food. Until July 2005, UFCW was affiliated with the AFL-CIO, where it was the second largest union by membership. Along with two other members of the Change to Win Coalition, the UFCW formally disaffiliated with the AFL-CIO on July 29, 2005.

United Nations
(FDR) an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security

United States Embassy at Teheran, Iran
(JEC) Mohammed Reza Pahlavi became Iran “shah” and ayatollah khomeini didn’t like this, shah wanted “white revolution”, and shah exiled Khomeini, who later directed Islamic Republic, and kept hostages, Carter tried to help, he froze all Iranian assets in US, and also sent USS Nimitz in Gulf of Oman where 8 were killed, 2 events (1) Iran became victim of Iraq (2) 30 after RR became president, he talked tough on Carter’s policy and 52 hostages were sent free.

United States v. E.C. Knight Co
(1895) Congress wanted to bust a trust because it controled 98% of sugar manufacturing. Supreme court said no because it wasn’t interstate commerce which they do have the right to regulate. Severely weakend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act

University of Missippi and Alabama
(LBJ) Robert Kennedy sent marshalls to protect the right of qualified black there

Upton Sinclair/”The Jungle”
Described awful conditions of meat packing industry, led to Meat Inspection Act.

Urban Riots
(LBJ) , large scale rioting, summer 1966 and 1967, so Pres appointed National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, said democracy to all citizen, adequate financing by both the federal and local govt.

Utopian communities
Communities seeking cooperation, communism ideals, and communitarianism.

Valley Forge
Quarters of American army one winter in revolutionary war. Very cold, but Washington kept the morale of the troops up.

Venezuelan Boundary Dispute
(GC2) 1895, Guiana and Venezula in conflict with each other (discovery of gold), Cleveland called for arbitration, The US determined to enforce the Monroe Doctrine by itself, without relying on the British (got most of the land) navy.

Vertical Integration
“Owning every step of the manufacturing process. Ex: An oil company owns the land the oil comes from, the business to extract the oil, the shipping business to ship the oil, and the gas stations to sell the oil.”

Veterans’ Bureau Scandal
(CC) Colonel Forbes goes to jail for conspiring to sell narcotics, liquor, and other government property

Vicksburg
(AL), 1863 , a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863)

Vietnam War
1954-1975. North tried to take over th South with help of Viet Cong. Eisenhower and Kenedy sent advisors, Johnson sent half a million troops. Tet offensive and My Lai massacre severe set back. Nixon and Kissinger negotiated cease fire and withdrawl. Lead to severe division of American society at home.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Affirmations of States rights in the face of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Written by Madison and Jefferson. Included a statement of the power of nullification by the States.

Virginia and New Jersey Plans
The Virginia Plan called for a two-house Congress with each state’s representation based on state population. The New Jersey Plan called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation.

Virginia Company
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607, founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies. Confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights. 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.

Virginia dynasty
4 of the first 5 presidents were from Virginia.

Virginia Plan
The Virginia Plan was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In opposition, the small states proposed the New Jersey Plan. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise.

Virginia Resolves
In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament’s right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.

Virtual Representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.

Volstead Act
(WW), implemented the 18th Admendment. It established illegal alcohol at above .5%, but then comes the speakeasies

Voting Rights Act of 1965
Eliminated obstacles used to block black voting, such as literacy tests. Enabled federal registrars to register voters.

Voting Rights Act*
(LBJ) , 1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote

W.E.B. DuBois
Black leader who fought for universal suffrage and civil rights, and founded the Niagara Movement and NAACP.

Wabash vs. Illinois
1886 – Stated that individual states can control trade in their states, but cannot regulate railroads coming through them. Congress has exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce. States cannot regulate or place restrictions on businesses which only pass through them, such as interstate transportation.

Wade-Davis Bill
Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.

War Hawks
A term originally used to describe a member of the House of Representatives of the Twelfth Congress of the United States who advocated going to war against Great Britain in the War of 1812.

War Industries Board
(WW) , Headed by Bernard Baruch, could order businesses to support war by building more plants, etc.

War is hell
Statement of Union General Sherman during Civil War.

