Combo with GOVT 2302: Quiz 14 and 1 other

The goals of American social policy are:
often controversial.

Which of the following is an example of 19th century “indoor relief”?
the police station

Which group was the first to receive government assistance throughout the United States?
mothers with dependent children

Social case work, in the 19th and early 20th centuries, was largely concerned with:
personal counseling and “mental hygiene.”

How did the Great Depression change American attitudes about welfare?
It revealed that poverty could be caused by a flawed economic system, not just by personal irresponsibility.

When was Social Security established?
1935

Social Security is a good example of:
a contributory program.

Which of the following is not a program of forced savings?
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families

Which of the following statements about Social Security is false?
Contributors receive benefits in strict proportion to their contribution.

Medicare is a _____ program; Medicaid is a _____ program.
contributory; noncontributory

The periodic adjustment of benefits or wages that takes into account the increased cost of living is called:
indexing.

Why have Americans typically been apprehensive about government efforts to reform health care?
They fear reform will be too costly and will jeopardize current health care arrangements.

A cost-of-living adjustment is based on what?
the rate of inflation

When potential recipients of a benefit establish their genuine need, the government program is called:
means tested.

What important noncontributory program was abolished by Congress in 1996?
Aid to Families with Dependent Children

When was Medicare established?
1965

The Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program is administered:
by the states, with benefit levels varying between states.

Which of the following statements about noncontributory programs is false?
The existence of these programs dates from the Civil War.

Which program was designed to help argument the benefits to the aged, blind, and disabled?
Supplemental Security Income

Which of the following is an in-kind benefit?
food stamps

How does an entitlement differ from a right?
Unlike an entitlement, a right cannot be taken away by an act of Congress.

What was the significance of the Supreme Court case Goldberg v. Kelly?
It held that public assistance benefits could not be revoked without due process of law.

Which of the following is not a goal of American social policy?
closing the gap between rich and poor

What do public opinion polls reveal about welfare policies?
They are among the most disliked government programs.

What was the reason behind Progressive-era welfare for single mothers?
Reformers wanted women to stay home with their children rather than go to work.

The welfare reforms of 1996 did all of the following except:
take the federal government out of welfare policy, granting all authority to the states.

Which of the following can be concluded from the results of the 1996 welfare reforms?
The reforms have reduced the number of people on welfare but have done little to reduce poverty.

The main change in welfare policies since 1996 is:
increases use of non-cash assistance.

Approximately what percentage of the current federal budget is spent on entitlement programs, such as Social Security and Medicare?
55 percent

Over the past three decades, the level of federal payroll tax has _____, and the level of federal corporate taxes has _____.
risen; fallen

Which of the following social policies is most costly to the government?
Social Security

Which of the following is not an identifiable problem with Social Security?
The political consensus supporting a federal retirement program is crumbling.

The idea of _____ was at the heart of George W. Bush’s 2005 plan for Social Security reform.
private accounts

The goals of social policy:
reflect changing views about which risks should be borne by the individual, or shared by society.

After the election of 2004, President George W. Bush announced that _____ would be the centerpiece of his domestic policy.
Social Security reform

The first federal government assistance in education came:
in 1785, when the federal government set aside land for public schools.

What is the most significant force determining the distribution of opportunities in the United States?
education

What was the most significant education policy developed by the federal government in the 19th century?
the establishment of land-grant colleges

What event brought federal attention to elementary school education?
the fear that the Soviets were winning the Cold War through better technology

The idea that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to achieve their goals is called:
equality of opportunity.

Which of the following statements about the No Child Left Behind Act is false?
It creates a standard national test for all students.

Which of the following was a key part of President Obama’s overhaul of No Child Left Behind?
a proposal to change the criteria for allocating $14 billion in federal assistance to schools from a per pupil formula to a system of competitive grants

Which of the following is not a reason why the No Child Left Behind Act has been controversial?
The states were made responsible for setting standards and devising appropriate tests.

Charter schools are best described as:
public schools that are free to design special curricula.

Who was in charge of caring for the poor during the 19th century?
private corporations

Since the 1930s, American employment and training programs have:
fared poorly in terms of both expense and results.

Which of the following was created during the New Deal?
Works Progress Administration

When was the U.S. Public Health Service founded?
1798

What was the result of the efforts to reform health care in the United States in 1994?
Health care reform met resistance and no bill was voted on by Congress.

In 2010, approximately what percentage of American workers were offered health insurance through their jobs?
60 percent

Which of the following was not included in the congressional plans for health care reform?
a “public option” allowing individuals to acquire medical coverage directly from the government

The central thrust of federal housing policy has been to:
promote homeownership.

In 2007 and 2008, the government faced a housing crisis cause by:
foreclosures.

Which of the following is the strongest factor in predicting which groups in society receive the most benefits from government’s social policies?
groups that are the most politically powerful

Which of the following groups receives the most benefits from government’s social policies?
the middle class

When did the American welfare state begin?
the 1930s

Which of the following groups receives the least benefits from government’s social policies?
children

Which of the following least explains why the elderly receive a large share of social benefits?
Most members of Congress are themselves elderly or soon will be.

AARP has a membership of approximately _____ members.
40 million

Between 1959 and 2004, the percentage of elderly Americans living in poverty has gone from ___ to ___.
35 percents; 10 percent

_____ are programs when the government provides a tax deduction for spending on health insurance and other benefits by both employers and employees.
Tax expenditures.

Which of the following is the best example of the shadow welfare state?
workplace medical insurance

What is the shadow welfare state?
social benefits that are distributed by private employers who are being subsidized by the government

Which of the following programs most benefits the working poor?
earned income tax credits

Which of the following is not a reason the working poor receive such a small amount of social policy benefits?
The working poor are often considered undeserving by public opinion.

Since the welfare reforms of 1996, what is the primary reason for receiving federal cash assistance if one is nonworking and able-bodied?
The recipient is caring for children.

What was the primary problem with private charities before the development of the welfare state?
They would make subjective decisions on who was deserving or undeserving of aid.

Since the mid-1990s, by how much has the number of welfare recipients declined in the United States?
over 50 percent

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Men are more likely to be poor than women.

Which of the following groups are more than twice as likely as other Americans to be below the poverty line?
single mothers

According to the text, why is it difficult to lobby for the interests of poor children?
Children cannot vote.

What was outdoor relief distributed by private charities?
money

What was the main fear concerning the consequences of outdoor relief?
It perpetuated poverty.

In a federal system a majority of governmental responsibilities are
C. shared by both state and federal authorities

Nations that adopt a federal arrangement tend to have
A. diverse ethnic or language groups.

Which of the following is the best example of a unitary system of government?
A. The federal government sets education policies for all schools.

The United States, Canada, and Switzerland can all be described as ______ systems of government while France can be described as a ______ system of government.
B. federal; unitary

The federal system can be best defined as
B. a system of government in which power is divided between a national government and lower levels of government.

The specific powers granted to the national government in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution are called the
B. expressed powers.

The source of an implied power under the Constitution is the ______ clause.
C. necessary and proper

What constitutional clause affirms that national laws and treaties, made under the authority of the Constitution, are the supreme law of the land?
D. the supremacy clause

What is the purpose of the Tenth Amendment?
B. to limit the powers of the central government by establishing reserved powers for states and individuals

A state government’s authority to regulate the safety, health, and morals of its citizens is called ______ power.
A. police

Which of the following powers do state governments not have?
E. to coin their own money

Which constitutional clause has been central in debates over gay and lesbian marriage?
A. the full faith and credit clause

Federal systems are most commonly found in countries that have a highly homogenous population.
False

The Tenth Amendment gives the national government expressed powers over state governments.
False

The Anti-federalists feared an overly strong central government under the new Constitution.
True

The full faith and credit clause demands that the U.S. government run a balanced budget.
False

The Constitution guarantees that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state.
True

The Bill of Rights was ratified by the states in
C. 1791.

The Bill of Rights
A. is the first ten amendments to the Constitution.

Which of the following best describes the distinction between civil liberties and civil rights?
A. Unlike civil liberties, civil rights place positive obligations on the government to take action.

Which of the following rights is not found in the original, unamended Constitution?
C. prohibition against cruel and unusual punishments

What was the main reason that Alexander Hamilton did not want a bill of rights?
C. He believed it was unnecessary for a government that possessed only specifically delegated powers.

The Bill of Rights was written because
A. the Antifederalists demanded it as the price of ratification of the Constitution.

During the Founding era, who were the strongest supporters of adding a bill of rights to the Constitution?
B. Antifederalists

The substantive liberties found in the Bill of Rights
A. put limits on what government shall and shall not have the power to do.

The procedural liberties found in the Bill of Rights
B. define how the government is supposed to act.

Which of the following is the best example of a substantive civil liberty?
C. “Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion.”

The due process clause of the Fifth Amendment is best described as
B. a procedural civil liberty.

Which of the following is not a liberty protected by the Bill of Rights?
D. equal protection of the laws

According to the text, the constitutional problem relating to the incorporation of the Bill of Rights can be expressed as the following question:
A. Does the Bill of Rights put limits only on the national government, or does it limit state governments as well?

