NUtrition Final Exam Review

Nutrients are classified as macronutrients and micronutrients. Which of the following is NOT considered a macronutrient?
A. Carbohydrate
B. Fat
C. Protein
D. Vitamins
Vitamins
Good sources of potassium include all of the following except
A. tomatoes
B. bananas
C. snack crackers
D. potatoes
Snack crackers
Fructose is found mostly in
A. dairy products.
B. grains and cereals.
C. meat.
D. fruits and vegetables.
Fruits and vegetables
During exercise water performs all of the following functions except:
A. eliminate heat
B. transport oxygen and nutrients to the muscles
C. transport waste products away from muscles
D. remove excess potassium in sweat
D. remove excess potassium in sweat
Bone is constantly being remodeled. During a growth stage, more bone is rebuilt by ___________ than is broken down by _____________.
A. osteosolves; osteoforms
B. osteoforms; osteosolves
C. osteoblasts; osteoclasts
D. osteoclasts; osteoblasts
C. osteoblasts; osteoclasts
The consequences of the high rate of childhood obesity are
A. primarily psychological.
B. relatively benign since health risks are not increased.
C. profound since the longer a person is overweight, the higher the health risks.
D. unknown.
C. profound since the longer a person is overweight, the higher the health risks.
In a controlled study, if neither the subjects nor the investigators know which subjects are receiving treatment, the study is called a(n)
A. double blind study
B. single blind study
C. variable study
D. undirected study
A. double blind study
Too much fluoride in the body can cause
A. arthritis
B. diarrhea
C. hives and dermatitis
D. mottled teeth
D. mottled teeth
Which organ is responsible for regulating the concentrations of sodium and chloride in the body?
A. brain
B. kidneys
C. liver
D. pancreas
B. kidneys
The first phase of alcoholic liver disease is
A. liver cancer.
B. alcoholic hepatitis.
C. fatty liver.
D. cirrhosis.
C. fatty liver.
Niacin supplements
A. are used in the US since niacin deficiency is a public health concern.
B. provide an essential energy boost.
C. decrease LDL cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol.
D. are associated with an increase in heart attacks.
C. decrease LDL cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol.
Body fat is stored in cells called:
A. adipocytes
B. glycogen
C. lipoprotein lipase
D. leptin cells
A. adipocytes
A food frequency reveals that an individual has a very low kcalorie intake. What other information would be needed before a diagnosis of malnutrition could be made?
A. Anthropometric measurements
B. Medical history
C. Physical exam
D. All answer choices are correct
D. All answer choices are correct
Which statement about malnutrition is incorrect?
A. Malnutrition is only a serious problem for people who are undernourished.
B. Malnutrition causes high levels of sickness and disability.
C. Overweight individuals suffer from malnutrition.
D. Malnutrition shortens life expectancy.
A. Malnutrition is only a serious problem for people who are undernourished.
Which statement about osteoporosis is untrue?
A. Osteoporosis causes a decrease in bone density.
B. Osteoporosis has no early symptoms.
C. Osteoporosis may result in a loss of height.
D. Osteoporosis is primarily an American disease.
D. Osteoporosis is primarily an American disease.
Water is a good solvent because
A. it contains sodium and chloride ions.
B. it dissolves lipids.
C. it emulsifies protein.
D. it is polar.
D. it is polar.
Which of the following best describes the distribution of sodium and potassium in the body?
A. both sodium and potassium are primarily intracellular.
B. both sodium and potassium are primarily extracellular.
C. sodium is primarily intracellular and potassium is primarily extracellular.
D. sodium is primarily extracellular and potassium is primarily intracellular.
Alcoholic hepatitis can affect ___________ function in the body.
A. liver
B. kidney
C. pancreatic
D. cardiac
A. liver
In the United States, a typical diet is high in ________ and low in ___________.