War of 1812
Like second war of independence. Fought over alleged violations of American shipping rights. American soldiers attacked Canada unsuccessfully, and Britain burned the White House. Most famous battle was Battle of New Orleans led by Andrew Jackson (after peace had been signed, but army not informed).

War on Drugs
(GB1), William Bennett as there was a dramatic increase in drug use, and demand for illegal drugs, especially “crack” cocaine, political figures of both parties spoke heatedly about the need for a “war on drugs”, but government efforts to stop drug imports and reduce demand had little effect.

War on poverty
Johnson’s programs to help poor Americans, including job retraining and improvement of housing.

War Production Board
Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled.

Warren Harding
President 1921-23. Opposed participation in the League of Nations. Many of his appointments were corrupt. He died before the full scope was revealed. Known as the Harding scandals.

Was the Cold War Over?*
(RR), Gorbachev = supported political settlements in Angola and Cambodia, and took out troops from Afghanistan, wanted more open society (perestroika “restructing”, glasnost “openess”), also reduced miltary spendings, Bush didn’t support the programs like Star Wars

Washington Conference
(WH), was a military conference called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia.

Washington Gladden
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper columns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.

Washington’s Farewell Address
Never delivered. Warned of the dangers of divisive party politics and warned agaisnt US alliances with other countries.

Washinton’s Neutrality Proclamation
Established isolationist policy, proclaimed government’s official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict. (1793)

Watts riots
Riots in LA in 1965, 30 people died

Ways and Means Committee*
(GF) where almost all important work on tax law occurs; decides whether to go along with presidential requests for tax cuts or increases, changed under Ford

We are here Lafayette
Words spoken by American army officer when US forces arrived in France in WWI. Refers to repaying debt to Lafayette’s for helping Americans in Revolutionary war.

We shall overcome
Best known song of the civil rights movement

Webster Ashburton Treaty
(JT), followed by Aroostook War, 1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition

Welfare Reform
(WJC)”end welfare as we know it”, poor ppl move from welfare to work, welfare payments to max of five years, welfare recipients engage in work within two years

Wendell Wilkie
The Republicans chose Wendell L. Willkie to run against President Roosevelt. Willkie’s great appeal lay in his personality. The Republican platform condemned FDR’s alleged dictatorship, as well as the New Deal. Willkie was opposed not so much to the New Deal as to its extravagances and inefficiencies.

Wesberry v. Sanders
(LBJ) 1964 , One person, one vote (in redistricting for federal elections, each congressional district was to be approximately the same) In Georgia, the 5th district had 3 to 4 times more people than did the other districts.

What is the difference between de facto segregation and de jure segregation?
De facto segregation is segregation of races that actually exists, though not by law. De jure segregation is segregation of races by law.

What political party did Alexander Hamilton start?
The Federalist party in 1792, which advocated strong national government. It was opposed by Thomas Jefferson & James Madison’s Republican party.

What sector are labor unions most influential in?
The government (public sector).

What states were part of the Northwest Territory?
Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana. They all became states in the early to mid 1800’s.

What was the largest immigration decade in US history?
The 1910s. The 1980s were the second.

What year was FDR’s court packing scheme?
1937

What year was the NAACP founded?
1910

When did the AFL and CIO merge?
1955

When did the U.S. constitution go into effect?
1789

When did the US enter WWI?
1918. The armistice was on Nov. 11 of the same year.

When was the CIO founded?
In 1935 by eight international unions within the American Federation of Labor to pressure the AFL, which had either opposed or given only lukewarm support to organizing mass production industries, to change its policies. After failing to change AFL policy from within, five of these eight unions split from the AFL to found the Congress of Industrial Organizations as a rival federation in 1938. The CIO rejoined the AFL, forming the new entity known as the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), in 1955.

When was the US Army desegregated?
After WWII, 1945-1950 by decree of president Truman.

When was the US constitution written?
1787

Where did the pilgrims settle?
In Massachussetts, established Plymouth in 1620.

Which president was elected because he opposed the League of Nations?
Harding. He opposed Wilson’s league of nations, as did the US senate.

Which side did native americans fight on in the American Revolution?
Both, but mainly supported the British.