Why is Palko v. Connecticut an important case?
B. The Supreme Court explained the process for determining which parts of the Bill of Rights would protect individuals against states as well as the national government.

The constitutional basis for the nationalization of the Bill of Rights is
C. the Fourteenth Amendment.

Which of the following rights has never been incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment?
B. right to bear arms

In what year was freedom of speech extended to protect against the acts of state governments?
D. 1925

The wall of separation between church and state is best found in what clause of the Constitution?
B. the establishment clause

The ______ of the First Amendment protects an individual’s right to believe and practice whatever religion she or he chooses.
C. free exercise

The Supreme Court’s decision in West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette was significant because
A. it endorsed the free exercise of religion even when it is offensive to the beliefs of the majority.

In West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, the Supreme Court announced that
B. children cannot be required to salute the flag if it violates their religious faith.

The Supreme Court case concerning smoking peyote during Native Americans’ religious rituals demonstrates that the Court’s key problem in ruling on religious freedom is to determine
A. the difference between religious beliefs and conduct that is based on religious beliefs.

The judicial doctrine that places a heavy burden of proof on the government when it seeks to regulate or restrict speech is called
C. strict scrutiny.

What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?
A. laws passed in the 1790s that made it a crime to say or publish anything that would defame the government of the United States

Under the Civil Rights Act, plaintiffs must show that an employer deliberately discriminated against them in order to win a lawsuit.
True

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 led to an immediate increase in the number of African Americans registered to vote in the South.
True

The Equal Rights Amendment failed because it did not secure support from the required number of states necessary for ratification
True

Since the 1960s, the number of groups seeking protection of their civil rights has decreased.
False

Affirmative action programs were first established in the 1960s.
False

The Supreme Court has ruled that the death penalty is a violation of the Eighth Amendment.
False

Roe v. Wade prohibits states from making abortions illegal based on the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
True

Plessy v. Ferguson upheld the authority of states to require segregation.
True

After Brown v. Board of Education, schools in the South quickly desegregated.
False

Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans believed that gays should have equal employment rights?
E. 89 percent

Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans disagreed with the statement “Any group should be allowed to hold a rally for a cause”?
B. 31 percent

Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans is worried about government monitoring of personal information?
C. 56 percent

Which of the following terms describe America’s fundamental political values?
E. liberty, equality, and democracy

Freedom from government control is what most Americans call
C. liberty.

The process by which underlying political values are formed is known as
A. political socialization.

Which of the following statements about agencies of socialization is incorrect?
C. The conditions under which individuals and groups are recruited into and involved in political life have no impact on political values and orientations.

People’s political party preferences are primarily acquired through the influence of
A. their families.

Which of the following statements best describes perceptions of racism among blacks and whites?
A. Blacks are more likely than whites to believe that racism is very common in the United States today.

The term gender gap refers to
A. differences in political opinions between men and women.

What is the key difference between those who have gone to college and those who have not?
C. There is a higher level of political participation among those with a college education.

A political ideology is best defined as
C. a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the government.

Most Americans are unified in their belief in the principles of liberty, equality, and democracy.
True

Less than 50 percent of Americans believe that gays should have equal employment rights.
False

Families, social groups, and schools are important institutions where people are politically socialized.
True

During the formation of an individual’s initial political orientation, the influence of family counts for very little.
False

Differences in opinion can be influenced by one’s gender.
True

The Alien and Sedition Acts were
A. Federalist attempts to silence the Republican press.

The Constitution’s guarantee of freedom of the press can be found in
A. the First Amendment.

Which of the following news sources reaches the most Americans?
B. television

Which of the following news sources typically provides the least depth while covering topics?
B. television

George H. W. Bush’s 1988 statement “Read my lips, no new taxes” is a good example of a(n)
C. sound bite.

A short, attention-grabbing phrase that summarizes a position is called a
C. sound bite.

The news source that eighteen- to twenty-nine-year-olds most commonly turn to is
B. broadcast television.

Which statement is correct?
C. More local news reporters than national reporters are inclined to give politicians positive coverage.

Why do radio stations repeat the news so often throughout the day?
B. The audience is constantly changing since most people listen to the radio in their cars.

According to the text, which of the following is the most important, but not the most popular, source of news?
D. newspapers

Which group has had great popularity on radio talk shows?
A. conservatives

Which media source is most critical in setting news agendas?
A. newspapers

Television reaches more Americans than any other single source of news.
True

The most important sources for setting a news agenda are newspapers.
True

Newspapers are among the most heavily regulated media in the United States.
False

Federal rules grant individuals an opportunity to respond to personal attacks made on television or the radio.
True

The Federal Communications Commission no longer requires broadcasters who air controversial issues to provide time for opposing views.
True

Which of the following is the best description of a political party?
C. an organization that tries to influence the government by getting its members elected to office

Who is the incumbent?
A. the current officeholder, running for re-election

The United States began its tradition of the ______ during the eighteenth century.
B. two-party system

Throughout its history, American politics has been dominated by
B. two major political parties.

Which of the following best explains where the standard organizational structure of a political party originated?
A. the competitive organizing activities of the Jeffersonian Republicans and the Federalists

When a ruling political party is supplanted by a new dominant political force, it is called
B. an electoral realignment.

Which of the following occurs when one party becomes dominant after replacing another party that has dominated national politics for a lengthy period of time?
A. an electoral realignment

Which of the following was not a date of an electoral realignment?
E. 1994

The Federalist Party disappeared forever as a result of
B. the War of 1812.

What were the two major parties in the United States during the 1830s and 1840s?
C. the Democrats and the Whigs

Which of the following transpires when one party controls the presidency while another party controls one or both houses of Congress?
B. a divided government

Historically, realignments occur
A. when new issues combine with economic or political crises to mobilize new voters and persuade large numbers of voters to reexamine their traditional partisan loyalties.

The Whig Party’s period of political domination came right after the Civil War.
False

The first political parties in the United States were the Democrats and the Republicans.
False

There have been at least five party systems in U.S. history.
True

The New Deal Coalition broke down during the 1960s.
True

Most third parties in the United States today originated during the nineteenth century.
False

A ______ is a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for powers expressly delegated to a national government.
confederacy

A government that accepts no legal limits on its power but may accept the restraint of other social institutions, such as churches, is known as
authoritarian

According to a 2007 poll, compared to readers of major newspaper websites, the audience of the Daily Show with Jon Stewart and the Colbert Report had ______ political knowledge.
equal

According to historian Charles Beard, the framers of the Constitution were most concerned with
promoting their economic interests

According to recent surveys, only ______ percent of the U.S. population could identify Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke, while approximately ______ percent could identify Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.
45, 85

According to the text, what is the goal of politics?
to have a say in a government’s leadership, organization, and policies

According to the text, what is the main benefit of a constitutional government?
The government is limited by rule of law.

According to the text, which of the following is the most important act of a citizen?
participating in public debates

According to the text, which sector of society did not have interests that were important to colonial politics?
slaves

Affirmative action is very controversial because
Americans argue about whether it promotes or restrains equality.

All of the following are constitutional powers of the president except the power to
regulate commerce between the states

An autocracy exists when
the government is controlled by a single individual

At the time of the Founding, approximately ______ percent of non-Native American inhabitants of the thirteen states were of European ancestry.
80

Before the eighteenth century governments
rarely sought the support of their people

Compared with the Articles of Confederation, federalism under the Constitution has led to
greater centralization of power

Disputes over affirmative action demonstrate that
Americans disagree over the public’s legitimate role in ensuring the equality of opportunity.

During the Philadelphia Convention, the New Jersey Plan was supported by
less populous states

Historically, what were the most effective intermediaries for increasing political participation?
parliaments

How was the power in Congress divided under the Articles of Confederation?
Each state had an equal vote

In ______ women were granted the constitutional right to vote.
1920

In American political culture, economic freedom means
laissez-faire capitalism

James Madison believed that in the Constitutional Convention the greatest conflict of interests was between
Northern and Southern states

John Locke and John Stuart Mill are important philosophers for which of the following ideologies?
liberty and political rights

On the subject of representation, Antifederalists wanted
representative bodies that resembled those represented to the highest degree.

Only one-third of the Senate is up for re-election during any single election year because the framers believed that
this was the only way to protect the senate against radical changes

Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education reveal two very different visions of what political value?
equality

political culture refers to
the shared values, beliefs, and attitudes that serve to hold a nation and its people together.

politics can be defined as
conflicts over the character, membership, and policies of any organization to which people belong.

Procedures outlining how to amend the Constitution are found in Article
Article V

Shay’s Rebellion was significant because it
convinced many observers that the government of the Confederation had become dangerously inefficient and indecisive.

Since the 1960s, Americans’ trust in their government has generally
fallen sharply

Successful amendments to the Constitution
are most commonly concerned with the structure or composition of the government.

Survey data shows that the level of Americans’ political knowledge is
high concerning current events but low concerning history.

The Antifederalists argued that the powers of government should be limited by
both confining the powers of the federal government to certain narrowly defined areas and adding a bill of rights to the Constitution.

