Psych Chapter 16 Quiz

Jennifer’s doctor has recently prescribed a drug that alters the activity in dopamine synapses. Her doctor is MOST likely treating Jennifer for symptoms of

A. bipolar disorder.
B. depression.
C. an anxiety disorder.
D. schizophrenia.

D. schizophrenia.

Electroconvulsive therapy and drug therapy for psychological disorders are two types of

A. behavior therapy.
B. biomedical therapy.
C. cognitive therapy.
D. emotion therapy.

B. biomedical therapy.

Viewing a phobia for snakes in classical conditioning terms, the snake is ____ and the fear is ____.

A. a conditioned stimulus; an unconditioned response
B. an unconditioned stimulus; a conditioned response
C. a conditioned stimulus; a conditioned response
D. an unconditioned stimulus; an unconditioned response

C. a conditioned stimulus; a conditioned response

Dr. Spann is a psychoanalytic therapist. Over the past two weeks, his patient has begun showing increasing hostility, and he often yells and becomes threatening when Dr. Spann offers her interpretations of the things that the patient says during therapy. Dr. Spann should MOST likely deal with the patient’s behavior by

A. allowing the patient to work through the feelings associated with transference.
B. moving to a new topic for discussion.
C. ignoring it and recentering on the real problem.
D. modeling new behavior for the client.

A. allowing the patient to work through the feelings associated with transference.

Dr. Brittain uses a therapeutic technique that focuses on providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who in turn play a major role in determining the pace and direction of therapy. Dr. Brittain is MOST likely a

A. rational-emotive therapist.
B. Gestalt therapist.
C. client-centered therapist.
D. psychoanalytic therapist.

C. client-centered therapist.

The techniques of modeling and behavioral rehearsal are employed in BOTH

A. aversion therapy and systematic desensitization.
B. aversion therapy and cognitive therapy.
C. social skills training and cognitive therapy.
D. social skills training and systematic desensitization.

C. social skills training and cognitive therapy.

Systematic desensitization involves

A. interpreting anxiety-arousing stimuli so they are less anxiety-arousing.
B. changing misconceptions regarding anxiety-arousing stimuli.
C. training to relax when confronted with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
D. uncovering repressed feelings regarding anxiety-arousing stimuli.

C. training to relax when confronted with anxiety-arousing stimuli.

Which of the following was NOT a problem with state mental hospitals in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s?

A. The hospitals were underfunded
B. The hospitals were overcrowded
C. The hospital staff was undertrained
D. The hospitals were overstaffed

D. The hospitals were overstaffed

Nelson, a schizophrenic patient, has just begun taking antipsychotic medication. He took his first dose about 12 hours ago, but so far his family sees no change in his condition. What advice should they be given?

A. Early changes due to antipsychotic medication are usually not apparent to nonprofessionals, who are unfamiliar with the signs of improvement
B. Patients usually don’t begin responding to antipsychotic drugs for at least a few days
C. He may have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenic
D. If he doesn’t show improvement in another 12 hours, a different kind of medication should be tried

B. Patients usually don’t begin responding to antipsychotic drugs for at least a few days

Regression toward the mean occurs when

A. people who originally score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls closer to the average.
B. people who originally score near the average on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls at the extreme high or low end of the scale.
C. people’s expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they receive a fake or ineffective treatment.
D. people recover from a mental or physical illness without any form of intervention.

A. people who originally score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls closer to the average.

With regard to a therapist’s sex,

A. it is generally better to choose a therapist the opposite sex as yourself.
B. you should feel free to look for a therapist of one sex or the other if it is personally important to you.
C. it is generally better to choose a therapist the same sex as yourself.
D. both men and women report better outcomes when seeing female therapists.

B. you should feel free to look for a therapist of one sex or the other if it is personally important to you.

The two major antianxiety drugs or tranquilizers are

A. Thorazine and Haldol.
B. Valium and Xanax.
C. Prozac and Zoloft.
D. Elavil and Nardil.

B. Valium and Xanax.

Which of the following would Freud consider to be the MOST direct means of access to the unconscious mind?

A. The client’s feelings toward the therapist
B. The content of dreams
C. The client’s attempts to hinder the progress of therapy
D. Transference

B. The content of dreams

No matter what Sam tells his therapist concerning his failures or successes, weaknesses or strengths, spiteful behaviors or good deeds, or vengeful feelings or positive emotions, his therapist is very accepting of him as a person. Sam’s therapist is showing him

A. unconditional positive regard.
B. empathy.
C. genuineness.
D. transference.

A. unconditional positive regard.

Zachary has been very depressed for several weeks. He just started therapy and went to his therapist for the first time yesterday. Today, he says that while he is still a “little down,” he feels much less depressed than he was. Which of the following pairs of factors are MOST likely to have contributed to his improved mood?

A. Placebo effect and regression toward the mean
B. Regression toward the mean and spontaneous recovery
C. Regression toward the mean and therapy
D. Placebo effect and therapy

A. Placebo effect and regression toward the mean

Most experts believe that for certain types of psychological problems, some treatment approaches are more effective than others. Martin Seligman asserts that obsessive-compulsive disorder responds BEST to

A. behavior therapy or medication.
B. group therapy.
C. cognitive therapy.
D. systematic desensitization.

A. behavior therapy or medication.

The use of the anxiety hierarchy in systematic desensitization allows for the

A. gradual approach to the feared object.
B. direct confrontation with the feared object.
C. transfer of treatment to real-life situations.
D. use of real objects instead of imagination.

A. gradual approach to the feared object.

Which of the following is LEAST accurate concerning trends in mental hospitals in this country?

A. They serve mainly the chronically ill patient
B. The number of patients in mental hospitals has declined since the 1950s
C. The length of stay has increased since the 1950s
D. More patients are now placed in local facilities instead of the mental hospital

C. The length of stay has increased since the 1950s

Which of the following is NOT a major reason American minority groups tend to underutilize mental health services?

A. Frustrating interactions with bureaucracies
B. Lack of therapists who speak their language
C. Distrust of large intimidating institutions such as hospitals and community mental health centers
D. Belief that psychological disorders are caused by supernatural forces

D. Belief that psychological disorders are caused by supernatural forces

Two major and unanticipated problems that occurred as a result of deinstitutionalization involve

A. a revolving door population of patients and the homeless mentally ill.
B. an increased crime rate and an increase in domestic violence.
C. a revolving door population of patients and an increased crime rate.
D. the homeless mentally ill and an increase in domestic violence.