Whig party
Party formed to oppose Jackson and the democrats. Supported protective tariffs, national banking and federal aid for infrastructure. Fell into disunity over slavery, and later Republican party emerged from it.

Whiskey Rebellion
Rebellion against federal tax on alcohol. Was first important test of the power of the new federal government to enforce its laws after Constitution passed.

Whiskey Ring
After the Whiskey Ring robbed the Treasury, Grant delcared, “Let no guilty man escape,” his own secretary was found to be a culprit. However, he wrote a letter on his behalf , and country began to turn on Grant.

White Flight
Whites migrating/moving to the suburbs by the millions

Whitewater
(WJC) an Ame political controversy that began with the real estate dealings of Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates, [Jim and Susan McDougal] in the Whitewater Development Corporation, a failed business venture. David Hale, the source of criminal allegations against Clinton, claimed in November 1993 that Bill, while govnr of AK, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, Kenneth Starr major player

Who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
The puritans in 1629.

Wild Bill Hickok
US marshall who pursued some of the worst outlaws of the old west.

Wildcat strike?
A strike without union authorization.

William Bennett
(RR) attention on educatio reform

William Douglas
Longest serving Supreme Court justice (1939-1975). Committed liberal.

William H. Taft
1909-1913, Republican, issue – conservation policies, antitrust laws, tariff, against Bryan. Dollar diplomacy

William Halsey
Admiral of US fleet in Pacific in WWII.

William Harry Harrison
1841, Whig Party, issue = avoided banking, tariff, internal improvments, slavery, loose vs strict construction, died

William Jennings Bryan
Three-time candidate for president for the Democratic Party, nominated because of support from the Populist Party. He never won, but was the most important Populist in American history. He later served as Woodrow Wilson’s Secretary of State (1913-1915).

William K. Reilly
(GB1) 2000 EPA, antipollution, tighten automobile emissiosn

William Lloyd Garrison
A militant abolitionist, he became editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession

William Marbury
He had been appointed as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia by President John Adams shortly before leaving office, but John Marshall, Adam’s Secretary of State didn’t deliver his commission as required. When Thomas Jefferson became President, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to not deliver his commission. Marbury petitioned and brought the case to the Supreme Court, but was unsuccessful and never became a Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia.

William Marcy Tweed
Ran a network of corrupt NYC officials called the Tweed ring. Tammany Hall. Name synonomous with municipal corruption. Boss Tweed.

William McKinley
Led the US during the Spanish-American war. US also annexed Philippines in his presidency. Republican president who believed in the gold standard. His presidency was a time of rising jingoism and imperialism. Was assassinated by an anarchist.

WIlliam Penn
Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a “holy experiment” based on religious tolerance.

William Pitt
British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.

William Randolph Hurst
Pioneer in the kind of sensational reporting often called Yellow Journalism. Helped whip up hostility toward Spain, which led to the Spanish American war.

William Seward
Secretary of State under Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. Best known for purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1967 for seven million dollars.

William Sherman
(AL) , scorched earth” policies that he implemented in conducting total war. Leading Union general. Known for saying ‘War is Hell.’

Wilmot Proviso
(JP), David Wilmot Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846), Calhoun against with his compact theory (govt. created by states)

Wilson Gorman Tariff*****
(GC2) 1894, This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of Cuban natives against colonial Spain. Was 40% rate compared to McKinley Tariff, however again he was defeated on tariff program

Wilsonian Idealism
Set idealistic goals for peace

Winfield Scott
He commanded the main expedition inland on Mexico in 1847. He was known as “Old Fuss and Feathers†because of his resplendent uniforms and strict discipline. He was unable to do as he pleased because of his inadequate number of troops, the terrain, disease, etc. He battled his way to Mexico City by September 1847.

Wobblies
Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.

Women’s christin Temperance Union
Women’s group encouraging abstinence from alcohol. Leading force for prohibition.

Women’s movement
A movement to secure legal, economic and social equality for women. Galvanized by work of Betty Friedan. Worked for equal pay, improved day care and abortion rights.

