Chapter 16 Review

Addison’s disease
JFK was diagnosed with hypoadrenalism, which is
testosterone, inhibin
important hormones produced by males that initiate interstial cells to secrete hormones (for control, and for male secondary sex characteristics)
estrogen and progesterone
In a post pubescent female (adult), the ovary produces ________ and will secrete _______ until after ovulation.
insulin
is a hormone that uptakes the storage of glycogen and stimulates glucose production.
to get rid of
Uptake means
iodine
The two thyroid hormones are different because of _______ atoms
thymosin, the ability of t-lymphocytes to be affective
The Thymus produces ______ and regulates
low level of serotonin, high level of melatonin
Someone with SAD (seasonal affective disorder) has low levels of ______ and high levels of _____
growth hormone
What hormone enhances amino acid transport and increases protein synthesis?
LH
Hormone in females that stimulates ovulation is
ICSH
Hormone in young males that stimulates testosterone is
milk production
In females, PRL stimulates
testosterone production
In males, PRL stimulates
TRH, causes the thyroid to produce T3 T4 which warms you up
The hypothalamus releases ____________ in response to cold weather because
CRH
What stimulates the release of cortisol in the adrenal cortex?
ACTH
CRH stimulates the Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) to produce
infundibulum
The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by the
quick but not as quick, activity is specific
The nervous system reacts to stimulus quickly. In comparison, the endocrine system releases hormones
calcitonin
What hormone antagonizes the parathyroid gland?
thymus and pineal
Two glands become hypotropic when a child begins to grow
hyposecretion of ADH
Patient is producing a lot of urine
posterior pituitary, ADH
__________ is serviced by osmoreceptors that trigger secretion by ______________
prolactin
Dopamine is the inhibiting factor for
somatatropin
A hormone that has a broad range of target organs is
polysaccharides
If you had non-steroidal and steroidal hormones, what wouldn’t fit?
UCG
Hormone produced by the zygote during pregnancy is
parathyroids
Calcium metabolism is regulated mostly by
insulin resistance
A non-insulin dependent diabetic has what problem?
glucose, high blood sugar
What piles up if your body can’t recognize insulin?
thick blood, high blood pressure
Symptoms of insulin resistance?
produce glucagon
If you destroyed the beta cells in your pancreas, you would lose the ability to
gigantism and acromegaly
Hypersecretion of growth hormone causes
uterus; the endometrial lining
__________ is targeted by estrogen at the ________
GH
What hormone is a somatatroph
ADH
Hormone most like OT
nerve cell that releases a hormone into the blood
What is a neuroendocrine cell?
sarcomeres
What would you not expect to find in a long bone?
multi-nucleated, striated, voluntary
Characteristics in skeletal muscle different from smooth
intercalated discs
Cardiac muscle has
thin, thick, has heads
Actin is ___________________, myosin is ____________________ and ___________________
overlap
Actin and myosin pull on one another and
sarcolemma
The outside of a muscle cell is called a
ACH
Neurotransmitter being released in the synapse, striated
ACH esterase inhibitor, freeze
________ comes from pesticides and causes muscles to ____
troponin
Protein complex necessary for cross-bridges
calcium
Ion necessary for every single muscle in the body (600 muscles) to contract
two electrons in the outer shell
Calcium is limited in its atomic structure because it has
lactic acid
What causes you to hurt after exercise?
not enough oxygen; anerobic conditions
What situation has to be present in order for lactic acid to be produced?
carcinogen
Environmental agent that causes cancer
protein synthesis
What is going on in the ER?
detoxification
What does the smooth ER do?
triglyceride
Head on blood is caused by
enzyme amplification
_____ is a mechanism by which a single hormone molecule can trigger the production of millions of molecules of a metabolic product.
calmodulin
In one second messenger system, the cytoplasmic protein _____ acts as a receptor for calcium ions.
arachidonic acid
Eicosanoids are synthesized from a fatty acid called _____.
paracrine
_____ secretions, such as histamine, diffuse only a short distance from the cells that secrete them, rather than traveling in the blood like hormones.
pituitary-adrenal
Stress is a condition that stimulates the _____ axis.
sodium and potassium ions
Triiodothyronine has a calorigenic effect because it stimulates the synthesis of _____.
rough er
Preproinsulin is converted to proinsulin while it is in the _____ of the beta cell.
monoamines
Tyrosine and tryptophan can be converted to a class of hormones called _____.
oxytocin, ADH
The posterior pituitary gland secretes _____ and _____.
atrial natriuretic factor
The heart secretes a hormone called _____ that increases sodium excretion.
false
T/F: Growth hormone is no longer secreted after the epiphyseal plates close and growth of the long bones ceases.
true
T/F: The adult pineal gland is a small, shriveled remnant of the child’s.
false
T/F: Hypoglycemic hormones are secreted in response to excessively low blood glucose levels.
true
T/F: Ketone bodies are products of fat catabolism.
true
T/F: Most people with diabetes mellitus have normal insulin levels and are not benefited by insulin injections.
true
T/F: The process of up-regulation makes target cells more sensitive to a hormone.
true
T/F: Peptide hormones do not enter their target cells, but bind to receptors in the plasma membrane.
false
T/F: The production of red blood cells is stimulated by a hormone secreted by the bone marrow.
false
T/F: The gonads, adrenal cortex, and posterior pituitary gland secrete steroid hormones.
true
T/F: The ovaries can inhibit hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary.
false
T/F: The adrenal cortex secretes angiotensin II.
true
T/F: The posterior pituitary gland secretes but does not synthesize oxytocin.
false
T/F: The adult pituitary gland is connected by a stalk to the roof of the nasal cavity.
false
T/F: The parathyroid glands promote bone growth by stimulating calcium deposition.
false
T/F: The target organ for thyrotropin-releasing hormone is the thyroid gland.
myxedema
This results from a deficiency of thyroid hormone.
calcium
Second messenger that comes from the extracellular fluid.
acceptor site
Region of the chromatin that binds a given hormone.
c peptide
The amino acid sequence removed from proinsulin to leave insulin.
tyrosine
The amino acid precursor of thyroid hormone.
tetraiodothyronine
A thyroid hormone.
growth hormone
Hyposecretion of this hormone can cause dwarfism and hypersecretion can cause gigantism.
cushing’s syndrome
This is caused by hypersecretion of cortisol.
thymus
Source of hormones that stimulate lymphocyte activity.
endemic goiter
An effect of a dietary iodine deficiency.
B (neurons that release hormones into the bloodstream)
Neuroendocrine cells are
A. neurons that regulate secretion by the endocrine glands.
B. neurons that release hormones into the bloodstream.
C. neurons whose activity is regulated by hormones.
D. endocrine cells that respond to neurotransmitters.
E. endocrine cells that have evolved from neurons.
A (antidiuretic hormone)
Which of the following hormones is most similar to oxytocin in chemical structure?
A. antidiuretic hormone
B. estradiol
C. testosterone
D. insulin
E. epinephrine
A (antidiuretic hormone)
Which of the following hormones passes through the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract?
A. antidiuretic hormone
B. prolactin-inhibiting hormone
C. adrenocorticotropic hormone
D. luteinizing hormone
E. thyroid-stimulating hormone