The Articles of Confederation were adopted in
1777

The belief that you can influence how your government acts is called
political efficacy

The Boston Tea Party resulted in all of the following except
the boston massacre

The demand that there be no taxation without representation is a good example of what political reform of the eighteenth century?
more popular influence on government

The electoral college is
designed to select the president

The existence of slavery in the United States is a good example of how
American values are not always reflected in practice

The framers of the Constitution intended to create a presidency capable of
withstanding excessive popular pressure by making it subject to indirect election through the electoral college

The Great Compromise led to the
creation of a bicameral congress

The idea of a “living constitution” means
the judiciary can shape the interpretation of the constitution in line with contemporary problems

The is the most important concept for the theory of pluralism.
group

The issue of representation, which threatened to wreck the entire Constitutional Convention, was resolved by the Great Compromise, also called the
Connecticut compromise

The key group in Europe that pushed for limited government was
the bourgeoisie.

The most important political value for the framers of the Constitution was
individual liberty

The National Origins Quota System
allowed a large quota of new immigrants from northern European countries but only a small quota of new immigrants from eastern and southern European countries.

The principle of giving each branch of government its own constituency is what Montesquieu calls a
mixed regime

The right of each citizen to vote is an example of
political equality

The Stamp Act was a
tax on commerce

The struggle of competing interest groups for governmental influence is called
pluralism

The system of shared powers, divided between a central government and the states, is called
federalism

The Virginia Plan of the Constitutional Convention proposed a system of representation in the national legislature that was based upon
the population of each state or the proportion of each state’s revenue contribution or both.

The willingness to be restrained by the power of social institutions, but not political or legal institutions, is a hallmark of a(n) ______ regime.
authoritarian

Throughout American history, the concept of liberty has been linked to
the idea of limited government

To amend the Constitution requires a ______ vote by Congress, and approval by ______ of the states.
two-thirds, three-fourths

True or False: Members of Congress had significant independence from their states under the Articles.
False

Under the Articles of Confederation, it was left to the ______ to execute the laws passed by Congress.
states

What are the three core values in American politics?
liberty, equality, and democracy

What did the New Jersey Plan propose for Congress?
Representation would be equal for each state.

What is the term length of a member of the House of Representatives?
two years

What major changes in Western government led to the establishment of constitutional government?
legal limits on government and the right of more people to vote

What observation did philosopher Immanuel Kant make in his 1795 essay “Toward Perpetual Peace”?
Democratic regimes seldom make war on each other.

What was the most common form of taxation during the colonial era?
commercial products and activities

What was the primary goal of the Constitution’s framers?
To create an effective government

What was the purpose of the Annapolis Convention?
to discuss the weakness of the articles

Which of the following has not been the subject of a proposed amendment to the Constitution?
legalization of marijuana

Which of the following is a common explanation for why the United States should pursue a policy of democratization?
democracy leads to political stability

Which of the following is an instrument of direct democracy?
initiatives

Which of the following powers are not explicitly given to Congress by the Constitution?
to abolish state boundaries

Which of the following statements about property restrictions on the right to vote in the United States is true?
Property restrictions on the right to vote were in effect early in the country’s history but were eliminated by 1828.

Which of the following statements about the changes in American society between 1900 and 2000 is not true?
There has been a decline in the percentage of Americans who identify themselves as Protestants.

Which of the following statements best describes naturalization laws in the United States prior to 1870?
All free people could become naturalized citizens after living in the country for at least five years.

Which of the following statements concerning political values in the United States is true?
American values often conflict with each other in practice

Which of the following was a ramification of the Three-Fifths Compromise?
It allowed for political agreement between the north and the south

Which of the following was a way the framers tried to make the Senate a check against excessive democracy?
the senate has staggered terms of office

Which of the following was designed by the framers to be an office directly elected by the people?
members of the house of representatives

Who defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre?
John Adams

Who described politics as “who gets what, when, and how”?
Harold Lasswell

Who orchestrated the Boston Tea Party?
Samuel Adams

Who was not appointed to help draft the Declaration of Independence?
George Washington

Whose “political gospel” inspired the framers to adopt the concept of the separation of powers?
Montesquieu

“Astroturf lobbying” refers to the practice whereby
a special interest group simulating a grass-roots movement works with well-organized campaigns and petitions

“Closed rule” and “open rule” refer to congressional provisions regarding
floor debate on a bill

______ is an example of a justice who advocated judicial restraint.
felix frankfurter

______ is the claim the electorate has given the winner of a presidential election a special authority to carry out her or his plans.
A mandate

______ is the primary mission of the State Department.
diplomacy

______ policy concerns banks, credit, and currency.
monetary

______ powers are the most common form of constitutional powers possessed by the president.
delegated

_____________ percent of criminal defendants agree to plead guilty rather than go to trial.
ninety-seven

_______________ involves the violation of the concepts of right and wrong as defined by statute and is usually punishable by a specified amount of time in jail.
criminal law

________________ involves disputes between individuals and/or businesses over relationships, obligations, or responsibility, with the remedy usually being monetary compensation.
civil law

__________________ were created by the Texas legislature to have jurisdiction over violations of city ordinances and class C misdemeanors.
municipal courts

A “certiorari pool” describes the
practice by which Supreme Court law clerks work together to evaluate each petition.

A ________________ consists of twelve persons who serve for two to six months and who determine whether the state has enough evidence to support the issuance of an indictment.
grand jury

A bureau charged with putting restrictions and obligations on individuals or corporations in the private sector is called a ______ agency.
regulatory

A filibuster allows members of the Senate to
prevent a vote on a bill by speaking continuously on the floor

A person, agency, or interest group not directly a party to a case but with an interest in its outcome may file a(n) ______ brief.
amicus curiae

A president who claims to possess a mandate from the American electorate could arguably
that voters have approved the agenda he campaigned on, and that congress ought to approve it

A senator or representative running for re-election is called the
incumbent

A significant initiative set forth by Lyndon Johnson was
The Great Society

A signing statement is
an announcement the president makes about his interpretation of a congressional enactment he is signing into law

A vote on which 50 percent or more of the members of one party take one position while at least 50 percent of the members of the other party take the opposing position is called
a party-unity vote

A writ of habeas corpus declares that
the government must show a legal cause for holding someone in detention.

A(n) ______ has the same status as a treaty, but does not require Senate approval.
executive agreement

According to political scientist Terry Moe, why does Congress suffer from a collective-action problem in the face of presidential power?
Individual members of congress are more concerned with the substantive impact of presidential action on their constituents, rather than the general implications of presidential powers

According to separation of powers expert Louis Fisher, the powers of Congress have declined dramatically in which of the following areas?
national defense and the federal budget

According to the text, what are the three most common ways for a president to expand his base of power?
party support, popular mobilization, and administrative control

According to the text, what would be the most likely outcome if the federal government were to cease all economic regulation?
the marketplace would fall into chaos

Activist judges believe that the courts should
go beyond the words of a constitution or statute to consider the broader societal implications of its decisions.

After the president and vice president, which office is next in the line of succession?
Speaker of the House

Agencies in Congress designed to oversee administrative agencies and evaluate presidential proposals are called
staff agencies

All of the following are part of the official jurisdiction of the federal courts except
cases involving citizens from the same state.

All of the following contribute to the weakness of the governor’s office in Texas, except:
absence of the line-item veto

An executive order is
a rule or regulation initiated unilaterally by the president, with the status of a law

An informal group of advisers to the president is often called the
Kitchen Cabinet

Andrew Jackson reputedly said, “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.” What did he mean by this statement?
The Supreme Court is unable to enforce its decisions without the aid of the executive branch.

apital cases are appealed directly to the ___________________
Texas court of criminal appeals

Approximately how many judges currently sit on the federal district courts?
700

Approximately what percentage of all court cases in the United States are heard in federal courts?
1

Approximately what percentage of proposed bills die in committee?
95 percent

As a means of managing the gigantic executive branch, presidents have increasingly come to rely upon the
White House Staff

As of 2010, how many women serve in the U.S. Senate?
17

Aside from the justices themselves, who or what has the greatest power in shaping the flow of cases to the Supreme Court?
the solicitor general

At its peak in ______, the federal bureaucracy had ______ employees, not including military personnel.
1968, 3 million

Attorneys that represent plaintiffs in civil cases are generally paid _____________
on a contingency-fee basis

Before the Civil Service Act of 1883, how were government appointments handled?
appointments were made to political supporters as part of a spoils system

Bureaucracy, literally translated, means
rule by desks

By the 1980s, the average length of time it took to develop and implement an administrative rule was
thirty-five to forty months

Cases between two or more states are originally heard by
the Supreme Court

Cloture is
the process by which three-fifths of the senate can end a filibuster

Conference committees are
temporary, involve members from both houses of Congress, and are charged with reaching a compromise on legislation once it has been passed by both the House and the Senate.