A. sodium; potassium and chloride
B. sodium; phosphorous
C. iron; potassium
D. sodium and chloride; potassium
d. sodium and chloride; potassium
Amenorrhea has the greatest effect on which mineral in a female athlete’s body?
A. calcium
B. fluoride
C. iron
D. magnesium
A. calcium
Pasteurization of milk or eggs involves the use of
A. chemicals
B. antibiotics
C. heat
D. high pressure
C. heat
Iron is a component of the protein, ________, that binds and transports oxygen in the bloodstream.
A. ferritin
B. hematocrit
C. hemoglobin
D. myoglobin
hemoglobin
Which of the following individuals is at risk for dehydration?
A. an athlete, exercising in cool weather
B. an elderly woman, just returning from 4 hour flight
C. a child recovering from diarrhea
D. all are potentially at risk for dehydration
all are potentially at risk for dehydration
According to BMI criteria, an individual with a body mass index (BMI) of 22 would be defined as:
A. underweight
B. healthy weight
C. overweight
D. obese
B. healthy weight
The movement of food through the digestive tract is regulated by
A. the endocrine and nervous system.
B. the lymphatic and muscular system.
C. the respiratory and urinary system.
D. the cardiovascular system.
A. the endocrine and nervous system.
The hormone gastrin is released in response to
A. the presence of food in the stomach.
B. contraction of the gastroesophageal sphincter.
C. relaxation of the anal sphincter.
D. the presence of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori in the stomach.
A. the presence of food in the stomach.
Which of the following is a physical characteristic associated with Kwashiorkor disease?
A. bloated abdomen
B. excess sweating
C. ringing in ears
D. sinus infection
A. bloated abdomen
What is true regarding the differences between a hypothesis and a theory?
A. A hypothesis is an educated guess and a theory is based on scientific study and reasoning
B. Hypotheses are not tested, theories are tested
C. Theories are the foundations of hypotheses
D. A hypothesis is tested using quantifiable data; theories are tested using subjective data
A hypothesis is an educated guess and a theory is based on scientific study and reasoning
Analysis of blood can reveal
A. what someone ate last night
B. amount of glucose in the blood
C. an assessment of someone’s nutritional status
D. bone density
B. amount of glucose in the blood
Which of the following health problems can increase a person’s risk of developing heart disease?
A. Type 2 diabetes.
B. High blood pressure.
C. Obesity.
D. All answer choices are correct.
D. All answer choices are correct.
If sugar is sprinkled on a strawberry, osmosis will cause
A. water to move out of the strawberry, making it bigger.
B. water to move out of the strawberry, making it smaller.
C. water to move into the strawberry, making it bigger.
D. water to move into the strawberry, making it smaller.
B. water to move out of the strawberry, making it smaller.
A higher incidence of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke and diabetes is associated with?
A. fat on hips and thighs
B. subcutaneous fat
C. visceral fat
D. any fat, no matter where on the body it is deposited
C. visceral fat
Hepatic portal circulation carries nutrients from the small intestine to the
A. stomach.
B. kidneys.
C. brain.
D. liver.
D. liver.
Peak bone mass is achieved
A. in infancy
B. in early childhood
C. in early adulthood
D. during menopause
C. in early adulthood
Which of the following compounds has NOT been found to interfere with absorption of a mineral needed by the body?
A. lipase
B. oxalates
C. phytates
D. tannins
A. lipase
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. A waist measurement greater than 40 inches in men indicates a health risk.
B. The distribution of fat in a person is determined by primarily by exercise habits.
C. A waist measurement greater than 35 inches in women indicates a health risk.
D. Visceral fat storage is more common in men than in women.
B. The distribution of fat in a person is determined by primarily by exercise habits.
Which of the following sequences is organized from the simplest to the most complex arrangement?