A. a revolving door population of patients and the homeless mentally ill.

According to behavior therapists, pathological behaviors

A. are signs of an underlying emotional or cognitive problem.
B. are the product of irrational thinking.
C. can be modified directly, through the application of established principles of conditioning.
D. should be viewed as the expression of an unconscious sexual or aggressive conflict.

C. can be modified directly, through the application of established principles of conditioning.

Ethel is 75 years old and has been coping with major depression for the past six months. Based on the results reported in the Featured Study, which investigated the impact of combining insight therapy and medication, you should predict that Ethel will show the BEST response to treatment if her therapist combines

A. group therapy with antipsychotic medication.
B. a tricyclic antidepressant with electroconvulsive shock therapy.
C. interpersonal psychotherapy with electroconvulsive shock therapy.
D. interpersonal psychotherapy with a tricyclic antidepressant.

D. interpersonal psychotherapy with a tricyclic antidepressant.

Psychotherapists who are ____ tend to be the most expensive.

A. employed by community mental health centers
B. employed by social service agencies
C. employed by private hospitals
D. in private practice

D. in private practice

Cognitive therapy is designed to

A. correct habitual thinking errors and maladaptive beliefs.
B. create a negative response to a stimulus that has elicited problematic behavior.
C. reduce phobic responses.
D. improve interpersonal skills.

A. correct habitual thinking errors and maladaptive beliefs.

Many specific therapies have turned out to be irrelevant or counterproductive when used with different cultural groups. This finding illustrates that

A. our experience of the world is highly subjective.
B. psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
C. psychology is theoretically diverse.
D. our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.

D. our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.

All of the following are Freudian techniques to bring unconscious material to consciousness EXCEPT

A. analysis of transference.
B. dream analysis.
C. directed confrontation.
D. free association.

C. directed confrontation.

Regression toward the mean occurs when

A. people’s expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they receive a fake or ineffective treatment.
B. people who originally score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls closer to the average.
C. people who originally score near the average on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls at the extreme high or low end of the scale.
D. people recover from a mental or physical illness without any form of intervention.

B. people who originally score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls closer to the average.

Suggestions for improving mental health services for American minority groups have included all of the following EXCEPT

A. some modifications in traditional approaches to therapy.
B. the provision of free therapeutic services for all ethnic clients.
C. work harder to build a therapeutic alliance.
D. recruitment and training of more ethnic minority therapists.

B. the provision of free therapeutic services for all ethnic clients.

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?

A. Only people who have an identifiable mental disorder are eligible for therapy.
B. People from the lower socioeconomic classes are more likely to enter therapy than those from the upper classes.
C. Men are more likely than women to enter therapy.
D. Many people who need therapy don’t receive it.

D. Many people who need therapy don’t receive it.

Bryant loves rich desserts, but he knows that eating high-fat, calorie-laden desserts is bad for his heart. However, he was unable to control his desire for these tasty treats until he read an article in a magazine. The article suggested that every time a person looked at a tempting but forbidden food, he or she should form a mental image of something disgusting. Bryant has been doing this for the past month, and he finds desserts no longer have pleasant associations for him. In this case, Bryant used ____________ to overcome his desire for rich desserts.

A. observational learning
B. negative reinforcement
C. systematic desensitization
D. aversion therapy

D. aversion therapy

Systematic desensitization is a technique based on

A. operant conditioning.
B. instrumental conditioning.
C. aversive conditioning.
D. classical conditioning.

D. classical conditioning.

Which of the following was NOT a problem with state mental hospitals in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s?

A. The hospital staff was undertrained
B. The hospitals were overcrowded
C. The hospitals were underfunded
D. The hospitals were overstaffed

D. The hospitals were overstaffed

What percentage of psychiatric inpatient admissions are readmission of former patients?

A. Approximately 1%
B. Approximately 95%
C. Over 66%
D. Less than 15%

C. Over 66%

Psychoanalysis is a therapy that emphasizes

A. improving interpersonal skills.
B. correcting habitual thinking errors.
C. providing a supportive climate for clients.
D. the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses.

D. the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses.

Dr. Benz always tries to be honest with her clients and never becomes defensive, even if the clients ridicule her feedback or her methods of therapy. According to Carl Rogers, Dr. Benz is displaying the quality of

A. genuineness in dealing with her clients.
B. empathy in dealing with her clients.
C. unconditional positive regard in dealing with her clients.
D. validity in dealing with her clients.

A. genuineness in dealing with her clients.

Dr. Dieringer is a behavior therapist. Her major concern in treating an abnormal behavior would be to discover

A. the childhood unconscious conflict that led to the behavior.
B. the ways in which the behavior keeps the client from becoming self-actualized.
C. the inappropriate thought patterns that underlie the behavior.
D. how situational factors are evoking the troublesome behavior.

D. how situational factors are evoking the troublesome behavior.

The side effect associated with taking traditional antipsychotic drugs that is characterized by chronic tremors and involuntary spastic movements is

A. infindibular recidivism.
B. MAO inhibition.
C. tardive dyskinesia.
D. tachycardia palpitations.

C. tardive dyskinesia.

Dr. Stefan feels psychology has focused for too long on sickness and human weakness. He would rather study human strengths and personal growth. Dr. Stefan is MOST likely a practitioner of

A. cognitive psychology.
B. individual psychology.
C. positive psychology.
D. ontological psychology.

C. positive psychology.

Dr. Smith has just been appointed chief of staff at a large hospital located near an area of town where many minorities live. Dr. Smith is very interested in increasing the level of mental health services provided to the minority community. If you could give him one piece of advice, it would be MOST beneficial if you told him he should

A. open several community mental health centers in the neighborhood.
B. advertise in the local minority-language newspaper.
C. have evening and weekend hours for mental health services.
D. hire trained therapists who are from the same minority group.

D. hire trained therapists who are from the same minority group.

Which of the following statements BEST represents the approach of a cognitive therapist in treating a chronically anxious client?

A. “So, you feel that your world is a very scary place to be.”
B. “Do you feel that your mother adequately met your need for emotional support when you were a child?”
C. “Let’s look for ways in which you might actually be benefiting from your anxiety.”
D. “Let’s see if we can identify the irrational thoughts that are producing your anxiety.”

D. “Let’s see if we can identify the irrational thoughts that are producing your anxiety.”

In client-centered therapy, the therapist’s key task is

A. clarification.
B. behavior modification.
C. interpretation.
D. cognitive evaluation.

A. clarification.

Dr. Brittain uses a therapeutic technique that focuses on providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who in turn play a major role in determining the pace and direction of therapy. Dr. Brittain is MOST likely a

A. psychoanalytic therapist.
B. rational-emotive therapist.
C. Gestalt therapist.
D. client-centered therapist.

D. client-centered therapist.

Contemporary psychodynamic approaches to therapy tend to do all of the following EXCEPT

A. focus on the therapeutic relationship.
B. identify recurring life patterns.
C. address early childhood experiences.
D. neglect emotional experience.