B (prolactin-inhibiting hormone)
Which of the following hormones passes through the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system?
A. antidiuretic hormone
B. prolactin-inhibiting hormone
C. adrenocorticotropic hormone
D. luteinizing hormone
E. thyroid-stimulating hormone
GH
Somatotropes of the anterior pituitary gland produce
C (the adrenal gland)
Which of the following endocrine glands is located most inferiorly?
A. the thyroid
B. the thymus
C. the adrenal gland
D. the pineal body
E. the pituitary gland
the anterior pituitary
What is the target organ of corticotropin-releasing hormone?
oxytocin
The uterus is a target organ of
acromegaly
Hypersecretion of growth hormone can cause gigantism if it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause _____ if it begins in adulthood.
glucagon
Destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas would cause a loss of _____ secretion.
D (insulin hyposecretion ; accelerated fat catabolism ; ketonuria ; diuresis)
46. Which of the following correctly traces the four conditions from cause to effect?
A. ketonuria ; accelerated fat catabolism ; diuresis ; insulin hyposecretion
B. ketonuria ; insulin hyposecretion ; accelerated fat catabolism ; diuresis
C. accelerated fat catabolism ; ketonuria ; diuresis ; insulin hyposecretion
D. insulin hyposecretion ; accelerated fat catabolism ; ketonuria ; diuresis
E. insulin hyposecretion ; ketonuria ; diuresis ; accelerated fat catabolism
C (insulin is secreted but target cells lack receptors for it.)
Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus results when
A. glucagon is able to compensate for the deficiency of insulin.
B. somatostatin is able to compensate for the deficiency of insulin.
C. insulin is secreted but target cells lack receptors for it.
D. insulin binds to its target cells but the cAMP second-messenger system fails to work.
E. excessive secretion of insulin triggers hypoglycemia.
the neurohypophysis
Calcium metabolism is regulated by
thyroxine
A biogenic amine
testosterone
What hormone does not bind to receptors at the cell surface?
permissive
If one hormone makes a target cell more responsive to another hormone that follows later, the first hormone is said to have a _____ effect.
down-regulation
In _____, target cells reduce the number of receptors for a hormone in response to long-term overstimulation.
hypothalamus
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is secreted by the
A (polysaccharides)
There are hormones in all of the following classes of organic compounds except
A. polysaccharides
B. polypeptides
C. glycoproteins
D. biogenic amines
E. steroids
ACTH
The polypeptide precursor that is split up to form endorphins also forms
A (somatotropin)
Which of the following hormones has the broadest range of target organs?
A. somatotropin
B. FSH
C. TSH
D. ADH
E. ACTH
prolactin-inhibiting factor
The neurotransmitter dopamine is also known as _____ for its endocrine role.
ADH
Neurons called osmoreceptors trigger the secretion of
thyroxine stimulates the anterior pituitary
Negative feedback inhibition occurs when
growth hormone
Insulinlike growth factors, or somatomedins, are secreted in response to
diabetes insipidus
A lack of antidiuretic hormone causes
thymus, pineal
The two glands are especially noted for regressing after childhood, mainly
calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone is antagonized by
D (progesterone)
64. The adrenal cortex secretes all of the following hormones except
A. androgens
B. estrogens
C. aldosterone
D. progesterone
E. corticosterone
D (oxytocin)
65. All of the following hormones suppress secretion by the anterior pituitary except
A. inhibin
B. somatostatin
C. tetraiodothyronine
D. oxytocin
E. dopamine
calcium
Rather than being synthesized in the cell like other second messengers, _____ enters the cell through the plasma membrane.
enzyme amplification
Suppose 1 molecule of hormone X activated 10 G proteins, each G protein activated 10 adenylate cyclase molecules, each adenylate cyclase made 1,000 cAMP molecules, and each cAMP activated 1,000 enzyme molecules. This would be a case of
B (by binding to hydrophilic transport proteins)
Hydrophobic hormones are transported in the blood
A. by binding to the red blood cells
B. by binding to hydrophilic transport proteins
C. in the form of hydrophilic salts
D. as hydrophilic preprohormones
E. contained in secretory vesicles
adenylate cyclase
One of the enzymes that shuts off a hormone’s stimulatory effect is
adrenal cortex
The endocrine gland most affected by stress is the
directly into the bloodstream
Hormones are released
quickly, quickly, specific
The nervous system reacts to stimuli _____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts _____ compared to the endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.
adrenal glands
Epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NE), cortisol, and aldosterone are all produced in the
infundibulum, cribriform plate of the ethmoid
The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is connected to the hypothalamus by the _____ and is housed in the _____.
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary
In the embryo, the neurohypophyseal bud gives rise to the _____, and the hypophyseal pouch gives rise to the _____.
C (hypothalamohypophyseal tract)
Which one of the following is not part of the Neurohypophysis?
A. pars tuberalis
B. posterior lobe, or pars nervosa
C. hypothalamohypophyseal tract
D. median eminence
E. infundibulum
stimulate other endocrine glands to release their own hormones
Tropic hormones are different from other hormones because they
hypothalamus releases CRH to the anterior pituitary, which releases ACTH
In response to stress, the adrenal cortex releases cortisol. What stimulates the release of cortisol?
TRH, hypothalamohyophyseal portal system, TSH
In response to cold weather, the hypothalamus releases _____, which is carried by the _____ to the anterior pituitary where it causes the release of
OT, hypothalamohypophyseal tract, milk ejection
An infant suckling at a mother’s breast will stimulate the mother’s hypothalamus to release _____, which is carried down the _____ and stimulates _____.
production of milk, production of testosterone
Prolactin (PRL) in females stimulates _____, and in males stimulates _____.
ovulation, secretion of testosterone
In females, the luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates _____, while in males, LH stimulates _____.
GH
This hormone enhances amino acid transport into cells and increases protein synthesis, catabolizes fat for energy, and promotes glycogen synthesis.
at night, during pregnancy and nursing
Pituitary hormones are not secreted at a steady rate. GH is secreted mainly _____, while PRL is secreted mainly _____.
melatonin, serotonin
If you have seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is a mood dysfunction, you would have high levels of _____ and low levels of _____.
thymopoietin and thymosin, t-lymphocytes
The thymus secretes the hormones _____, which regulate _____.
thyroid hormones, calcitonin
The thyroid follicles store and secrete _____, while the C cells secrete _____.
iodine atoms
The two thyroid hormones (TH) are T3 and T4. The “3” and “4” refer to number of
T4, T3
In the formation of the thyroid hormones, 90% of the secreted thyroid hormone is _____, while _____ is the thyroid hormone that affects target cells.
gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fat breakdown, release of glucose and fatty acids into circulation
Some major functions of the thyroid hormone (TH) are to stimulate
glucagon and epinephrine
These two hormones both stimulate glycogenolysis and increase glucose levels in the blood.
insulin