Women’s Rights/Seneca Falls
Woman’s Right Convention, prominent feminists read Declaration of Sentiments: “all men and women are created equal”

Women’s Suffrage
(WW) , National American Woman Suffrage Association formed in 1910 carries cause of women’s suffrage to victory, granted suffrage in the 19th amendment, women also began to replace men in industries during the war

Women’s Trade Union League
Organized by female activists, helped give femal reformers an national stage for social investigation and advocacy.

Woodrow Wilson
President 1912-21. Initially opposed involvement in WWI, but later drawn in so ‘the world may be made safe for democracy.’ Created his 14 points for peace, encouraged creation of the League of Nations. Senate refused entry. Won Nobel prize.

Worcester v Georgia
Supreme Court Decision – Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe’s sovereignty – Jackson ignored it

Works Progress Administration
Program of the New Deal to perform public works to put people back to work.

Work-to-rule?
A type of slowdown used by workers. It is not completely covered by US labor law.

Wounded knee
Creek in SD where US killed large number of Sioux in 1890. Last major military conflict between whites and Native Americans.

WW2 People
(FDR) Hitler, Mussolini (Axis with H), Winston Churchill, SW – Stimson, SN – Knox, (FDR), MacArthur

Wyatt Earp
Famous US Marshall in Dodge City, took part in famous gunfight at the OK Corral in Tombstone AZ in 1881

XYZ Affair
Incident in which French officials demanded a bribe to speak to American diplomats. Published in newspapers (but French names were replaced with X, Y, and Z) and completely reversed American sentiment towards France.

Yale College
Founded in 1701, it was the third college of the colonies.

Yalta Conference
Allied conference at which Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War, Stalin broke promise on free elections and representative govt.

Yellow journalism
Inflammatory, irresponsible reporting by newspapers to incite war. Used by William Randolph Hearst to incite the Spanish-American war.

Yellow Peril
A supposed threat to the US posed by Japan and China. Fear of asian immigration and Japan’s rising military power.

Yom Kippur War
(RN), , This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.

Yorktown
Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the northern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.

Zachary Taylor
Twelfth President. Famous general in Mexican War. Whig President. Opposed the spread of slavery. Encouraged territories to organize and seek admission directly a states to avoid the issue of slavery. Died suddenly in1850; replaced by Millard Fillmore

Zimmerman Note
1917 – Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile

Zoot suit riots?
The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles, California during World War II, between sailors and soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican American youth gangs headed by pachucos, recognized because of the zoot suits they favored. The riots began in the racially charged atmosphere of Los Angeles, where the sailors, soldiers and marines returning from the war had already come into conflict with the local Mexican zoot suiters. On June 3, 1943, a group of servicemen on leave complained that they had been assaulted by a gang of pachucos. In response, they gathered and headed out to downtown and East Los Angeles, which was the center of the Mexican community. Once there, they attacked all the men they found wearing zoot suits, often ripping off the suits and burning them in the streets. In many instances, the police intervened by arresting beaten-up Mexican-American youth for disturbing the peace. African Americans and Filipino Americans suffered the same fate as Mexican Americans [1]. Several hundred pachucos and nine sailors were arrested as a result of the fighting that occurred over the next few days. Of the nine sailors that were arrested, eight were released with no charges, and one had to pay a small fine. The Mexican-Americans were not as fortunate. Many died in jail from their injuries because they were in dire need of medical attention. Many more were convicted of crimes that they did not commit. The government finally intervened on June 7, by declaring that Los Angeles would henceforth be off-limits to all military personnel. In response to the riots Eleanor Roosevelt wrote in her weekly column about the problems faced by the Mexican American community as a result of racism in the United States.

The Jazz Singer
the first “talkie” movie with sounds

1912 Election
Roosevelt’s campaign under the Progressive Party; he ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.

congress of Industrial Organizations, 1938 (CIO)
labor union founded in 1938 as a rival to the American Federation of Labor (AFofL)

Neutrality Acts (1935 – 1939)
series of laws that prohibited the US government, banks and businesses from engaging European conflicts

Zoot Suit Riots (1943)
were a series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles, California during World War II, between sailors and soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican American youth gangs headed by pachucos, recognized because of the clothing they wore

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