Congress adjourns during a ten-day period after presenting the president with a bill, and the president takes no action. This is known as a
pocket veto

Congress is a ______ legislature with ______ members.
bicameral, 535

Congress was attempting to strike a balance between the need for secrecy in national security and the right of individuals to know what their government is doing when it passed the ______ Act.
Freedom of Information

Congressional leaders form ______ committees when they want to take up an issue that falls between the jurisdiction of existing committees, to highlight an issue, or to investigate a particular problem.
select

Congressional organization is influenced by all of the following except
presidential directives

Constituency service is so important that
party leaders will not ask any member to vote in a way that conflicts with the interests or opinions of the member’s district.

Debate on the House floor is ____________
limited

Debate on the Senate floor is ______________
Unrestricted, thereby allowing for filibuster

Devolution describes a process by which
the federal government is downsized by delegating the implementation of programs to state and local governments

During the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, how many federal agencies or programs were terminated?

Each of the following has been a method by which the federal courts have expanded their power except
narrowing the discretionary authority of the president over foreign affairs and diplomacy.

Each Supreme Court justice is assigned ______ clerk(s).
four

Each year, the Supreme Court receives about ______ appeals and hears about ______ of them in full court.
9,500, 70

Every bill introduced in the Texas legislature is assigned to a ____________ committee.
standing

exas judges, with the exception of municipal judges, are ________________
elected in partisan elections

Executive agreements differ from formal treaties in that they
do not have to be approved by the Senate

Federal executive agencies do each of the following in implementing legislation except
seek advisory opinions from the federal courts as to the constitutionality of the rules

Gubernatorial elections are held in off-years (election years in which we do not select a president) because state leaders wanted to ______________________
minimize the effect of presidential elections on the governor’s race

he determination of the time and structure of floor debate on a bill, in the House of Representatives, is up to the
rules committee

he process of allocating congressional seats among the fifty states is called
Apportionment

he written opinions of appellate courts have been described as halfway between ______ and ______.
common law and statutory law

Historically, in Texas, governors have tended to be all of the following, except:
Republican

How are ambassadors chosen?
They are selected by the President, often as patronage for large campaign donations

How can a president’s veto be overridden by Congress?
by two-thirds vote in both houses

How long is the term of office for a U.S. Senator?
six years

If an individual is arrested because their home was searched by police without a legal warrant, they could argue in court that they had been denied
the due process of law

If someone is an advocate of judicial restraint, he or she believes
in looking only at the words of the constitution in determining its meaning

If the governor fails to sign a bill within ten days of receiving it, _____________
the bill becomes a law

In 2002, the Republican and Democratic candidates for the governors office spent a combined total of approximately $____________ million.
88

In 2006, ______ became the Speaker of the House.
Nancy Pelosi

In addition to pressuring members of Congress to vote a certain way on a bill, interest groups also have substantial influence in
setting the legislative agenda

In addition to use of an official mansion and limousine, the governor is paid _________ per year.
115,345

In district courts, the state is represented in criminal cases by the _______________
district attorney

In each House district there are approximately ______ people.
600,000

In general, members of the House seek committee assignments that will
allow them to influence decisions that are of special importance to voters in their districts

In Harris County and in other large urban counties, the state trial courts are given specialized jurisdiction over all of the following, except ___________________.
maritime law

In most circumstances, a supreme court is best described as a(n) ______ court.
appellate

In order to get around the need for Senate approval of treaties, many contemporary presidents have made use of ______ in foreign affairs.
executive agreements

In recent years, federal court appointments have
been characterized by intense partisan and ideological efforts to support or defeat the candidate.

In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court was required to rule on the issue of ______, due to the fact that the pregnancy had already come to term.
mootness

In the early 1800s, the system of nominating presidential candidates that left the candidates beholden to their party’s leaders in Congress was called
King Caucus

In the House of Representatives, the majority leader
is subordinate to the Speaker of the House

In undertaking the campaign against the Taliban in 2001, George W. Bush
sought and received congressional authorization for the bombing, but not a declaration of war

In United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court
required Nixon to turn over the secret tapes to congress

In what year was Marbury v. Madison decided?
1803

In which type of case does the Supreme Court have original jurisdiction?
any case involving an ambassador

Individual members of Congress can discover questions of public responsibility when engaged in
constituent case work

Members of Congress can represent the people in two ways: as a ______, a member of Congress acts on the express preferences of his or her constituency; as a ______, a member is more loosely tied to constituents and makes the decisions he or she thinks are best.
delegate; trustee

Most cases reach the Supreme Court through the
writ of certiorari

One drawback of devolution is that
the standards associated with particular programs become increasingly variable between states

One problem with the delegate model of representation is
That few people are well informed about all political issues

One reason why redistricting is controversial is because
computer technologies allow legislatures to know statistically what kinds of people live where and this can be used to give one party an advantage over the other.

Organizational reforms instituted by Congress in the 1970s attempted to
fragment power by reducing the power of committee chairs

Original jurisdiction refers to
the court with the authority to hear a case first.

Over the past several decades, the ______ and the ______ have benefited most from apportionment?
South, West

Oversight can best be described as
the efforts of congress to supervise the manner in which its laws are implemented by the executive branch

Pork-barrel legislation
deals with specific projects and their location within a particular congressional district.

President Obama’s first appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court was
sotomayor

Prisoners who are challenging their conviction are most likely to file a writ of
habeas corpus

recent years, approximately what percentage of House members seeking re-election won their race?
ninety-five percent

Responsibility for communication among party members in Congress lies with the
whip system

Revenue bills must originate in the Texas _____________
House

Richard Nixon claimed ______ when he refused to turn over secret White House tapes to congressional investigators.
executive priviledge

Ronald Reagan’s inability to dismantle the Department of Education reflects the power of
iron triangles

Senatorial courtesy describes the practice of
senators from a president’s party approving of a judicial nominee from their home state.

Since 1972, the governor has been elected to serve a __________ term.
four-year

Since the 1950s, compared with the entire workforce, the number of federal employees has
gradually declined

Statutory probate courts are given jurisdiction to hear cases arising out of disputes concerning ________________
wills and estate law

Texas elects each of its state court justices. However, when a vacancy occurs due to death, resignation or retirement of the incumbent, or the creation of a new court, the ______________ is responsible for appointing an individual to fill the vacancy until the next election.
governor

Texas legislators receive a salary of $__________ per year.
7,200

The 80h Legislature of Texas (2007) passed _________ bills and sent them on to the governor for his signature.
1,481

The 80th Legislature considered almost __________ bills during the 2007 legislative session. (Texas)
6,200

The ______ asserted that the president could send American troops into action abroad only in the event of a declaration of war or other statutory authorization by Congress, or if American troops were attacked or directly endangered.
War Powers resolution of 1973

The ______ is the center of military policy and management.
Joint Chiefs of Staff

The ______ is the informal designation for the heads of the major federal government departments.
cabinet

The ___________ may convene a special session if the legislature fails to complete important work during the regular session.
governor

The ______________ is responsible for verifying the accuracy of motor fuel pumps and scales used by grocery stores and markets.
Commissioner of agriculture

The _______________ was established in 1975 and regulates utility rates in Texas.
Public Utilities Commission

The ________________ is responsible for managing state-owned land and mineral leases granted to oil and gas companies.
land commissioner

The _________________ is appointed by the governor to serve a four-year term.
secretary of state

The ____________________ and _______________ are considered to be two of the most powerful politicians in the state of Texas.
Speaker of the House; Lieutenant governor

The ____________________ courts have jurisdiction to hear class C misdemeanors and minor civil matters (e.g., small claims).
justice of the peace courts

The attempt of bureaucracies to translate laws into routine procedures and practices is called
implementation

The case Baker v. Carr concerns
apportionment of legislative seats

The Civil Service Act of 1883 attempted to pattern government hiring after practices found in
business

The comptroller must certify the state’s projected _____________ before the House and Senate may approve the budget.
total revenues for two years

The concept of oversight refers to the effort made by
congress to make executive agencies accountable for their actions

The Congressional Research Service and the Government Accountability Office are examples of
staff agencies

The Constitution’s framers believed that Congress’s greatest prerogative would be its
power of the purse

The controversy over the Patriot Act reveals the complications of balancing
national security with the civil liberties of individuals

The county court has the power to hear all of the following types of cases, except ______________________.
felony cases

The decline of voting and political participation by Americans has which of the following effects?
It enhances the power of the president while weakening congress

The Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 by
an Executive Order

The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was established
Under Franklin Roosevelt in 1939

The executive powers of the governor include all of the following, except:
veto power – that’s legislative

The first female governor of Texas was _____________
Miriam Ferguson

The first lady is an important resource for the president in his capacity as
head of state

The first regulatory agencies established by Congress were
independent agencies

The first regulatory agency was the ______, created by Congress in ______.
Interstate Commerce Commission, 1888

The first Republican governor after Reconstruction was _______________
William Clements

The formal group of presidential foreign policy advisers, established in 1947, is called the
National Security Council

The Freedom of Information Act is designed to
make more national security documents available to the public

The frequency with which they must seek re-election makes members of the House
more responsive to the needs of local interest groups in the districts they represent

The goal of the War Powers Resolution was to
limit the power of the president to commit American troops to military action without authorization from Congress