This hormone stimulates glucose uptake, storage of glycogen, and storage of fat in muscle and adipose tissue. It also stimulates uptake of amino acids and protein synthesis in many cells.
progesterone, estradiol
In the ovary, follicle, or granulosa, cells secrete _____, while after ovulation the corpus luteum secretes _____.
inhibin, testosterone
In the testes, the sustenacular (sertoli) cells secrete _____, and the interstitial cells secrete _____.
steroids, unbound
T3 and T4 are _____ hormones that are carried _____ in the blood.
EP and cortisol
The stress response, or general adaptation syndrome (GAS), primarily involves the elevated levels of these two hormones.
the energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism
The stage of exhaustion in the stress response occurs after months of stress, and the body’s homeostatic conditions deteriorate rapidly when
arachidonic acid, cell membrane
Eicosanoids are a family of paracrine secretions derived from _____ that is released from the _____.
addison’s disease
President John F. Kennedy had this disease.
Ovaries
Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty.
Pituitary gland
Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain.
Testes
Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics.
Adrenal glands
Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
Hypothalamus
Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ.
Bones and muscles
Target of Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH).
Testes, ovaries
Target of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
Mammary glands
Target of Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH).
Adrenal cortex
Target of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
Thyroid
Target of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).
Graves’ disease
An autoimmune problem involving the thyroid gland.
Pituitary dwarfism
Hyposecretion of growth hormone.
Diabetes mellitus
Hyposecretion of the pancreas.
Addison’s disease
Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex.
Acromegaly
Hypersecretion of growth hormone.
Myxedema
Hyposecretion of the thyroid in adults.
Cushing’s disease
Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex.
Cretinism
Hyposecretion of the thyroid in infants.
Hypophysis
The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands.
Adrenal medulla
The gland that controls the fight-or-flight reaction.
Pancreas
Produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body.
Parathyroid
Produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue.
Thyroid
Produces the body’s major metabolic hormones.
TRUE
T/F: In humans, melatonin may inhibit sexual maturation.
TRUE
T/F: The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin-parathormone.
FALSE
T/F: The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin.
FALSE
T/F: Addison’s disease is due to a deficit output of glucocorticoids only.
TRUE
T/F: Both “turn on” factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and “turn off” factors (feedback inhibin and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.
TRUE
T/F: ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.
TRUE
T/F: LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin.
TRUE
T/F: With age, chronic stress increases blood levels of cortisol and appears to contribute to memory deterioration.
TRUE
T/F: Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.
FALSE
T/F: Follicle cells of the thyroid gland produce thyroglobulin, while follicle cells of the parathyroid produce calcitonin.
TRUE
T/F: Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production.
TRUE
T/F: The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis.
TRUE
T/F: The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin.
FALSE
T/F: Most type 2 diabetics do not produce insulin.
FALSE
T/F: Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid produced in the adrenals but the least abundant.
TRUE
T/F: Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium.
TRUE
T/F: Although glucagon is a small polypeptide, it is nevertheless very potent in its regulatory effects.
TRUE
T/F: The thyroid gland is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an individual.
TRUE
T/F: Many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmitters.
TRUE
T/F: All of the following hormones are secreted by the Adenohypophysis: ACTH, FSH, and LH.
TRUE
T/F: Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.
FALSE
T/F: The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.
FALSE
T/F: Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.
FALSE
T/F: Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune response when an individual is suffering from severe stress.
FALSE
T/F: Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.
TRUE
T/F: All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA.
TRUE
T/F: All adenohypophyseal hormones except GH affect their target cells via cyclic AMP second messenger.
cortisol
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of
thymus gland
Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the
second messengers
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular _____.
A (enzyme)
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
a. enzyme
b. humoral
c. neural
d. hormonal
hormones
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called _____.
infundibulum
The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract is partly contained within the _____.
D (All of the above)
Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?
a. polyuria
b. polydipsia
c. polyphagia
d. all of the above
type of hormone
What is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?
positive feedback control mechanism
Oxytocin release is an example of a _____.
alcohol
ADH is inhibited by _____.
entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by
sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
Gonadocorticoid production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with
down-regulation
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentration causes a phenomenon known as
D (direct control of the nervous system)
Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?
a. a change in membrane potential
b. the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis
c. an increase in enzymatic activity
d. direct control of the nervous system
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on
hypophyseal portal system
Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the
it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because
entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
Steroid hormones exert their action by
binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by
during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because
G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because
steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to
epinephrine
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaption syndrome is
humoral stimulation
One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
bones and skeletal muscles
The major targets of growth hormone are
targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through
the heart
Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?
cortisol
Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to
adipocytes
Leptin is secreted by
aldosterone
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is
epinephrine
What is not a steroid-based hormone?
a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell’s DNA
What is associated with the action of steroids on cells?
possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include
hypophyseal portal system
Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus first enter into the
hypothalamic secretion
ACTH secretion is regulated by a
parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood
What is true about calcium homeostasis?
increase sodium reabsorption
Aldosterone functions to
TH
The only amine hormone to act like a steroid is
liver
Which organ does not have hormone production?
up-regulation
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as
hydrocortisones
Eicosanoids do not include
FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes
A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Explain the problem.
liver
What organ is affected by thyroid hormone in adults?
it does not require a second messenger to affect a response
Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. What is the difference?
by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress?
calcium
What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-based hormones?
steroids
_____ are hormones synthesized from cholesterol.
prolactin
_____ is a hormone that has only one known effect: to stimulate milk production by the breasts.
acromegaly and gigantism
_____ are the result of hypersecretion of growth hormone.
thyroid
The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the _____.
erythropoietin, kidney
Which hormone stimulates production of RBCs and which organ or structure produces it?
glucagon
Alpha islet cells produce _____, and extremely potent hyperglycemic hormone.
pineal
The _____ gland may influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity.
thymus
The _____ gland declines in size and function with age.
humoral, neural
Endocrine gland stimuli include hormonal, _____, and _____ stimuli.
ACTH
As a result of stress the adenohypophysis releases _____, which stimulates release of hormones from the adrenal cortex that retains sodium and water, increase blood sugar, and begin breaking down fats.
endocrine glands are ductless glands that release hormones into the blood to be transported to other organs, exocrine glands have ducts through which products are released
Compare the structure and function of endocrine and exocrine glands.
although the adenohypophysis has many hormonal products, the hypothalamus controls anterior pituitary activity through regulatory factors
Why should the hypothalamus instead of the adenohypophysis be called the “master gland”?
the amount of growth hormone secreted declines with age and the closure of the epiphyseal plates prohibits further growth in length of the long bones
Why would one not expect to continue increasing in height with age?
hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids
A woman with excessive body hair, a deep voice, and an enlarged clitoris shows the outward symptoms of what hormonal dysfunction?
alcohol inhibits ADH secretion
A person who drinks a lot of alcoholic beverages must urinate frequently. Why?
glucagon and insulin use different cell surface receptors
Glucagon and insulin both target the cells of the liver and are both made in the pancreas, yet they have very different effects on the cells they target. What accounts for this fact?
into the blood
A major difference between neurotransmitters and hormones is that hormones are secreted
whether the hormonal molecule is hydrophobic or hydrophilic
A major determinant of a hormone’s mechanism of action is
inside the target cell
Receptors for steroid hormones are commonly located _____.
a second messenger
Interaction with a membrane-bound receptor will transduce the hormonal message via _____.
prolonged activity of the cell
Treatment of a hormone’s target cell with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor will result in
small concentrations of hormone can activate many intracellular signals via amplification
Second messenger-activating hormones circulate in minute quantities because
D
Which of the following molecules act as second messengers?
a. cAMP
b. Ca2+
C. Inositol triphosphate
D. All of the above
D
It’s possible for a steroid hormone and a protein hormone to affect the same intracellular protein because:
a. the steroid hormone may direct the synthesis of the protein.
b. the protein hormone may activate the protein.
c. the protein hormone may direct the synthesis of the protein.
d. all of the above
a receptor
In order for a hormone to activate a target cell, the target cell must possess
D
The most common form of endocrine malfunction is
a. failure of the gland to produce the hormone
b. insensitivity of the target cell to the hormone
c. overproduction of the hormone by the gland
d. all of the above
humoral
When the pancreas releases insulin in direct response to blood glucose, this is an example of _____ stimulation.
neural
When an infant suckles at his mother’s breast, the mother’s Neurohypophysis releases oxytocin. This is an example of _____ stimulation.
hormonal
When the ovaries secrete estrogen in response to the hormone GnRH, this is an example of _____ stimulation.
negative feedback
Blood levels of hormone are kept within very narrow ranges by _____ mechanisms.
adenohypophysis
Hormones secreted into the hypophyseal portal system are delivered directly to the _____.
somatomedins
The long bone growth-promoting effects of growth hormone are mediated by _____.
adrenal cortex, gonads
Secretions from the corticotrophs activate cells of the _____, while secretions from the gonadotrophs affect cells of the _____.
hyposecretion of ADH
A patient is displaying high volumes of urine output and severe dehydration. The most likely cause is
D
Common secretion(s) of the thyroid gland are
a. calcitonin
b. triiodothyronine
c. thyroxine
d. all of the above
hyperthyroidism
A patient is losing weight rapidly, sweating profusely, and is always anxious. The patient may be suffering from _____.
gonadocorticoids
Occasionally a female patient will experience hirsutism, or excessive facial hair growth. However, blood tests reveal that her levels of testosterone are normal for a female. Another cause could be hypersecretion of
PTH, calcitonin
Two hormones govern calcium regulation. _____ acts to elevate blood calcium levels, whereas _____ lowers blood calcium levels.
aldosterone
_____ is the adrenal hormone responsible for maintaining appropriate blood sodium levels.
D
_____ trigger(s) secretion of aldosterone.
a. Increased K+ (potassium)
b. Angiotensin II
c. ANP
d. Both a and b
cortisol
During times of stress, elevated levels of _____ often occur, which explains why we get a cold during final exam time.
adrenal medulla
Along with the sympathetic nervous system, the _____ is the other primary mediator of acute stress.
melatonin
The secretion of _____ helps regulate our circadian rhythms.
D
The thymus secretes the hormones
a. thymopoietin
b. Thymosin
c. thymic factor
d. all of the above
kidney
Which structure produces a hormone responsible for stimulating red blood cell production?
skin
What structure produces a precursor to hormonal vitamin D, important for Ca2+ regulation?
hormones
The endocrine glands secrete
interstital fluids, blood stream, target cells
Hormones diffuse from __________ into _________ and eventually act on ___________
secretions that do not travel in the blood stream to their targets
Paracrine secretions are
secretions that affect the secreting cell itself
Autocrine secretions are
ducts
Exocrine glands secrete substances into
metabolic processes
Endocrine glands and their hormones control
reproduction, development, growth
Endocrine hormones also play vital roles in
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas
The larger endocrine glands are the
target cells
Hormones only affect their
receptors, particular hormones
Target cells have ________ for _________
cholesterol
Steroid hormones are synthesized from
amino acids
Nonsteroid hormones are synthesized from
lipids
Steroids are
testosterone, estrogen, aldosterone, cortisol
Examples of steroid hormones are
norepinephrine, epinephrine
Examples of hormones called amines are
long chains of amino acids