D. neglect emotional experience.

The major emphasis in client-centered therapy is to provide the client with

A. feedback and clarification.
B. cognitive restructuring.
C. good advice.
D. interpretation of unconscious thinking.

A. feedback and clarification.

Advocates of positive psychology maintain the field has focused too heavily on

A. conscious thought.
B. unconscious impulses.
C. contentment, human strengths, and well-being.
D. pathology, weakness, and suffering.

D. pathology, weakness, and suffering.

Taken as a whole, the results from studies investigating mental illness among the homeless indicate that, compared to the non-homeless, homeless people are

A. more likely to suffer from mental health problems.
B. equally likely to suffer from mental health problems.
C. less likely to suffer from mental health problems, but more likely to exhibit substance abuse problems.
D. less likely to suffer from mental health problems or substance abuse problems.

A. more likely to suffer from mental health problems.

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?

A. Psychotherapy is for people with an identified psychological disorder.
B. The most common problem for which people will seek mental health treatment is for unsatisfactory interpersonal relations.
C. Men are more likely to seek professional psychological help.
D. About half of the people who used mental health services in a given year do not meet the criteria for a full-fledged mental disorder.

D. About half of the people who used mental health services in a given year do not meet the criteria for a full-fledged mental disorder.

Nancy is very nonassertive and is often “taken advantage of” by others. Nancy decides to seek treatment to learn to be more assertive and asks you for advice. You tell her that the ____ therapy of ____ is appropriate to help with her problem and is likely to result in positive changes in her behavior relatively quickly.

A. behavior; social skills training
B. behavior; systematic desensitization
C. cognitive; rational-emotive therapy
D. insight; psychoanalysis

A. behavior; social skills training

Which of the following was NOT a problem with state mental hospitals in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s?

A. The hospital staff was undertrained
B. The hospitals were underfunded
C. The hospitals were overcrowded
D. The hospitals were overstaffed

D. The hospitals were overstaffed

Deinstitutionalization means that

A. hospitalization for mental illness has become a thing of the past.
B. whenever possible, the mentally ill should be treated at community-based facilities that emphasize outpatient care.
C. mental hospitals should take increased responsibility for the treatment of all clients, even those who are not seriously ill.
D. the environment inside mental hospitals is designed to be less structured and rigid.

B. whenever possible, the mentally ill should be treated at community-based facilities that emphasize outpatient care.

Dr. Smith has just been appointed chief of staff at a large hospital located near an area of town where many minorities live. Dr. Smith is very interested in increasing the level of mental health services provided to the minority community. If you could give him one piece of advice, it would be MOST beneficial if you told him he should

A. advertise in the local minority-language newspaper.
B. have evening and weekend hours for mental health services.
C. open several community mental health centers in the neighborhood.
D. hire trained therapists who are from the same minority group.

D. hire trained therapists who are from the same minority group.

You make an appointment to see a therapist, and at your first meeting, the therapist tells you that he believes most psychological disorders are a result of negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. What type of therapist are you seeing?

A. Cognitive
B. Client-centered
C. Psychoanalytic
D. Behavioral

A. Cognitive

The transferring of treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community-based facilities is referred to as

A. decentralization.
B. deinstitutionalization.
C. mainstreaming.
D. exit-transfer therapy.

B. deinstitutionalization.

Joseph Wolpe launched behavior therapy in 1958 with his description of

A. the token economy.
B. aversion therapy.
C. social skills training.
D. systematic desensitization.

D. systematic desensitization.

You are watching a television documentary that shows a patient who is undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). If this documentary is depicting psychotherapy in the late 1930s or early 1940s, you should conclude that

A. the patient is being treated for severe depression that has not responded to medication.
B. the patient is being treated for schizophrenia.
C. the doctor is using a form of aversion therapy to reduce compulsive behaviors in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
D. the patient is being treated for epilepsy.

B. the patient is being treated for schizophrenia.

A form of behavior therapy that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping and is designed to improve interpersonal skills is

A. behavioral redirection.
B. aversive conditioning.
C. social skills training.
D. systematic desensitization.

C. social skills training.

Viewing a phobia for snakes in classical conditioning terms, the snake is ____ and the fear is ____.

A. an unconditioned stimulus; an unconditioned response
B. a conditioned stimulus; an unconditioned response
C. a conditioned stimulus; a conditioned response
D. an unconditioned stimulus; a conditioned response

C. a conditioned stimulus; a conditioned response

Charlie alternates between periods of elation and depression. Which of the following medications is he MOST likely to receive to control his condition?

A. Xanax
B. Prozac
C. lithium
D. Thorazine

C. lithium

The therapeutic drugs used to control bipolar disorder are referred to as

A. antipsychotics.
B. antianxiety drugs.
C. mood stabilizers.
D. antidepressants.

C. mood stabilizers.

A therapist cures a man of his sexual attraction to children by pairing pictures of children with painful electric shocks. The procedure being used here is

A. aversion therapy.
B. social skills training.
C. extinction.
D. systematic desensitization.

A. aversion therapy.

The trend toward deinstitutionalization mainly came about because large mental institutions

A. were actually worsening the condition of many patients.
B. were becoming too political.
C. were becoming too expensive.
D. were overstaffed.

A. were actually worsening the condition of many patients.

Dr. Nenning is a psychotherapist who is extremely supportive of all his clients. He encourages his clients to talk about their concerns, and he often acts as a sounding board, restating and clarifying the themes that come to the surface as his clients speak freely about their concerns and problems. Dr. Nenning appears to be

A. a therapist who uses Beck’s cognitive approach to therapy.
B. a therapist who uses a modern psychodynamic approach.
C. a therapist who uses existential therapy methods.
D. a client-centered therapist.

D. a client-centered therapist.

Therapists who tend to see symptoms as the problem rather than as signs of more internal, underlying problems are

A. humanists.
B. cognitive therapists.
C. behavior therapists.
D. psychodynamic therapists.

C. behavior therapists.

Freud’s approach for the treatment of psychological disorders is

A. client-centered therapy.
B. psychotherapy.
C. unconscious therapy.
D. psychoanalysis.

D. psychoanalysis.

Behavior therapy requires that

A. the client’s concrete complaints be translated into abstract constructs.
B. the client passively accept suggestions for change.
C. the client develop insight into his or her irrational thought processes.
D. the client’s vague complaints be translated into concrete behavioral goals.