The governor may take any of the following actions, except:
override a veto

The governor of Texas may be impeached for which of the following offenses?
The Texas Constitution does not specify grounds for removal

The greatest number of federal government professionals working abroad are under the authority of the Department of
Defense

The groups of advisers and analysts to the president are collectively called the
White House Staff

The head of a department is called the
secretary

The highest court in Texas for civil matters is the ______________
Texas Supreme Court

The highest court in Texas for criminal matters is the ______________
Texas Court of Criminal Appeals

The House Ways and Means Committee has jurisdiction over which of the following areas?
taxes, trade, and entitlement programs

The idea of ______ identifies the best representative as the one who shares a similar racial, ethnic, religious, or occupational background with those he or she represents.
sociological representation

The increase of administrative agencies since the New Deal has resulted in
a delegation of power by congress to administrative agencies

The jurisdiction of each federal court is derived from
the constitution and federal law

The jurisdiction of standing committees
is defined by the subject matter of legislation, which often parallels the major cabinet departments or agencies

The largest subunits of the federal executive branch are called
departments

The last time Congress exercised its constitutional power to declare war was in
1941

The legislative powers of the governor include all of the following, except:
military power – that’s executive

The main political value of the vice president is to
bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support

The most common occupation among members of Congress before coming to Congress is
lawyer

The most significant example of devolution in recent decades has been in the area of
welfare policy

The most visible indication of oversight is the
use of public hearings before congressional committees and subcommittees

The National Park Service is
part of the Department of the Interior

The National Security Council is composed of all of the following except the
Speaker of the House

The need to divide the labor of legislation is best exemplified in what formal structure of Congress?
the establishment of standing committees

The Office of Management and Budget and the Council of Economic Advisers are both parts of
The Executive Office of the President

The office of the presidency was established by ______ of the Constitution.
Article II

The plural executive serves as a major limitation on gubernatorial power, in that it provides for _____________ of six of the top seven state officials.
statewide election

The power of the Supreme Court to review state actions and legislation comes from
marbury v madison

The power to declare war is given to whom under the Constitution?
Both houses of congress

The powers and resources available to government officials that are used to favor supporters are called
patronage

The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?
cabinet secretaries

The president must share foreign policy powers with
Congress

The president’s delegated powers come from
Congress

The president’s position as head of state is defined in the Constitution by all of the following powers except
partisan

The president’s power to set the debate concerning public policy in Congress is called
a legislative initiative

The purpose of the ________________ committee is to reach a compromise on different versions of the same legislation coming from the House and Senate.
conference

The regular legislative session in Texas is limited to ________ days in ______________ years.
140; odd-numbered

The requirement of standing means that parties in a case must
have a concrete injury or interest at stake

The response to the Department of Homeland Security’s color-coded terror-level warning system reveals
that bureaucratic agencies, like politicians, must pay attention to public opinion.

The right of due process is best described as the right of
every person not to be treated arbitrarily by a government official or agency.

The rise of national conventions to nominate the president led to the empowerment of what group?
State Party Leaders

The role the House of Representatives plays in impeachments can best be compared with that of a
grand jury

The Senate’s constitutional power of advice and consent extends to which of the following?
The president’s power to make treaties with other nations

The size of the U.S. Supreme Court is set by
congress

The special session is limited to a maximum of ________ days and may only deal with topics specified by the _____________
30, governor

The state courts that handle trials involving criminal or civil matters are the ______________
district courts

The State of the Union address is
mandated by the Constitution

The technique of popular mobilization dates back to the presidency of
Theodore Roosevelt

The Texas Constitution provides for the _______________ to become governor if the office becomes vacant through impeachment and conviction, death, resignation, or the governor’s absence from the state.
lieutenant governor

The turning point in American politics toward a president-centered government came about during the administration of
Franklin Roosevelt

The two presidents to be impeached by the House of Representatives were Bill Clinton and
Andrew Johnson

The USA PATRIOT Act
allows the attorney general to detain any foreigner suspected of posing a threat to internal security

The use of taxing and spending powers to shape the economy is part of ______ policy.
fiscal

The vast majority of bills are _____________, which means that they are set aside and never brought forward for consideration. (Texas)
pidgeonholed

The written document in which attorneys explain why the court should rule in favor of their client is called a(n)
brief

There are _________members of the Texas Senate and ________ members of the Texas House.
31; 150

Three factors related to the American electoral system affect who is elected to office in this country, and what they do once they get there. Those factors are
who decides to run for office, incumbency, and the drawing of district lines.

Through the act of delegating powers, the national structure of government in the 1930s went from ______ to ______.
legislatively centered, president centered

Trial courts in the federal judicial system are called
district courts

Under normal rules of oral argument, each lawyer has ______ to present his or her case before the Supreme Court.
30min

Under the original Constitution, senators
were appointed by state legislatures

What are the greatest dangers with a trustee model of representation?
Members of Congress may become inattentive to the wishes and opinions of their constituents

What are the most common private bills proposed in Congress?
bills for permanent visas for foreign nationals

What did the framers call the “least dangerous branch”?
the supreme court

What did the framers mean to accomplish by indirect election of the president?
to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures

What did the Supreme Court declare in Miller v. Johnson?
The racial composition of a district cannot be the primary factor when redistricting

What happened when Harry Truman seized control of the nation’s steel mills during the Korean War?
The Supreme Court declared his actions without basis in the law or constitution

What has been the greatest difficulty in establishing the new Department of Homeland Security?
adjusting to the many different bureaucratic cultures now part of a single operation

What has been the greatest difficulty in establishing the new Department of Homeland Security?
interior

What is a government corporation?
It is an agency that performs and charges for services usually provided by the private sector

What is an independent agency?
an agency that is not part of any cabinet department

What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?
two-thirds of both houses of congress

What is the general tendency of a president’s popularity?
Presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years

What is the main function of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court?
The chief justice presides over the Court’s public sessions and private conferences.

What is the most frequent and best-known action of Supreme Court justices in their role as circuit justices?
reviewing requests for stays of execution

What is the origin of most federal bureaus?
congress passes a law creating and funding most federal bureaus

What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?
to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate

What is the principal job of the Department of Homeland Security?
to coordinate the communication and activities of federal agencies that are involved in domestic security

What is the significance of dissenting opinions?
Dissents are signs that the Court is in disagreement on an issue and could change its ruling.

What is the Uniform Commercial Code?
a set of codes states may voluntarily adopt in order to reduce interstate differences in judicial opinions

What unusual action did Texas take after the 2000 census?
Texas redistricted twice, in 2001 and 2003.

What was known as the court-packing plan?
the attempt by Franklin Roosevelt to add sympathetic justices to the Supreme Court in order to get New Deal laws upheld as constitutional

What was the basis of Justice John Marshall’s assertion that the federal courts have the power of judicial review?
It is the duty of the courts to say what the law is, therefore it is necessary for the courts to interpret and expound upon the law.

What was the chief bureaucratic flaw identified by the 9/11 Commission?
There was a lack of communication between the domestic and foreign security agencies

What was the government trying to accomplish when it called for the 2009 National Defense Authorization Act to create an additional database that would record contractors who have legal or contract violations?
provide government oversight for an increasingly expanding force of independent contractors

What was the mission of the National Performance Review?
to reorganize the federal bureaucracy to make it more efficient, accountable, and less wasteful

What was the Supreme Court’s ruling in 1948 regarding restrictive covenants?
individuals had the right to discriminate in private contracts but courts could not enforce these contracts

When a bureaucracy applies rules and precedents to specific cases, it is called
administrative adjudication

When a case is resolved through a negotiated agreement before a full trial is completed, it is called
a plea bargain

When all of the justices on the Supreme Court are hearing a case, they are said to be sitting
en banc

When are the president’s partisan ties most important?
in dealing with Congress on legislative matters

When Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock High School in 1957, it demonstrated that
The president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder

When interest groups involved in litigation pursue a pattern of cases, they are
bringing the same type of suit into multiple circuits, hoping that a contradiction in rulings will bring about a Supreme Court review.

When justices agree with the ruling of a court majority but not all of its reasoning, they may often write a(n)
concurrence

When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950,
Truman sent American troops to Korea without asking for a declaration of war

When the federal government passes authority to administer a program down to state or local governments, it is called
devolution

When the House and the Senate coordinate two versions of the same bill, they will often use a ______ to obtain a single unified bill.
conference

When the president infers powers from the “rights, duties, and obligations” of the presidency, these are called
inherent powers

When the Supreme Court declared that the legislative veto was unconstitutional, in Immigration and Naturalization Services v. Chada, what was the response?
Congress and presidents have continued the practice; they just call it something different.