Protein hormones are composed of
those secreted by the anterior pituitary and parathyroid glands
Examples of protein hormones are
anterior pituitary
Hormones called glycoproteins are produced by the
short chains of amino acids
Peptide hormones are
posterior pituitary and hypothalamus
Peptide hormones come from the
paracrine substances, wide variety of cells.
Prostaglandins are _______ and are produced in a
altering metabolic processes
Hormones exert their effects by
target cells
Hormones may reach all cells but only affect
response
The more receptors the hormone binds on its target cell, the greater the
water, lipids
Steroid hormones are insoluble in ____ but are soluble in ________
into cells relatively easily
Steroid hormones can diffuse
specific protein receptors, nucleus
Once steroid hormones are inside a cell, they combine with ______ located usually in the _____
activates or inhibits
The binding of these hormones to the receptor usually _______ a gene.
specific proteins
Activated genes code for
enzymes, transport proteins, or hormone receptors
The new proteins may be ______ and they bring about cellular changes.
cell membrane
A nonsteroid hormone usually binds with receptors located on the
interact with other membrane proteins
When a nonsteroid hormone binds to a membrane receptor, this causes the receptor’s activity site to
function of enzymes or membrane transport mechanisms
Receptor binding may alter the __________, changing the concentrations of still other cellular components.
hormone that triggers a cascade of biochemical activity
A first messenger is the
chemicals in the cell that induce the changes that are recognized in responses to the hormone
Second messengers are
cyclic AMP
Many hormones use _______ as a second messenger.
binding of a hormone to the membrane receptor
G proteins are activated by the
protein kinases
Cyclic AMP activates another set of enzymes called
transfer phosphate groups, atp, proteins substrate molecules
Protein kinases function to _______ from __________ to ______
inactive, active
Phosphorylated substrates may be converted from _____ to ______ forms.
various cellular processes to bring about the effect of that particular hormone
Activated proteins then alter
releasing hormones from the hypothalamus, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, ADH, PTH, norepinephrine, epinephrine, glucagon and calcitonin
Hormones whose actions depend on cyclic AMP include
calcium
In another mechanism, a hormone binding its receptor increases
calmodulin
Calcium ions bind to the protein _______ to activate it.
interact with enzymes, altering their activities
Activated calmodulin functions to
responses to them are greatly amplified through second messengers
Cells are highly sensitive to changes in concentration of nonsteroid hormones because
paracrine substances that act locally
Prostaglandins are
cellular responses to hormones
Some prostaglandins regulate
relaxation of smooth muscle in airway and blood vessels, contraction of smooth muscle in the uterus, stimulation of secretion of various hormones, and promotion of inflammation
The variety of effects prostaglandins can produce include
excreted, enzymes, liver
Hormones are continually ___ in urine and broken down ______ in the ___________
increased or decreased secretion
Increasing or decreasing blood levels of hormones require
anterior pituitary gland’s release of tropic hormones
The hypothalamus controls the
other endocrine glands to release hormones
Tropic hormones stimulate
adrenal medulla
An example of an endocrine organ directly stimulated by the nervous system is the
the composition of the internal environment
Some endocrine glands respond to changes in
negative feedback mechanisms
As a result of __________, hormone levels remain relatively stable.
base of the brain
The pituitary gland is located
stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
The infundibulum is a
anterior, posterior
The two portions of the pituitary are
GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, PRL
The anterior lobe secretes the following hormones
OT, ADH
The posterior pituitary secretes the following hormones
hypothalamus
The _______ controls most of the pituitary gland’s activities
hypothalamus
The posterior pituitary receives impulses from the
releasing hormones, anterior pituitary
______ from the hypothalamus control the _______
vessels that pass downward along the pituitary stalk from the hypothalamus and give rise to capillary bed in the anterior lobe of the pituitary
The hypophyseal portal veins are
GH
Somatotropes secrete
PRL
Mammotropes secrete
TSH
Thyrotropes secrete
ACTH
Corticotropes secrete
FSH, LH
Gonadotropes secrete
stimulation of cells to enlarge and more rapidly divide, enhance movement of aminoa cids through the cell membranes, and increase the rate of protein synthesis
Actions of growth hormone are
somatostatin and GHRH
The secretion of GH is controlled by
sustain milk production after birth and to amplify effect of LH in males
Actions of prolactin are to
PIH and PRF
The secretion of PRL is under inhibitory control by
release its hormones
Actions of thyroid-stimulating hormone are to
TRH
The secretion of TSH is controlled by
control secretion of certain hormone from the adrenal cortex
The actions of adrenocorticotropic hormone are to
CRH
The secretion of ACTH is controlled by
LH and FSH
Gonadotropins are
promote development of egg-containing follicles in ovaries, to stimulate follicular cells to release estrogen, and in males, to stimulate production of sperm cells
The actions of follicle-stimulating hormone are to
promote secretion of sex hormones and to promote the release egg cells in females
The actions of luteinizing hormone are to
GnRH
The secretion of FSH and LH is controlled by
nerve fibers and neuroglial cells
The posterior pituitary consists of
OT and ADH
Specialized neurons in the hypothalamus produce two hormones called
through the pituitary stalk to the posterior pituitary
The hormones produced in the hypothalamus travel down
cause a reduction in water excretion and to raise blood pressure
The actions of antidiuretic hormone are to
blood water concentration and blood volume
The secretion of ADH is controlled by
contract muscles in uterine wall and to contract muscles associated with milk-secreting cells
The actions of oxytocin are to
uterine stretch and stimulation of breasts
The secretion of oxytocin is controlled by
two lobes
The thyroid gland consists of
just below the larynx on either side of the trachea
The thyroid gland is located
secretory parts of the thyroid gland
Follicles are
viscous fluid that fills follicles and contains thyroglobulin
Colloid is
glycoprotein
Thyroglobulin is a
outside of follicles
Extrafollicular cells are located
hormones
The follicular cells produce
T4, T3, calcitonin
The three hormones produced by the thyroid gland are
regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
The actions of thyroxine and triiodothyronine are to
TSH
The secretion of T3 and T4 are controlled by
iodine
Follicular cells require _____________ to produce T3 and T4
lower blood calcium levels
The actions of calcitonin are to
blood calcium levels
The secretion of calcitonin is controlled by
embedded in the posterior side of the thyroid gland
Parathyroid glands are located
4
Usually a person has ____ parathyroid glands
thin capsule
Each parathyroid gland is covered by a
many tightly packed secretory cells
The body of a parathyroid gland consists of
raise blood calcium
The actions of PTH are to
blood calcium levels
The secretion of PTH is controlled by
pyramids
The adrenal glands are shaped like
cortex, medulla
The two parts of an adrenal gland are the
irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels
The adrenal medulla consists of