D. the client’s vague complaints be translated into concrete behavioral goals.

Jimmy has been in psychotherapy for several months, but during the last few sessions, he has been distracted and inattentive. When his therapist asks him to describe any dreams he has had recently, Jimmy insists that he doesn’t remember any of his dreams. According to Freud, Jimmy’s behavior may be a sign of

A. insight.
B. defensive neurosis.
C. transference.
D. resistance.

D. resistance.

Dr. Stroetz believes that most psychological disorders can be successfully treated by bringing unconscious conflicts and defenses into conscious awareness. Knowing this, you might expect that Dr. Stroetz’s bookshelves contain a large number of books written by

A. Joseph Wolpe.
B. Sigmund Freud.
C. Carl Rogers.
D. Hans Eysenck.

B. Sigmund Freud.

A severe side effect associated with ____ drugs is ____, which is a neurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and tic-like movements.

A. antidepressant; tardive dyskinesia
B. antipsychotic; tardive dyskinesia
C. antidepressant; Parkinson’s disease
D. antipsychotic; Parkinson’s disease

B. antipsychotic; tardive dyskinesia

What percentage of psychiatric inpatient admissions are readmission of former patients?

A. Approximately 95%
B. Approximately 1%
C. Over 66%
D. Less than 15%

C. Over 66%

In client-centered therapy, the therapist’s key task is

A. interpretation.
B. behavior modification.
C. clarification.
D. cognitive evaluation.

C. clarification.

What do psychoanalytic and client-centered therapies have in common?

A. They both stress insight into the self
B. They both prescribe drugs as part of the treatment
C. They both deal with psychotic problems
D. They both require an M.D. degree to practice

A. They both stress insight into the self

Freud considered ____ to be the MOST direct way to access the patient’s unconscious, or the “royal road to the unconscious.”

A. dreams
B. free association
C. hypnosis
D. truth serum

A. dreams

Cognitive therapy borrows many techniques from

A. group therapy.
B. psychodynamic therapy.
C. behavior therapy.
D. client-centered therapy.

C. behavior therapy.

The MOST important aspect of group therapy is that group members

A. reduce both transference and resistance.
B. increase conformity and compliance.
C. challenge one another’s false belief structures.
D. provide acceptance and emotional support.

D. provide acceptance and emotional support.

Most experts believe that for certain types of psychological problems, some treatment approaches are more effective than others. Martin Seligman asserts that panic disorders respond BEST to

A. behavior therapy or medication.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. cognitive therapy.
D. group therapy.

C. cognitive therapy.

In client-centered therapy, the ____ is more important then the ____.

A. interpretation; climate
B. process; climate
C. evaluation; process
D. climate; process

D. climate; process

Which of the following statements is FALSE? ____ are more likely than ____ to receive psychotherapy.

A. People with medical insurance; people without medical insurance
B. Divorced and separated people; married people
C. Women; men
D. People with less education; people with more education

B. Divorced and separated people; married people

Freud is to unconscious conflicts as Rogers is to

A. catharsis.
B. maladaptive habits.
C. incongruence.
D. clarification.

C. incongruence.

Kayla has a psychological disorder, and her doctor has prescribed an MAO inhibitor to reduce the severity of Kayla’s symptoms. In this case, Kayla’s therapist is MOST likely treating her for

A. schizophrenia.
B. an anxiety disorder.
C. depression.
D. bipolar disorder.

C. depression.

Freud believed that psychological disorders are caused by

A. inconsistency between one’s self-concept and reality.
B. maladaptive patterns of thinking established in childhood.
C. current stressful situations in one’s life.
D. unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood.

D. unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood.

Dr. Brittain uses a therapeutic technique that focuses on providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who in turn play a major role in determining the pace and direction of therapy. Dr. Brittain is MOST likely a

A. rational-emotive therapist.
B. psychoanalytic therapist.
C. Gestalt therapist.
D. client-centered therapist.

D. client-centered therapist.

Dr. Nenning is a psychotherapist who is extremely supportive of all his clients. He encourages his clients to talk about their concerns, and he often acts as a sounding board, restating and clarifying the themes that come to the surface as his clients speak freely about their concerns and problems. Dr. Nenning appears to be

A. a therapist who uses existential therapy methods.
B. a therapist who uses a modern psychodynamic approach.
C. a therapist who uses Beck’s cognitive approach to therapy.
D. a client-centered therapist.

D. a client-centered therapist.

Your therapist is a client-centered therapist and must provide unconditional positive regard. In other words, your therapist must

A. communicate with clients in an honest and spontaneous manner.
B. understand the client’s world from the client’s point of view, and be able to communicate this.
C. show complete, nonjudgmental acceptance of the client as a person.
D. provide warmth and caring only when clients’ behavior is appropriate.

C. show complete, nonjudgmental acceptance of the client as a person.

The use of varied combinations of verbal interventions and behavioral modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking BEST describes

A. cognitive-behavioral treatments.
B. biomedical treatments.
C. group therapy treatments.
D. insight treatments.

A. cognitive-behavioral treatments.

Viewing a phobia for snakes in classical conditioning terms, the snake is ____ and the fear is ____.

A. a conditioned stimulus; an unconditioned response
B. an unconditioned stimulus; an unconditioned response
C. a conditioned stimulus; a conditioned response
D. an unconditioned stimulus; a conditioned response

C. a conditioned stimulus; a conditioned response

The practice of therapy that involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one is known as

A. an eclectic approach to therapy.
B. a Gestalt approach to therapy.
C. a behavioral approach to therapy.
D. a psychoanalytic approach to therapy.

A. an eclectic approach to therapy.

Researchers can try to control for regression toward the mean and placebo effects through the use of

A. cross-sectional studies, statistical adjustment, and case study research.
B. double-blind testing, correlational research, and random sampling.
C. longitudinal testing, random assignment, and naturalistic observation.
D. control groups, random assignment, and statistical adjustment.

D. control groups, random assignment, and statistical adjustment.

Clive is a clinical psychologist and his sister Grace is a psychiatrist. The main difference between these two professionals would be the fact that Clive would

A. have a degree in psychology, while Grace would have a medical degree.
B. take a psychoanalytic approach in treating patients, while Grace would take a behavioral approach.
C. typically deal with patients who have more severe problems than the patients Grace usually sees.
D. normally treat young children, while Grace would treat more adults.