When the Supreme Court refuses to review a lower-court decision, announcing this decision through a brief unsigned opinion, it is called ______ opinion
a per curiam

When the White House directs administrative agencies to promulgate specific rules and regulations, this is called
regulatory review

When two members of Congress who share no common interests agree to support each other’s bills, the practice is called
logrolling

Which executive agency has the least discretion, as a result of very detailed Congressional legislation?
Internal Revenue Service

Which first lady was the first to seek and win public office on her own?
Hillary Clinton

Which idea of representation says that a legislator should be viewed as someone whom voters hire to represent their interests?
agency representation

Which is the best description of the K Street Project?
It was an attempt to place former Republican staffers in key lobbying positions to help ensure a large flow of corporate donations to the Republican Party.

Which of the following actions was not the result of an executive order?
The entrance in the United Nations

Which of the following agencies was abolished following the creation of the Department of Homeland Security?
the Immigration and Naturalization service

Which of the following attributes did the framers intend for the office of the president to possess?
energy

Which of the following best describes a way in which the House differs from the Senate?
the House is more centralized and organized than the Senate

Which of the following best describes the organizational changes made in Congress during the 1990s?
Attempts were made to concentrate more power into the hands of party leaders

Which of the following best describes the role of the solicitor general?
the lawyer who represents the United States before the Supreme Court in cases where the federal government is a party

Which of the following best explains the small number of women in Congress?
Incumbency is a very powerful resource, and most incumbents have been men.

Which of the following derives its greatest source of influence from the support of civil society?
Congress

Which of the following has caused an increase in the president’s delegated powers?
the increasing scope and complexity of legislation

Which of the following interest groups is generally considered the most powerful group today?
AARP

Which of the following is a good example of a revenue agency?
the U.S. Customs service

Which of the following is a government corporation?
the U.S. Postal Service

Which of the following is a type of deregulation?
reducing the number of regulatory agencies in the federal bureaucracy

Which of the following is a way in which an executive agency engages in lawmaking?
by interpreting the details of a vaguely worded law

Which of the following is an agency created by Congress to assist it in overseeing the federal bureaucracy?
General Accounting Office

Which of the following is not a clientele agency?
the internal revenue service

Which of the following is not a constitutional qualification to become governor of Texas?
trained in the law

Which of the following is not a constitutional requirement for holding a seat in the Texas House of Representatives?
a natural-born U.S. citizen

Which of the following is not a constitutional requirement for holding a seat in the Texas Senate?
a natural-born U.S. citizen

Which of the following is not a department responsible for promoting the public welfare?
Department of State

Which of the following is not a federal department entrusted with providing national security?
police

Which of the following is not a key strategy used to promote bureaucratic reform?
regulation

Which of the following is not a major role of bureaucracy?
passing laws

Which of the following is not a resource congressional party leaders have at their disposal to secure the unity and cooperation of their members?
constituency service

Which of the following is not a service often provided by representatives to their constituents?
Offering constituents legal advice regarding new administrative laws

Which of the following is not a specialized “legislative court” created by Congress?
the court of federal territories

Which of the following is not a task for which congressional party leaders are responsible?
the organization for the re-election strategies of the incumbents

Which of the following is not a task of congressional staff members?
debating and voting in subcommittee meetings

Which of the following is not a task of the Treasury Department?
setting interest rates

Which of the following is not a traditional limitation on the power of the federal courts?
the ability of congress to reduce federal judges’ salaries

Which of the following is not a type of federal agency?
state and local oversight

Which of the following is not a way in which Congress can exercise oversight?
having members of congress work part-time for a particular agency that is struggling to meet the demands Congress has placed on it

Which of the following is not an important influence on the legislative agenda of Congress?
the federal courts

Which of the following is not an independent agency?
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

Which of the following is not an independent regulatory agency?
the Food and Drug Administration

Which of the following is not included in the classification scheme of bills considered by the Texas legislature?
private

Which of the following is not part of the Justice Department?
the Internal Revenue Service

Which of the following is part of the Miranda rule?
arrested people have the right to remain silent

Which of the following is the best definition of a congressional caucus?
unofficial groups of representatives or senators sharing similar interests or opinions

Which of the following is the best definition of a constituent?
It is a person who lives in the district represented by a member of the legislature.

Which of the following is the best description of an iron triangle?
the stable relationship between a bureaucratic agency, a clientele group, and a legislative committee

Which of the following is the essence of the rule of law?
Every state must judge government officials by the same laws as its citizens are judged.

Which of the following is the most constitutionally essential way to make the bureaucracy responsible?
congressional oversight

Which of the following statements about administrative rule making is false?
both houses of congress must formally approve all federal rules

Which of the following statements about how different presidents have used the power of amnesty or pardon is false?
George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence

Which of the following statements about signing statements is false?
Ever since Thomas Jefferson’s presidency, all presidential signing statements have been recorded and added to the official legislative record.

Which of the following statements about the Federal Reserve System (the Fed) is correct?
Congress created the fed in 1913

Which of the following statements about the merit system is not true?
Every member and official of a government agency has been appointed as a part of the merit system

Which of the following statements about the U.S. Courts of Appeals is incorrect?
The appeals courts are able to hear all cases involving federal law, but not constitutional law.

Which of the following statements concerning legislative courts is false?
Legislative court judges cannot have their salary reduced by Congress.

Which of the following statements concerning the process of reapportionment is correct?
In order for one state to gain a seat, another must lose a seat

Which of the following statements concerning the representation of women and minorities in the U.S. Congress is true?
Representation of women and minorities has increased over the past two decades, but is not comparable to their proportions in the general population.

Which of the following tactics did Franklin Roosevelt not use to forge a link between the executive office and the public?
Running extensive national television advertising campaigns

Which of the following veto powers does the governor of Texas lack?
special session veto

Which of the following was a way in which President Obama attempted to uphold his campaign promise to reduce government secrecy?
Issuing an executive order designed to promote rapid declassification of secret documents

Which of the following was forced by the National Highway Traffic Safety Commission to recall several car models after identifying problems with their gas pedal accelerators?
Toyota

Which of the following was not a case involving the Supreme Court overturning a state law?
marbury v madison

Which of the following was not part of the Supreme Court’s ruling in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld?
Persons the president designates as enemy combatants do not have to be granted an opportunity to rebut those charges.

Which president began the era of greater presidential control over the budgeting process?
Franklin Roosevelt

Which president was most concerned with managing and reorganizing the executive bureaucracy?
Jimmy Carter

Which president’s approach to the managerial presidency featured a deep belief in the importance of scientific expertise in government service?
Barack Obama

Which statement about a party unity vote is true?
In 2005, party unity voting was close to an all-time high

Which statement about regulatory agencies is correct?
No new regulatory programs have been established since the 1970’s

Which statement about the Cabinet is incorrect?
The cabinet does not meet as a group, except during the State of the Union address

Which statement concerning secret agreements between the president and foreign nations is incorrect?
Presidents have always fully complied with Congress’s reporting requirements

Which statement concerning the White House Communication Office is incorrect?
It allows the president to avoid giving information to the public

Which statement is the definition of privatization?
a way to reduce government costs by relocating government programs to private groups or corporations

Who decides which committee assignments members of House of Representatives receive?
each party’s own committee on committees

Who has authority to set interest rates and lending activities for the nation’s banks?
the Federal Reserve System

Who has the most real power in the Senate?
the majority and minority leaders

Who is the Speaker of the House?
The elected leader of the majority party in the House is the speaker

Who stated, in his 1996 State of the Union address, that “the era of big government is over”?
Bill Clinton

Why did many Republicans oppose President Obama’s nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to the Supreme Court?
she supported affirmative action

Why does the House have greater party unity than the Senate?
House leaders have more organizational control over the actions of representatives than Senate leaders

Why has partisan conflict surrounded federal judicial appointments in recent years?
The federal courts play an important role in shaping American law and politics.

Why is the president’s State of the Union address important?
It is an opportunity for the President to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing the public’s attention to the executive’s goals

Why was George Washington’s reception of Edmond Genet as ambassador of France during the French Revolution so significant?
It reflected the authority of the President to officially recognize specific regimes as the sovereign power of a nation when there is doubt as to who rules

Why was it considered shocking when, after the Civil War, Andrew Johnson made a series of speeches seeking public support for his Reconstruction policies?
During the nineteenth century, it was seen as undignified for a president to campaign on his own behalf.

Why was the Supreme Court’s decision in Ricci v. DeStefano important?
It held that, in order to seek damages, employees must show that employment tests for promotion are clearly defective, rather than that they produce unequal outcomes based on race or gender.

______ are given to states and local governments on the condition that all expenditures are limited to the problem or group specified by law.
Categorical grants

______ are government grants of cash or other valuable commodities, such as land, used to promote activities desired by the government.
subsidies

______ are programs where the government provides a tax deduction for spending on health insurance and other benefits by both employers and employees.
tax expenditures

______ is the current chair of the Federal Reserve Board, appointed by George W. Bush in 2005.
Ben Bernanke

______ policies are designed to eliminate the abuses of powerful ______.
antitrust, monopolies

______ were the centerpiece of George W. Bush’s economic policy.
tax cuts

A ______ nation is one with unstable leadership, whose polices are driven by ideology rather than by economic or human costs and benefits.
rogue

A cost-of-living adjustment is based on what?
the rate of inflation

A tax on imported goods is called a
tariff

A(n) ______ is an incentive in the tax code for individuals and corporations to invest their money in ways the government desires in exchange for a reduction in tax liabilities.
loophole

AARP has a membership of approximately ______ members.
40 million

According to the text, which of the following does not describe the United Nations?
is generally adversarial to the interest of the United States

According to the text, why is it difficult to lobby for the interests of poor children?
children cannot vote

Adam Smith’s theory of ______ argues that many individual economic transactions come together to create a greater good for all.
the invisible hand

After the election of 2004, President George W. Bush announced that ______ would be the centerpiece of his domestic policy.
Social Security Reform

All of the following are elements of a nation-state except that
it must be a member of the united nations

All of the following are strategies to combat inflation except
increasing the amount of government spending on public works projects.