closely packed masses of epithelial layers
The adrenal cortex is composed of
zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis
The three layers of the adrenal cortex are the
epinephrine, norepinephrine
The two hormones released by the adrenal medulla are
increased heart rate, increased force of cardiac muscle contraction, elevated blood pressure, increased breathing rate and decreased activity of the digestive system
The actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine are
sympathetic nervous system
The secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine are controlled by the
30
The adrenal cortex produces more than _____ different steroids
aldosterone, cortisol, and certain sex hormones
The most important adrenal cortical hormones are
zona glomerulosa, it helps regulate the concentration of mineral electrolytes
Aldosterone is secreted by the _______ and is called a mineralocorticoid because ______
regulation of concentration of extracellular electrolytes by conserving sodium ions and excreting potassium ions
The actions of aldosterone are
electrolyte concentrations in body fluids and the renin-angiotensin mechanism
The secretion of aldosterone is controlled by
zona fasciculata, affects glucose metabolism
Cortisol is secreted by the ______ and is called a glucocorticoid because it
decrease protein synthesis, increase fatty acid release, and stimulate glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrates
The actions of cortisol are to
CRH
The secretion of cortisol is controlled by
zona reticularis
The sex hormones are secreted by the
supplement sex hormones from the gonads
The actions of the sex hormones are to
androgens such as testosterone
Examples of sex hormones are
posterior to the stomach
The pancreas is located
islets of langerhans
The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of
alpha, beta, delta
Three cell types of the pancreatic islets are
glucagon
Alpha cells secrete
insulin
Beta cells secrete
somatostatin
Delta cells secrete
stimulate the liver to break down glycogen and to convert noncarbohydrates into glucose
The actions of glucagon are to
blood glucose concentrations
The secretion of glucagon is controlled by
promote the formation of glycogen from glucose, to inhibit conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose, and to enhance movement of glucose through adipose and muscle cell membranes
The actions of insulin are to
blood glucose concentrations
The secretion of insulin is controlled by
help regulate carbohydrates
The function of somatostatin is to
roof of the third ventricle
The pineal gland is located
melatonin
The pineal gland produces the hormone
regulate circadian rhythms and to inhibit secretion of gonadotropins
The functions of melatonin is to
between the lungs (mediastinum)
The thymus gland is located
thymosins
The thymus gland secretes a group of hormones called
promote maturation of t-lymphocytes
The function of thymosin is to
ovaries, testes
Reproductive organs that secrete hormones are
estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
Examples of hormones produced by reproductive organs are
factor capable of producing stress
A stressor is a
protective response produced by the body in response to stress factors
Stress is
extreme cold or heat, decreased oxygen concentrations, infection, injuries, heavy exercise, and loud sounds
Examples of physical stress include
imagined dangers, personal losses, unpleasant social interaction or any factor that threatens a person
Examples of psychological stress are
a group of symptoms produced by the hypothalamus in response to stress
The general stress syndrome is
increased blood glucose levels, increased heart rate and breathing rate, dilation of airways, and shunting of blood into muscles
Major events of the general stress syndrome are
decrease in size and increase in the proportion of each gland that is fibrous in nature
General changes in the glands of the endocrine system are
supplements of hormones or removing art of an overactive gland or using drugs to block the actions of an overabundant hormone
Treatments for endocrine disorders include
ADH
Levels of ________ increase with age and as a result, the kidneys
osteoporosis
The decrease of calcitonin levels with age increases the risk of
blood glucose regulation
The most obvious changes in endocrine function involve
D) cortisol
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.
A) aldosterone
B) insulin
C) secretin
D) cortisol
D) thymus gland
Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the ________.
A) adrenal medulla
B) pancreas
C) thyroid gland
D) thymus gland
D) second messengers
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.
A) ions
B) deactivators
C) nucleotides
D) second messengers
A) enzyme
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
A) enzyme
B) humoral
C) neural
D) hormonal
D) hormones
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.
A) enzymes
B) antibodies
C) proteins
D) hormones
B) is partly contained within the infundibulum
The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract ________.
A) connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland
B) is partly contained within the infundibulum
C) conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis
D) is the site of prolactin synthesis
D) All of these are signs.
Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?
A) polyuria
B) polydipsia
C) polyphagia
D) All of these are signs.
B) type of hormone
Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?
A) blood levels of hormone
B) type of hormone
C) number of receptors for that hormone
D) strength of the bond between the receptor and hormone
A) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
Oxytocin ________.
A) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
B) is an adenohypophyseal secretion
C) exerts its most important effects during menstruation
D) controls milk production
D) is inhibited by alcohol
ADH ________.
A) increases urine production
B) promotes dehydration
C) is produced in the adenohypophysis
D) is inhibited by alcohol
A) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________.
A) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
B) exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism
C) causing a reduction in the number of blood vessel adrenergic receptors, and therefore decreasing blood pressure
D) acting to decrease basal metabolic rate
B) production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
Gonadocorticoid(s) ________.
A) synthesized by the adrenal medulla are primarily androgens
B) production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
C) secretion inhibition is highly dependent on a negative feedback loop involving ACTH
D) hypersecretion can result in adrenogenital syndrome, also called feminization
C) down-regulation
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.
A) diabetes mellitus
B) cellular inhibition
C) down-regulation
D) metabolism of protein kinases
D) direct control of the nervous system
Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?
A) a change in membrane potential
B) the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis
C) an increase in enzymatic activity
D) direct control of the nervous system
C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.
A) the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
B) the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
D) nothingall hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
C) hypophyseal portal system
Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.
A) hepatic portal system
B) general circulatory system
C) hypophyseal portal system
D) feedback loop
D) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.
A) it is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with hormonal release
B) embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer functional
C) it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location
D) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
A) entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.
A) entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
B) finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity
C) stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen
D) increasing blood pressure
D) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.
A) synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed
B) increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ
C) not responding to a feedback mechanism
D) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
D) during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because ________.
A) there are thousands of receptors on the cell membrane
B) the receptors bind to several hormones at the same time
C) the protein kinases are rapidly metabolized
D) during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
C) G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ________.
A) peptide hormones always enter the cell membrane and elicit a response without assistance from other messengers
B) hormones alter cellular operations through stimulation of a gene directly
C) G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
D) the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit
B) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.
A) insulin, because insulin is a small peptide
B) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
C) growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone
D) glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone
B) epinephrine
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.
A) estrogen
B) epinephrine
C) angiotensinogen
D) renin
D) humoral stimulation
One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
A) the rapid oxidation of carbohydrates
B) catabolic inhibition
C) protein synthesis
D) humoral stimulation
D) bones and skeletal muscles
The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
A) the blood vessels
B) the adrenal glands
C) the liver
D) bones and skeletal muscles
B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.
A) blocking the action of growth hormone
B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
C) antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonin
D) slowing the activity of tissues that require calcium for activity
A) the heart
Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?
A) the heart
B) the kidney
C) the skin
D) the spleen
C) cortisol
Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ________.
A) testosterone
B) estrogen
C) cortisol
D) epinephrine
B) adipocytes
Leptin is secreted by ________.
A) lymphocytes
B) adipocytes
C) goblet cells
D) fibroblasts
B) aldosterone
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ________.
A) insulin
B) aldosterone
C) glucagon
D) cortisol
C) epinephrine
Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?
A) estrogen
B) aldosterone
C) epinephrine
D) cortisone
D) a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell’s DNA
Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells?
A) extracellular receptors with a specificity for only a single amino acid sequence on the hormone
B) an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP
C) second-messenger systems
D) a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell’s DNA
A) possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include ________.
A) possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
B) cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase formation of an active second messenger
C) formation of a specific protein kinase that acts on a series of extracellular intermediates
D) hormone binding to intracellular receptors
D) first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ________.
A) enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone-containing blood to the pituitary
B) enter the hepatic portal system, which feeds the pituitary
C) travel by arteries to the pituitary
D) first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
B) secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
ACTH ________.
A) is secreted by the posterior pituitary
B) secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
C) causes the release of hormones from the adrenal medulla
D) is not a tropic hormone
D) Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?
A) Increased calcitonin levels will cause increased blood calcium levels.
B) High calcium levels cause bone resorption.
C) Parathyroid hormone causes an increase in osteoblast activity.
D) Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption
Aldosterone ________.
A) is secreted by the neurohypophysis
B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption
C) presence increases potassium concentration in the blood
D) production is greatly influenced by ACTH
A) TH
The only amine hormone to act like a steroid is ________.
A) TH
B) ACTH
C) GH
D) ADH
C) liver
Which organ does not have hormone production?
A) heart
B) kidney
C) liver
D) skin
C) up-regulation
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ________.
A) the cell’s sensitivity reaction
B) cellular affinity
C) up-regulation
D) a reaction to a stressor
C) hydrocortisones
Eicosanoids do not include ________.
A) paracrines
B) leukotrienes
C) hydrocortisones
D) prostaglandins
C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.
A) FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells; therefore it is not synthesized by males.
B) The physician is wronga hormone made in the adenohypophysis could not influence fertility.
C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
D) The man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH.
A) liver
Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone in adults?
A) liver
B) spleen
C) thyroid gland
D) brain
B) It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?
A) It causes positive feedback.
B) It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
C) It is very specific in the cell type it targets.
D) It is a stimulant of cellular metabolism and targets all cells.
A) by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress?
A) by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
B) by decreasing the heart rate, thus decreasing blood pressure
C) by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin
D) by blocking the neurotransmitters that prepare the body for the stress response
B) calcium
What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acidbased hormones?
A) iron
B) calcium
C) sodium
D) chlorine
D. Ovaries
D. Ovaries
Produces hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty.
B.Pituitary Gland
B.Pituitary Gland
Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain
E.Testes
E.Testes
Produce hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics
C.Adrenal glands
C.Adrenal glands
Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
A.hypothalamus
A.hypothalamus
Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ
A
A
Match the following hormone with the target:
Growth Hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
C
C
Match the following hormone with the target:
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
B
B
Match the following hormone with the target:
Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH)
E
E
Match the following hormone with the target:
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
D
D
Match the following hormone with the target:
Thyrotropin-releasing hormong (TRH)
C.Grave’s disease
Match the following:
A.Addison’s disease
B.Acromegaly
C.Grave’s disease
D.Diabetes mellitus
E.Pituitary dwarfismAn autoimmune problem involving the thyroid gland