A. have a degree in psychology, while Grace would have a medical degree.

Therapeutic drugs that reduce tension, apprehension, and nervousness are

A. antianxiety drugs.
B. mood stabilizes.
C. antipsychotic drugs.
D. antidepressant drugs.

A. antianxiety drugs.

The transferring of treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community-based facilities is referred to as

A. deinstitutionalization.
B. mainstreaming.
C. decentralization.
D. exit-transfer therapy.

A. deinstitutionalization.

Alice has a dog phobia. Her therapist confronts her with actual dogs so that Alice learns that dogs are usually harmless. Alice is receiving

A. systematic desensitization.
B. avoidance therapy.
C. aversion therapy.
D. exposure therapy.

D. exposure therapy.

Antipsychotic drugs

A. are often prescribed even for individuals who have no clinical psychotic disorder.
B. tend to produce an immediate but short-lasting effect.
C. are effective in about 95% of psychotic patients.
D. gradually reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.

D. gradually reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.

A classical conditioning-based behavior therapy designed to treat an individual suffering from a spider phobia is ____, while a classical conditioning-based behavior therapy designed to treat alcohol abuse is ____.

A. aversion therapy; systematic desensitization
B. systematic desensitization; aversion therapy
C. punishment; extinction
D. extinction; punishment

B. systematic desensitization; aversion therapy

Carl Rogers believed that psychological disorders are caused by

A. current stressful situations in one’s life.
B. unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood.
C. inconsistency between one’s self-concept and reality.
D. maladaptive patterns of thinking established in childhood.

C. inconsistency between one’s self-concept and reality.

William has just been to a therapist who prescribed an antidepressant medication. William should expect to experience a noticeable reduction in his symptoms of depression

A. gradually, after 1-2 weeks of taking the prescribed amount of the drug.
B. within 24 hours of taking the drug for the first time.
C. within 2-3 hours of taking the drug for the first time.
D. only after 6-8 weeks of taking the prescribed amount of the drug.

A. gradually, after 1-2 weeks of taking the prescribed amount of the drug.

The community health movement emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT

A. reduced dependence on medication to treat psychological disorders.
B. reduced dependence on hospitalization for psychological disorders.
C. locally provided treatment for psychological disorders.
D. programs designed to prevent the onset of psychological disorders.

A. reduced dependence on medication to treat psychological disorders.

Mario recently started seeing a therapist. At the start of each session, Mario lies down and starts talking about anything that comes to mind. He often rambles, and he sometimes thinks that the things he describes seem trivial or silly, but his therapist encourages him to say whatever comes into his mind. This therapeutic technique is common among therapists who use

A. a holistic approach to therapy.
B. a client-centered approach in therapy.
C. a cognitive approach in therapy.
D. a psychoanalytic approach in therapy.

D. a psychoanalytic approach in therapy.

Behavior therapy requires that

A. the client develop insight into his or her irrational thought processes.
B. the client passively accept suggestions for change.
C. the client’s concrete complaints be translated into abstract constructs.
D. the client’s vague complaints be translated into concrete behavioral goals.

D. the client’s vague complaints be translated into concrete behavioral goals.

Cognitive therapy borrows many techniques from

A. psychodynamic therapy.
B. group therapy.
C. behavior therapy.
D. client-centered therapy.

C. behavior therapy.

Rogers believed that client-centered therapists must provide unconditional positive regard for their clients. In other words, they must

A. show complete, nonjudgmental acceptance of the client as a person.
B. provide warmth and caring only when clients’ behavior is appropriate.
C. communicate with clients in an honest and spontaneous manner.
D. understand the client’s world from the client’s point of view, and be able to communicate this.

A. show complete, nonjudgmental acceptance of the client as a person.

The basic learning principle used in Wolpe’s systematic desensitization is

A. positive reinforcement.
B. counterconditioning.
C. negative reinforcement.
D. operant conditioning.

B. counterconditioning.

Deep brain stimulation

A. allows scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in specific areas of the brain.
B. involves surgically implanting an electrode in the brain.
C. uses electric shock to relieve severe depression.
D. passes a low electric current through the forehead using a small paddle.

B. involves surgically implanting an electrode in the brain.

At times, individuals decide to terminate therapy at a time the therapist feels is premature and at a point when therapy is about to make significant progress. This is an example of

A. resistance.
B. interpretation.
C. repression.
D. transference.

A. resistance.

Jim is 14 years old and has been participating in individual therapy. Although he has made progress, his therapist is concerned that Jim will relapse because of Jim’s dysfunctional home environment. Jim’s therapist is MOST likely to recommend

A. psychoanalysis.
B. couples therapy.
C. family therapy.
D. systematic desensitization.

C. family therapy.

Which group of therapeutic drugs used to treat psychological disorders are commonly referred to as tranquilizers?

A. Mood stabilizers
B. Antianxiety drugs
C. Antidepressant drugs
D. Antipsychotic drugs

B. Antianxiety drugs

Which of the following is NOT a criticism of drug therapy?

A. The side effects may be worse than the illnesses they are supposed to cure
B. Drugs temporarily relieve symptoms without addressing the real problem
C. Many drugs are overprescribed, and many patients are overmedicated
D. The therapy is typically expensive

D. The therapy is typically expensive

Antipsychotic drugs

A. tend to produce an immediate but short-lasting effect.
B. are effective in about 95% of psychotic patients.
C. are often prescribed even for individuals who have no clinical psychotic disorder.
D. gradually reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.

D. gradually reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.

Lange tells his therapist, “My whole world is a mess, and nobody cares for me or is concerned about what happens to me.” Lange’s therapist knows that he has many friends who are concerned about him, but she tells him, “I understand why you might feel that way right now, and it must be difficult for you to deal with your feelings of abandonment.” In this interaction, Lange’s therapist is displaying the quality that Carl Rogers termed

A. clarification.
B. genuineness.
C. unconditional positive regard.
D. empathy.

D. empathy.

Lancaster has been feeling worthless and unmotivated since he lost his job six months ago. He schedules an appointment with his doctor to find out if there is some physical problem that is causing his symptoms. His doctor tells Lancaster that he has a psychological disorder that should respond well to medication. The doctor will MOST likely treat Lancaster’s symptoms by prescribing

A. Zoloft.
B. Xanax.
C. Thorazine.
D. Valium.

A. Zoloft.

Which of the following statements BEST represents the approach of a client-centered therapist in treating a chronically anxious client?

A. “Let’s see if we can identify the irrational beliefs that are producing your anxiety.”
B. “Do you feel that your mother adequately met your need for emotional support when you were a child?”
C. “Let’s look for ways in which you might actually be benefiting from your anxiety.”
D. “So, you feel that your world is a very scary place to be.”