An agreement between the president and another country that has the force of a treaty but lacks congressional approval is called
an executive agreement

Approximately what percentage of the current federal budget is spent on entitlement programs, such as Social Security and Medicare?
55 percent

Approximately what percentage of the federal budget is made up of uncontrollables?
60 percent

Before the 1930s, relations between labor and management in the United States were
among the most violent in the world

Before World War II, ______ of federal revenue was generated from individual income taxes.
less than 15 percent

Between 1959 and 2004, the percentage of elderly Americans living in poverty has gone from ______ to ______.
35 percent, 10 percent

Charter schools are best described as
public schools that are free to design special curricula

Classic laissez-faire theory argues all of the following except that
a truly efficient government allows private enterprise to provide all government services

Currently, the United Nations has approximately ______ member states.
192

Deterrence assumes the ______ of the U.S. response and the ______ of an adversary.
certainty, rationality

During the 1960s, Ralph Nader was influential as
a consumer advocate

During the Persian Gulf War, allies of the United States paid for what percentage of the war’s costs?
90 percent

Foreign aid is an economic ______. Sanctions are an economic ______.
carrot, stick

How did the Federal Reserve respond to the terrorist attacks of 9/11?
It cut interest rates to promote increased investment and spending

How did the Great Depression change American attitudes about welfare?
It revealed that poverty could be caused by a flawed economic system, not just by personal irresponsibility

How does an entitlement differ from a right?
Unlike an entitlement, a right cannot be taken away by an act of congress

If the Federal Reserve wants to help boost a sagging economy, which one of the following is the most direct way it can do this?
Lower interest rates so that banks can provide more loans at cheaper rates to individuals and businesses

In 1997, the United States withdrew from
the Kyoto Protocol

In 1998, the foreign trade term most favored nation was changed to what?
normal trade relations

In 2005, which of the following set off a new set of power struggles in Washington, D.C., over control of the intelligence community?
the appointment of a national intelligence “czar”

In 2007 and 2008, the government faced a housing crisis caused by
foreclosures

In 2010, approximately what percentage of American workers were offered health insurance through their jobs?
60 percent

In a crisis, which of the following has the greatest foreign policy influence?
the president

In foreign policy, the Bush Doctrine refers to
preemptive war

In order to have reliable information about the costs and impact of economic policies, Congress created the ______.
Congressional Budget Office

In regard to foreign policy, which of the following is not a problem that the media poses to the president?
the media is generally biased against international conflict, thus making it difficult for the president to engage U.S. troops abroad

In the sphere of foreign policy, which of the following is not a constitutional power possessed by Congress?
negotiating treaties on behalf of the United States

Medicare is a ______ program; Medicaid is a ______ program.
contributory, noncontributory

Most American presidents have been
domestic politicians who set out to make their place in history through domestic achievements

Most of the groundbreaking environmental laws were written in the
1970s

Of which collective security organization is the United States not a member?
the warsaw pact

Open-market operations describes
The method by which the federal reserve buys and sells government securities to increase or decrease the supply of money in the economy

Over the past three decades, the level of federal payroll tax has ______, and the level of federal corporate taxes has ______.
risen, fallen

President Clinton’s appointment of former senator George Mitchell to chair the Northern Ireland peace talks in 1998 is a good example of
the president’s avoidance of conventional diplomatic staff

Protests against the World Trade Organization (WTO) in recent years were prompted by
the perception that the WTO was not paying enough attention to developing countries

Public policy can be embodied in all of the following forms except
a petition

Sales taxes are ______, and most income taxes are ______.
regressive, progressive

Setting emissions standards for each industry, while allowing companies to trade “carbon credits” is an approach to environmental policy known as
cap and trade

Since the 1930s, American employment and training programs have
fared poorly in terms of both expense and results

Since the mid-1990s, by how much has the number of welfare recipients declined in the United States?
over 50%

Since the welfare reforms of 1996, what is the primary reason for receiving federal cash assistance if one is nonworking and able-bodied?
the recipient is caring for children

Social case work, in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, was largely concerned with
personal counseling and “mental hygiene”

Social Security is a good example of
a contributory program

Something that must be supplied by the government because it cannot be provided by the marketplace is called
a public good

The ______ is determined by the amount government spending exceeds government revenue in a fiscal year.
budget deficit

The central thrust of federal housing policy has been to
promote homeownership

The first efforts by the United States to create a professional Foreign Service staff started
after World War I

The first federal government assistance in education came
in 1785, when the federal government set aside land for public schools

The foreign policy ideals that Americans have historically espoused assert
that our foreign policies should have a higher purpose than the pursuit of our own interests and to use force only as a last resort.

The goal of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) was to
Put unemployed persons to work on public projects

The goals of American social policy are
often controversial

The goals of social policy
reflect changing views about which risks should be borne by the individual or shared by society

The idea of ______ was at the heart of George W. Bush’s 2005 plan for Social Security reform.
private accounts

The idea that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to achieve their goals is called
equality of opportunity

The idea that the government can stimulate a slow economy by increasing public spending or cutting taxes is called
Keynesianism

The index of the total output of goods and services produced in a national economy is called the
gross domestic product

The International Monetary Fund
provides loans and facilitates a short-flow of money to countries in need

The Kyoto Protocol was designed to
set binding targets for greenhouse gas emissions to be met by each country

The main change in welfare policies since 1996 is
increased use of non-cash assistance

The main effort to change the foreign service into a fully professional diplomatic corps was
the Foreign Service Act of 1946

The most consistently powerful nongovernment actors in determining economic policy are
business organizations

The most important task of the Senate in foreign policy is
reviewing and approving treaties

The most noteworthy example of the policy of deterrence was
the arms race

The nineteenth-century policy of ______ was based on the geographic distance of the United States from other countries.
isolationism

The North American Free Trade Agreement is
a trade treaty between the United States, Canada, and Mexico designed to lower and eliminate tariffs

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an example of
multilateralism

The periodic adjustment of benefits or wages that takes into account the increased cost of living is called
indexing

The policy of striking a nation that you fear might be contemplating hostile actions is called
preemption

The power to raise or lower the tax rate is part of
fiscal policy

The representation of a government to other foreign governments is called
diplomacy

The Securities and Exchange Commission was established
After the stockmarket crash of 1929

The Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program is administered
by the states with benefit levels varying between states

The traditional American distrust of diplomacy has resulted in which situation?
Presidents often use military or political leaders outside the State Department during a crisis

The UN Security Council has ______ permanent members and ______ elected members.
five, ten

The United States has ______ percent of the world’s population, and is responsible for ______ percent of its greenhouse gas emissions.
10, 25

The welfare reforms of 1996 did all of the following except
taking the federal government out of welfare policy, granting all authority to the states

Those who believe in ______ argue that the government’s role in regulating the economy should be limited to regulating the supply of money.
monetarism

Upton Sinclair’s 1906 exposé The Jungle revealed
The unsanitary practices at meatpacking plants

Vehicle safety is one of the chief responsibilities of the Department of
transportation

What did Congress see as the principle cause of the economic recession that began in 2007?
excessive risk taking by investors

What did the Great Depression and World War II do to the public’s expectations regarding employment?
They showed that the government could help to ensure full employment

What do public opinion polls reveal about welfare policies?
they are among the most disliked government programs

What economic development, according to many critics, has made Keynesian economics less useful?
the rise of international trade

What eighteenth-century politician warned Americans against too much involvement with foreign nations?
George Washington

What event brought federal attention to elementary school education?
the fear that the soviets were winning the cold war through better technology

What event marked the major historical turning point in the relationship between the government and the marketplace?
Great Depression

What important noncontributory program was abolished by Congress in 1996?
Aid to Families with Dependent Children

What is the chief task of the National Security Council?
to coordinate the differences among the executive’s key foreign policy makers

What is the main difference between a maker and a shaper of American foreign policy?
makers are those within government, while shapers are influential groups outside of official government

What is the main job of the director of national intelligence?
to collate and coordinate intelligence coming in from multiple sources and to report this to the president

What is the most critical resource the media has to influence foreign policy?
the speed and the scale with which the media can spread political communication

What is the most important way the government affects personal and corporate investments?
Promoting investor confidence through policies enforcing stability and regard for the law

What is the most significant force determining the distribution of opportunities in the United States?
education

What is the reserve requirement?
The rule that every bank must have a certain amount of cash and negotiable securities on hand at all times