E.Pituitary dwarfism
Match the following:
A.Addison’s disease
B.Acromegaly
C.Grave’s disease
D.Diabetes mellitus
E.Pituitary dwarfismHyposecretion of growth hormone

D.diabetes mellitus
Match the following:
A.Addison’s disease
B.Acromegaly
C.Grave’s disease
D.Diabetes mellitus
E.Pituitary dwarfismhyposecretion of the pancreas

A.Addison’s disease
Match the following:
A.Addison’s disease
B.Acromegaly
C.Grave’s disease
D.Diabetes mellitus
E.Pituitary dwarfismHyposecretion of the adrenal cortex

B.acromegaly
Match the following:
A.Addison’s disease
B.Acromegaly
C.Grave’s disease
D.Diabetes mellitus
E.Pituitary dwarfismHypersecretion of growth hormone

A.myxedema
Match the following:
A.Myxedema
B.Cretinism
C.Gigantism
D.Cushing’s diseasehyposecretion of the thyroid in adults

D.Cushing’s disease
Match the following:
A.Myxedema
B.Cretinism
C.Gigantism
D.Cushing’s diseaseHypersecretion of the adrenal cortex

C.gigantism
Match the following:
A.Myxedema
B.Cretinism
C.Gigantism
D.Cushing’s diseaseHypersecretion of growth hormone

B.cretinism
Match the following:
A.Myxedema
B.Cretinism
C.Gigantism
D.Cushing’s diseaseHyposecretion of the thyroid in infants

C.hypophysis
Match the following:
A.Thyroid
B.Adrenal medulla
C.Hypophysis
D.Parathyroid
E.PancreasThe size & shape of a pea; produces hormones and stimulates other endocrine glands

B.adrenal medulla
Match the following:
A.Thyroid
B.Adrenal medulla
C.Hypophysis
D.Parathyroid
E.PancreasThe gland that controls the fight-or-flight reaction

E.pancreas
Match the following:
A.Thyroid
B.Adrenal medulla
C.Hypophysis
D.Parathyroid
E.Pancreasproduces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body

D.parathyroid
Match the following:
A.Thyroid
B.Adrenal medulla
C.Hypophysis
D.Parathyroid
E.Pancreasproduces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue

A.thyroid
Match the following:
A.Thyroid
B.Adrenal medulla
C.Hypophysis
D.Parathyroid
E.PancreasProduces the body’s major metabolic hormones

D.Excessively high blood iodine concentrations
Factors that inhibit TSH release do NOT include ____
A.presence of ADH
B.rising levels of glucocorticoids
C.somatostatin
D.excessively high blood iodine concentrations
D.first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ____
A.enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone-containing blood to the pituitary
B.enter the hepatic portal system, which feeds the pituitary
C.travel by arteries to the pituitary
D.first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
A.include ACTH and TSH
Tropic Hormones _____
A.include ACTH and TSH
B.do NOT regulate the function of other endocrine glands
C.exert their effects on cells by direct gene activation
D.include GH and PRL
D.promotes long bone growth during the formative years
Growth hormone ______
A. is also called somatostatin
B.is regulated by humoral mechanisms
C.secretion results in a decrease in muscle mass
D.promotes long bone growth during the formative years
C.An amino acid derivative can be a hormone
Select the correct statement about hormonal structure of function
A.Prostaglandins are biologically active peptides
B.Modified cholesterol forms the main structural component of the peptone hormones
C.An amino acid derivative can be a hormone
D.an example of local hormone is testosterone
D.a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with cell’s DNA
Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells
A.extracellular receptors with a specificity for only a single amino acid sequence on the hormone
B.an enzyme that catalyzes the formatinpo of cyclic AMP
C.second-messenger systems
D.a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with cell’s DNA
A.possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include_____
A.possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
B.cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase formation of an active second messenger
C.formation of a specific protein kinase that acts on a series of extracellular intermediates
hormone binding to intracellular receptors
D.hormone binding to intracellular receptors
C.when the body’s glucose level rises
Insuline, a small (51-amino acid) protein, is synthesized by the beta cells of the pancreas. This hormone is released _____
A.in excessive amounts in obese people
B.in response to severe physical stress (i.e. ten mile run)
C.when the body’s glucose level rises
D.when the body’s gllucose level drops

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