D. “So, you feel that your world is a very scary place to be.”

Systematic desensitization is a therapy designed to

A. create a negative response to a stimulus that has elicited problematic behavior.
B. reduce phobic responses.
C. correct habitual thinking errors and maladaptive beliefs.
D. improve interpersonal skills.

B. reduce phobic responses.

Researchers can try to control for regression toward the mean and placebo effects through the use of

A. longitudinal testing, random assignment, and naturalistic observation.
B. cross-sectional studies, statistical adjustment, and case study research.
C. double-blind testing, correlational research, and random sampling.
D. control groups, random assignment, and statistical adjustment.

D. control groups, random assignment, and statistical adjustment.

About ____ of psychotic patients respond favorably to traditional antipsychotic medication.

A. 5%
B. 40%
C. 15%
D. 70%

D. 70%

Jimmy has been in psychotherapy for several months, but during the last few sessions, he has been distracted and inattentive. When his therapist asks him to describe any dreams he has had recently, Jimmy insists that he doesn’t remember any of his dreams. According to Freud, Jimmy’s behavior may be a sign of

A. defensive neurosis.
B. insight.
C. transference.
D. resistance.

D. resistance.

The transferring of treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community-based facilities is referred to as

A. deinstitutionalization.
B. decentralization.
C. mainstreaming.
D. exit-transfer therapy.

A. deinstitutionalization.

In comparison to lithium, mood stabilizers such as valproate are

A. more effective in treating bipolar disorder but have more adverse effects.
B. less effective in treating bipolar disorder and have more adverse effects.
C. equally effective in treating bipolar disorder and have fewer adverse effects.
D. less effective in treating bipolar disorder but have fewer adverse effects.

C. equally effective in treating bipolar disorder and have fewer adverse effects.

Regression toward the mean occurs when

A. people’s expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they receive a fake or ineffective treatment.
B. people who originally score near the average on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls at the extreme high or low end of the scale.
C. people who originally score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls closer to the average.
D. people recover from a mental or physical illness without any form of intervention.

C. people who originally score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls closer to the average.

Which of the following is NOT among the advantages of group therapy?

A. Certain kinds of problems are especially well suited to group treatment
B. Participants often come to realize that their misery is not unique
C. It produces a significantly higher recovery rate than individual therapy
D. It provides an opportunity for participants to work on social skills in a safe environment

C. It produces a significantly higher recovery rate than individual therapy

No matter what Sam tells his therapist concerning his failures or successes, weaknesses or strengths, spiteful behaviors or good deeds, or vengeful feelings or positive emotions, his therapist is very accepting of him as a person. Sam’s therapist is showing him

A. unconditional positive regard.
B. genuineness.
C. transference.
D. empathy.

A. unconditional positive regard.

You make an appointment to see a therapist, and at your first meeting, the therapist tells you that he believes most psychological disorders are a result of negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. What type of therapist are you seeing?

A. Cognitive
B. Client-centered
C. Psychoanalytic
D. Behavioral

A. Cognitive

The community health movement emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT

A. reduced dependence on hospitalization for psychological disorders.
B. reduced dependence on medication to treat psychological disorders.
C. locally provided treatment for psychological disorders.
D. programs designed to prevent the onset of psychological disorders.

B. reduced dependence on medication to treat psychological disorders.

Aversion therapy is a therapy designed to

A. correct habitual thinking errors and maladaptive beliefs.
B. improve interpersonal skills.
C. create a negative response to a stimulus that has elicited problematic behavior.
D. reduce phobic responses.

C. create a negative response to a stimulus that has elicited problematic behavior.

Compared to psychologists, in their provision of therapy, psychiatrists tend to

A. use behavior therapies more often.
B. spend less time working with severely disturbed patients.
C. use group therapies more often.
D. emphasize biomedical treatments more.

D. emphasize biomedical treatments more.

In client-centered therapy, the ____ is more important then the ____.

A. process; climate
B. interpretation; climate
C. evaluation; process
D. climate; process

D. climate; process

Cognitive therapy is to negative thinking as drug therapy is to

A. abnormal neurotransmitter activity.
B. maladaptive learning.
C. incongruence.
D. ECT.

A. abnormal neurotransmitter activity.

Lange tells his therapist, “My whole world is a mess, and nobody cares for me or is concerned about what happens to me.” Lange’s therapist knows that he has many friends who are concerned about him, but she tells him, “I understand why you might feel that way right now, and it must be difficult for you to deal with your feelings of abandonment.” In this interaction, Lange’s therapist is displaying the quality that Carl Rogers termed

A. unconditional positive regard.
B. genuineness.
C. clarification.
D. empathy.

D. empathy.

The major emphasis in client-centered therapy is to provide the client with

A. feedback and clarification.
B. good advice.
C. cognitive restructuring.
D. interpretation of unconscious thinking.

A. feedback and clarification.

Most experts believe that for certain types of psychological problems, some treatment approaches are more effective than others. Martin Seligman asserts that obsessive-compulsive disorder responds BEST to

A. systematic desensitization.
B. behavior therapy or medication.
C. cognitive therapy.
D. group therapy.

B. behavior therapy or medication.

You are watching a television documentary that shows a patient who is undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). If this documentary is depicting psychotherapy in the late 1930s or early 1940s, you should conclude that

A. the patient is being treated for severe depression that has not responded to medication.
B. the patient is being treated for schizophrenia.
C. the doctor is using a form of aversion therapy to reduce compulsive behaviors in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
D. the patient is being treated for epilepsy.

B. the patient is being treated for schizophrenia.

Nancy is very nonassertive and is often “taken advantage of” by others. Nancy decides to seek treatment to learn to be more assertive and asks you for advice. You tell her that the ____ therapy of ____ is appropriate to help with her problem and is likely to result in positive changes in her behavior relatively quickly.

A. behavior; systematic desensitization
B. behavior; social skills training
C. cognitive; rational-emotive therapy
D. insight; psychoanalysis

B. behavior; social skills training

Today, there are many alternative approaches to treatment, including client-centered therapy, cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and biomedical therapies. This wide range of alternatives illustrates that

A. psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
B. heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
C. behavior is determined by multiple causes.
D. psychology is theoretically diverse.

D. psychology is theoretically diverse.

Which of the following assumptions is LEAST likely to be made by a behavioral therapist?

A. Overt behaviors are symptoms of an underlying problem.
B. Behavior is a product of learning.
C. What has been learned is can be unlearned.
D. Learning principles can be used to get rid of maladaptive behaviors.

A. Overt behaviors are symptoms of an underlying problem.

Preliminary research suggest positive psychotherapy can be effective in treatment for

A. schizophrenia.
B. anxiety disorders.
C. depression.
D. bipolar disorder.

C. depression.

Which group of therapeutic drugs tend to exert their effect almost immediately, but also tend to have an effect that lasts a short length of time?