What is the shadow welfare state?
social benefits that are distributed by private employers who are being subsidized by the government

What was outdoor relief distributed by private charities?
money

What was the key to American security during the nineteenth century?
geographical isolation

What was the main fear concerning the consequences of outdoor relief?
it perpetuated poverty

What was the Marshall Plan?
the economic recovery package of aid from the United States to Western Europe after World War II

What was the most significant education policy developed by the federal government in the nineteenth century?
the establishment of land-grant colleges

What was the primary problem with private charities before the development of the welfare state?
they would make subjective decisions on who was deserving or undeserving of aid

What was the reason behind Progressive-era welfare for single mothers?
reformers wanted women to stay home with their children rather than going to work

What was the result of the efforts to reform health care in the United States in 1994?
Health care reform met resistance and no bill was voted on by congress

What was the significance of the Supreme Court case Goldberg v. Kelly?
It held that public assistance benefits could not be revoked without due process of law

What year marked the beginning of the Great Depression?
1929

When a nation is granted “most favored nation” status with the United States, it means the nation
is to be offerred the lowest tariff rates

When did Keynesian economic ideas become government practice in the United States?
the 1930s

When did the American welfare state begin?
the 1930s

When did the Cold War begin?
the 1940s, soon after World War II

When people in the lower income brackets pay a larger percentage of their income toward a tax, it is called ______ taxation.
regressive

When potential recipients of a benefit must establish their genuine need, the government program is called
means tested

When the government’s goals are embodied in a law or an order, backed by punishments or rewards, it is best described as
public policy

When the price level of goods and services increases over several months, it is called
inflation

When was Medicare established?
1965

When was NATO formed?
1949

When was Social Security established?
1935

When was the U.S. Public Health Service founded?
1798

Which economist is best known for arguing that there is an optimal rate of taxation, and if taxes go above this rate, tax revenues will shrink because economic activity will decline?
Arthur B. Laffer

Which ethnic group has the reputation of having the greatest influence on American foreign policy?
Jewish Americans

Which group was the first to receive government assistance throughout the United States?
mothers with dependent children

Which interest group in the United States is more likely to depend on demonstrations and other nontraditional strategies of influence?
environmental groups

Which of the following actions marked a decisive break with the tradition of the federal government promoting compromises between labor and management?
In 1981, Ronald Reagan fired striking air traffic controllers and hired permanent replacements to fill their jobs

Which of the following are the three basic prerequisites for economic growth?
public investment, innovation, strong workforce

Which of the following best describes the views of Milton Friedman?
Government should let the growth in the money supply match the rate of economic growth

Which of the following can be concluded from the results of the 1996 welfare reforms?
the reforms have reduced the number of people on welfare, but have done little to reduce poverty

Which of the following describes the “realist” view of foreign policy?
Foreign policies should be guided by the national interest, even if from the outside the nation appears cold and ruthless.

Which of the following does not represent an important interest reflected through the actions of foreign policy interest groups?
domestic representation of foreign governments

Which of the following does the Small Business Administration (SBA) provide?
disaster assistance

Which of the following goals has traditionally been of lowest priority in U.S. foreign policy?
human rights

Which of the following groups are more than twice as likely as other Americans to be below the poverty line?
single mothers

Which of the following groups receives the least benefits from government’s social policies?
children

Which of the following groups receives the most benefits from government’s social policies?
the middle class

Which of the following has not been a major goal of the government’s involvement in the economy?
Promoting economic equity and fairness for all citizens

Which of the following is an example of nineteenth-century “indoor relief”?
the police station

Which of the following is an in-kind benefit?
food stamps

Which of the following is not a benefit to government provided by contracting?
Governemnt officials almost always use contracting to award businesses and corporations that donated substantial amounts of money to their political campaigns

Which of the following is not a component of American foreign policy?
social security

Which of the following is not a function of the Securities and Exchange Commission?
It protects the confidentiality of all sales of stocks and bonds

Which of the following is not a goal of American social policy?
closing the gap between rich and poor

Which of the following is not a goal of governmental intervention in the economy?
promoting corporate accountability

Which of the following is not a NATO member?
mexico

Which of the following is not a possible cause of the increase in economic inequality over the past several decades?
the collapse of the domestic high-tech industry

Which of the following is not a program of forced savings?
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families

Which of the following is not a reason the working poor receive such a small amount of social policy benefits?
the working poor are often considered undeserving by public opinion

Which of the following is not a reason why the No Child Left Behind Act has been controversial?
the states were made responsible for setting standards and devising appropriate tests

Which of the following is not a way in which the government promotes business development?
regulations

Which of the following is not an example of mandatory spending?
defense spending

Which of the following is not an identifiable problem with Social Security?
the political consensus supporting a federal retirement program is crumbling

Which of the following is not an influential interest group affecting American foreign policy?
diplomats from foreign nations

Which of the following is not one of the concerns politicians have to consider when attempting to pass regulations that seek to protect the environment?
public opinion, which overwhelmingly favors economic interests over the environment

Which of the following is the best description of the changing expectations of government’s role in the economy since the 1930s?
people hold the government responsible for a healthy economy

Which of the following is the best example of a public good?
the interstate highway system

Which of the following is the best example of the shadow welfare state?
workplace medical insurance

Which of the following is the most important actor in the foreign policy establishment?
the president

Which of the following is the most important economic value for supporters of laissez-faire?
efficiency

Which of the following is the strongest factor in predicting which groups in society receive the most benefits from government’s social policies?
groups that are the most politically powerful

Which of the following least explains why the elderly receive a large share of social benefits?
most member of congress are themselves elderly or soon will be

Which of the following nations does not have a permanent seat on the UN Security Council?
Germany

Which of the following programs most benefits the working poor?
earned income tax credits

Which of the following social policies is the most costly to the government?
social security

Which of the following statements about noncontributory programs is false?
the existence of these programs dates from the Civil War

Which of the following statements about Social Security is false?
Contributors receive benefits in strict proportion to their contribution

Which of the following statements about the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) is false?
The FRB is part of the Department of the Treasury

Which of the following statements about the No Child Left Behind Act is false?
it creates a standard national test for all students

Which of the following statements about the relationship between government and capitalism is false?
Before the progressive era, the market place was untouched by government interference

Which of the following statements about the World Trade Organization is incorrect?
The United States dropped out of the World Trade Organization in 2004 over a disagreement about steel tariffs

Which of the following statements about who really makes American foreign policy is false?
the influence or power of the president varies depending on which particular country or group of countries the United States is dealing with

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
men are more likely to be poor than women

Which of the following was a driving force for the economic growth during the late nineteenth century?
manufacturing industries

Which of the following was a key part of President Obama’s overhaul of No Child Left Behind?
a proposal to change the criteria for allocating $14 billion in federal assistance to schools from a per pupil formula to a system of competitive grants

Which of the following was created during the New Deal?
Works Progress Administration

Which of the following was not a major form of economic promotion by the federal government in the nineteenth century?
public works projects

Which of the following was not a result of the 2009 Copenhagen Summit?
the meeting ended with a legally binding agreement between countries to limit greenhouse emissions across the world

Which of the following was not included in the congressional plans for health care reform?
a “public option” allowing individuals to acquire medical coverage directly from the government

Which of the following was not one of the goals of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009?
providing for a national health care system

Which of the Founders was most responsible for the establishment of the Bank of the United States?
Alexander Hamilton

Which official is not a major actor in American foreign policy?
Secretary of Veterans Affairs

Which president established preemption as the centerpiece of his foreign policy?
George W. Bush

Which program was designed to help augment the benefits to the aged, blind, and disabled?
Supplemental Security Income

Which statement is the key argument of John Maynard Keynes?
Government can pull an economy out of a recession by stimulating demand and creating a cycle of increased production and jobs

Which U.S. president once said, “I am now a Keynesian”?
Richard Nixon

Which war was officially declared by Congress?
War of 1812

Who among the following advocated for laissez-faire capitalism?
Adam Smith

Who was in charge of caring for the poor during the nineteenth century?
private corporations

Who was the most prominent monetarist in the United States?
Milton Friedman

Why did embedded journalists in Iraq lead to controversy?
there was widespread suspiscion and fear that the journalists were being managed or manipulated by the government to provide favorable reporting of the war effort

Why did the Democrats believe that the 2001 tax cuts should only remain permanent for those making less than $250,000 a year?
High income earners (those making more than $250,000 a year) had benefited disproportionately from economic growth in the early 2000s

Why did the United States fight wars in Korea and Vietnam?
policy makers believed if we didn’t fight, it would embolden the communists

Why do many businesses prefer Congress to regulate the economy?
One national regulation is better than the inconsistencies and disparities of different state laws

Why has Congress become a major foreign policy maker since World War II?
Congress is regularly called upon to approve financing of foreign policies

Why have Americans typically been apprehensive about government efforts to reform health care?
they fear reform will be too costly and will jeopardize current health care arrangements

Why have politicians always favored using subsidies to promote certain economic activities?
they can be treated as “benefits” that can be spread widely in response to many demands

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