A. Mood stabilizers
B. Antipsychotic drugs
C. Antianxiety drugs
D. Antidepressant drugs

C. Antianxiety drugs

The transferring of treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community-based facilities is referred to as

A. mainstreaming.
B. deinstitutionalization.
C. decentralization.
D. exit-transfer therapy.

B. deinstitutionalization.

Mario recently started seeing a therapist. At the start of each session, Mario lies down and starts talking about anything that comes to mind. He often rambles, and he sometimes thinks that the things he describes seem trivial or silly, but his therapist encourages him to say whatever comes into his mind. This therapeutic technique is common among therapists who use

A. a client-centered approach in therapy.
B. a cognitive approach in therapy.
C. a holistic approach to therapy.
D. a psychoanalytic approach in therapy.

D. a psychoanalytic approach in therapy.

A therapist’s attempt to explain the significance of a client’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors is referred to as

A. interpretation.
B. confrontation.
C. clarification.
D. debriefing.

A. interpretation.

Modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping are the major tools of

A. rational-emotive therapy.
B. social skills training.
C. cognitive restructuring.
D. insight-rehearsal training.

B. social skills training.

John suffers from chronic anxiety. He tends to worry constantly and is uncomfortable in a wide variety of situations. He decides to seek therapy. John put considerable thought into what he wants to gain from therapy, believing that if he learns why he is so anxious, he will be better able to cope. Based on John’s beliefs, he is MOST likely to seek a therapist who emphasizes the ____ approach.

A. insight therapy
B. behavior therapy
C. biomedical therapy
D. emotion therapy

A. insight therapy

Freud believed that psychological disorders are caused by

A. current stressful situations in one’s life.
B. inconsistency between one’s self-concept and reality.
C. maladaptive patterns of thinking established in childhood.
D. unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood.

D. unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood.

Therapeutic drugs that gradually reduce symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, hyperactivity, and mental confusion are

A. mood stabilizers.
B. antipsychotic drugs.
C. antianxiety drugs.
D. antidepressant drugs.

B. antipsychotic drugs.

In client-centered therapy, the therapist’s key task is

A. interpretation.
B. behavior modification.
C. cognitive evaluation.
D. clarification.

D. clarification.

Two major and unanticipated problems that occurred as a result of deinstitutionalization involve

A. the homeless mentally ill and an increase in domestic violence.
B. a revolving door population of patients and the homeless mentally ill.
C. a revolving door population of patients and an increased crime rate.
D. an increased crime rate and an increase in domestic violence.

B. a revolving door population of patients and the homeless mentally ill.

The use of varied combinations of verbal interventions and behavioral modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking BEST describes

A. group therapy treatments.
B. insight treatments.
C. cognitive-behavioral treatments.
D. biomedical treatments.

C. cognitive-behavioral treatments.

The two MOST common problems among those who seek psychotherapy are

A. low self-esteem and irrational thinking.
B. anxiety and depression.
C. loneliness and boredom.
D. marital conflicts and a sense of emptiness.

B. anxiety and depression.

Heather is a smoker who is unable to quit, even though she knows that smoking is ruining her health. Finally, she decides to enter therapy in an attempt to control her desire for cigarettes. In this case, the best behavioral therapy technique to use in helping Heather eliminate her smoking habit would be

A. systematic desensitization.
B. social skills training.
C. negative reinforcement.
D. aversion therapy.

D. aversion therapy.

Transference in psychoanalytic therapy may reveal itself when the patient

A. changes the way the patient feels about people close to the patient.
B. transfers from one stage of analysis to another.
C. responds to the therapist as though he or she were the patient’s parent.
D. shifts social roles during the course of therapy.

C. responds to the therapist as though he or she were the patient’s parent.

Jennifer’s doctor has recently prescribed a drug that alters the activity in dopamine synapses. Her doctor is MOST likely treating Jennifer for symptoms of

A. bipolar disorder.
B. schizophrenia.
C. an anxiety disorder.
D. depression.

B. schizophrenia.

Which of the following has NOT been an outcome of deinstitutionalization?

A. More outpatient care of psychological disorders
B. An increase in the number of mentally ill patients in local general hospitals
C. An increase in the average length of stay in state and county mental hospitals
D. A decrease in the average inpatient population in state and county mental hospitals

C. An increase in the average length of stay in state and county mental hospitals

Which of the following behavior therapy techniques would MOST likely be used to treat a fear of flying?

A. Biofeedback
B. Aversive conditioning
C. Modeling
D. Systematic desensitization

D. Systematic desensitization

Compared to psychologists, in their provision of therapy, psychiatrists tend to

A. use behavior therapies more often.
B. spend less time working with severely disturbed patients.
C. emphasize biomedical treatments more.
D. use group therapies more often.

C. emphasize biomedical treatments more.

Cognitive therapy borrows many techniques from

A. psychodynamic therapy.
B. group therapy.
C. behavior therapy.
D. client-centered therapy.

C. behavior therapy.

When Cary was eight years old, she was startled and began to cry when a car backfired just as she was walking under a ladder. As an adult, Cary is still terrified of ladders. Based on principles of classical conditioning, the sound of the car backfiring

A. acted as an unconditioned stimulus.
B. resulted in counterconditioning.
C. produced transference.
D. acted as a conditioned stimulus.

A. acted as an unconditioned stimulus.

Which group of therapeutic drugs used to treat psychological disorders are commonly referred to as tranquilizers?

A. Antipsychotic drugs
B. Antidepressant drugs
C. Mood stabilizers
D. Antianxiety drugs

D. Antianxiety drugs

Dr. Guralski believes that most psychological disorders are a result of negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. Knowing this, you might expect that Dr. Guralski’s bookshelves contain a large number of books written by

A. Hans Eysenck.
B. Carl Rogers.
C. Aaron Beck.
D. Sigmund Freud.

C. Aaron Beck.

Dr. Brittain uses a therapeutic technique that focuses on providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who in turn play a major role in determining the pace and direction of therapy. Dr. Brittain is MOST likely a

A. Gestalt therapist.
B. client-centered therapist.
C. rational-emotive therapist.
D. psychoanalytic therapist.

B. client-centered therapist.

The goal of cognitive therapy is to

A. use verbal interactions to expand the client’s self-knowledge .
B. use positive reinforcement to change maladaptive behaviors.
C. use observational learning to overcome maladaptive behavior .
D. change the clients negative thought and maladaptive beliefs.

D. change the clients negative thought and maladaptive beliefs.

The two major antianxiety drugs or tranquilizers are

A. Prozac and Zoloft.
B. Valium and Xanax.
C. Thorazine and Haldol.
D. Elavil and Nardil.

B. Valium and Xanax.

Today, psychoanalysis is MOST likely to be practiced by

A. counseling psychologists.
B. social workers.
C. psychiatrists.
D. clinical psychologists.

C. psychiatrists.

A severe side effect associated with ____ drugs is ____, which is a neurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and tic-like movements.

A. antidepressant; Parkinson’s disease
B. antidepressant; tardive dyskinesia
C. antipsychotic; Parkinson’s disease
D. antipsychotic; tardive dyskinesia

D. antipsychotic; tardive dyskinesia

Different approaches to psychotherapy are designed to accomplish different outcomes. Which of the following correctly lists three types of therapy that are designed to change the thinking, change the physiological functioning, and change the knowledge of unconscious conflicts of a client, respectively?

A. Cognitive therapy, drug therapy, psychoanalysis
B. Client-centered therapy, aversion therapy, psychoanalysis
C. Group therapy, drug therapy, social skills training
D. Cognitive therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, client-centered therapy

A. Cognitive therapy, drug therapy, psychoanalysis

Which of the following disorders would be LEAST likely to be treated by psychiatrists?

A. Schizophrenia
B. Marital problems
C. Anxiety disorder
D. Mood disorder

B. Marital problems

Which of the following factors can affect the outcome of a treatment program?

A. Placebo effects
B. Regression toward the mean
C. All of these above
D. The efficacy of the treatment itself

C. All of these above

Joseph Wolpe launched behavior therapy in 1958 with his description of

A. the token economy.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. social skills training.
D. aversion therapy.

B. systematic desensitization.

Your friend is interested in becoming a psychologist and wants to specialize in working with the most severe mental health problems. What specialty is she MOST likely to choose?

A. Clinical psychologist
B. Counseling psychologist
C. School psychologist
D. Research psychologist

A. Clinical psychologist

The basic learning principle used in Wolpe’s systematic desensitization is

A. negative reinforcement.
B. counterconditioning.
C. positive reinforcement.
D. operant conditioning.

B. counterconditioning.

Freud believed that psychological disorders are caused by

A. unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood.
B. current stressful situations in one’s life.
C. inconsistency between one’s self-concept and reality.
D. maladaptive patterns of thinking established in childhood.

A. unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood.

Aversion therapy would be MOST appropriate for a client wanting to

A. decrease negative thoughts.
B. overcome an elevator phobia.
C. overcome social anxiety.
D. quit smoking.

D. quit smoking.

Therapists who emphasize the application of learning principles in treatment use the ____ approach to psychotherapy.

A. insight
B. biomedical
C. behavior
D. emotion

C. behavior

Today, there are many alternative approaches to treatment, including client-centered therapy, cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and biomedical therapies. This wide range of alternatives illustrates that

A. psychology is theoretically diverse.
B. behavior is determined by multiple causes.
C. psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
D. heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.

A. psychology is theoretically diverse.

Client: “I’ve had a bad week. I’m really down.” Therapist: “You’ve had some unpleasant experiences lately and are feeling quite depressed as a result.” The therapist’s statement in this interaction is intended to communicate

A. genuineness to the client.
B. disapproval to the client.
C. unconditional positive regard to the client.
D. empathy to the client.

D. empathy to the client.

Therapies that involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients self-knowledge, and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior, are known as

A. behavioral therapy.
B. insight therapy.
C. psychopharmacological therapy.
D. emotive therapy.

B. insight therapy.

Vicki is seeing a therapist in an attempt to work through the troubles in her relationship with her father. She and her therapist often engage in lengthy verbal interactions, and her therapist tries to help Vicki work through a variety of potential solutions for the problems she is facing. In this case, her therapist’s approach to treatment would MOST likely be classified as

A. homeopathic therapy.
B. biomedical therapy.
C. behavior therapy.
D. insight therapy.

D. insight therapy.

Which of the following statements about group therapy is LEAST accurate?

A. Therapy groups typically consist of 4 to 15 participants.
B. The therapist may share his or her personal experiences and feelings with the group.
C. Group participants essentially function as therapists for each other.
D. Group therapy is typically more expensive than individual therapy.

D. Group therapy is typically more expensive than individual therapy.

Drug therapy is classified as ____ therapy; electroconvulsive shock therapy is classified as ____ therapy.

A. a biomedical; a behavior
B. a biomedical; a biomedical
C. a behavior; an insight
D. an aversion; a biomedical

B. a biomedical; a biomedical

The first step in the process of systematic desensitization is to

A. build an anxiety hierarchy.
B. achieve successive goals approximations.
C. train in deep muscle relaxation.
D. relax while visualizing a fearful stimulus.

A. build an anxiety hierarchy.

Placebo effects occur when

A. people’s expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they receive a fake or ineffective treatment.
B. people who originally score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls closer to the average.
C. people who originally score near the average on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls at the extreme high or low end of the scale.
D. people recover from a mental or physical illness without any form of intervention.

A. people’s expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they receive a fake or ineffective treatment.

Alice has a dog phobia. Her therapist confronts her with actual dogs so that Alice learns that dogs are usually harmless. Alice is receiving

A. avoidance therapy.
B. exposure therapy.
C. systematic desensitization.
D. aversion therapy.

B. exposure therapy.

Jennifer’s doctor has recently prescribed a drug that alters the activity in dopamine synapses. Her doctor is MOST likely treating Jennifer for symptoms of

A. depression.
B. bipolar disorder.
C. schizophrenia.
D. an anxiety disorder.

C. schizophrenia.

With regard to psychological disorders, spontaneous remission refers to a

A. recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment.
B. failure to recover despite extensive treatment.
C. recovery from a disorder that occurs as a result of formal treatment.
D. sudden recurrence of a disorder in a client who had apparently been cured.

A. recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment.

Personality is defined as an individual’s characteristic pattern of ____, ____, and ____. thinking feeling acting The psychoanalytic perspective on personality was proposed by ____. A second, historically significant perspective was the ____ approach, which focused on people’s capacities for …

An insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference. Psychoanalysis A psychoanalytic technique in which clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as …

Respiratory Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: Overview Respiratory diagnostic procedures are used to evaluate a client’s respiratory status by checking indicators such as the oxygenation of the blood, lung functioning, and the integrity of the airway. Respiratory Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: …

According to the _______ of helping, we are especially likely to help and to care for our close relatives over strangers. Evolutionary Perspective You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error …

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