A. atoms: molecules: tissues: organs
B. molecules: tissues: atoms: organs
C. tissues: atoms: molecules: organs
D. atoms: organs: tissues: molecules
A. atoms: molecules: tissues: organs
Heating a protein causes
A. transamination.
B. deamination.
C. denaturation.
D. All answer choices are correct.
C. denaturation.
The basic building blocks of proteins are
A. glucose molecules.
B. amino acids.
C. sterols.
D. ketone bodies.
B. amino acids.
An amino acid pool refers to
A. excess amino acids that are excreted in the urine.
B. amino acids in body tissues and fluids that are available for protein synthesis.
C. amino acids that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are used to nourish neurons.
D. Amino acids that can be converted into glucose.
B. amino acids in body tissues and fluids that are available for protein synthesis.
Which is the true statement about iron loss?
A. When red blood cells die, the iron in the cells is excreted.
B. Most loss of iron from the body is associated with loss of blood.
C. There is significant loss of iron is through the urinary tract.
D. Iron from red blood cells binds to calcium and is excreted through the large intestine.
B. Most loss of iron from the body is associated with loss of blood.
Which of the following is true about minerals?
A. Minerals are organic molecules
B. Minerals can be structural components
C. Minerals are destroyed by heat
D. All answer choices are correct.
B. Minerals can be structural components
Which of the following sequences represents a monosaccharide followed by a disaccharide followed by a polysaccharide?
A. fructose sucrose starch
B. lactose glucose dietary fiber
C. glucose maltose lactose
D. galactose glycogen starch
A. fructose sucrose starch
Which of the following is a true statement regarding copper absorption?
A. Zinc promotes the absorption of copper.
B. About 80% of copper is absorbed.
C. Vitamin C enhances copper absorption.
D. By inhibiting zinc absorption, phytates may enhance the absorption of copper.
D. By inhibiting zinc absorption, phytates may enhance the absorption of copper.
Which mineral functions to protect the body from oxidative damage and also helps synthesize thyroid hormone?
A. copper
B. manganese
C. selenium
D. zinc
C. selenium
Regulatory proteins
A. help maintain the distribution of fluid inside and outside of cells and tissues.
B. help to maintain a specific level of acidity (pH) in the body.
C. prevent ketoacidosis
D. All answer choices are correct.
D. All answer choices are correct.
When blood calcium is low parathyroid hormone raises levels by doing all of the following except:
A. increasing appetite for calcium containing foods
B. stimulating calcium release from bone
C. reducing calcium excretion by the kidney
D. activating vitamin D
A. increasing appetite for calcium containing foods
Protein quality is defined as
A. a measure of protein quality determined by comparing the amount of the limiting amino acid in a food with that in a reference protein.
B. the freshness of meat determined by the biological activity of the actin and myosin filaments.
C. how efficiently a protein in the diet can be used to make body proteins.
D. the ratio of nonessential to essential amino acids present in a food.
C. how efficiently a protein in the diet can be used to make body proteins.
_________ is (are) a good source of zinc.
A. almonds
B. bananas
C. chocolate
D. red meat
D. red meat
Protein differs from carbohydrate and lipid in that protein
A. does not provide the body with a source of energy.
B. is classified as an inorganic molecule.
C. contains the element nitrogen.
D. is not considered to be an essential nutrient.
C. contains the element nitrogen.
An average drink contains _____ grams of alcohol.
A. 6-8
B. 8-10
C. 10-12
D. 12-14
D. 12-14
When the intake of ________ is high, copper absorption into the blood is inhibited.
A. chromium
B. fluoride
C. iodine
D. zinc
D. zinc
A complete dietary protein
A. contains the element sulfur.
B. has been hydrolyzed so that digestion is not necessary.
C. provides essential amino acids in the proportion need to support protein synthesis.
D. has a low biological value.
C. provides essential amino acids in the proportion need to support protein synthesis.
Stomach emptying is affected by all of the following except
A. the nutrient composition of a meal.
B. the time of day the meal is consumed.
C. the meal consistency (liquid versus solid).
D. emotional states (sadness, anger, stress).
B. the time of day the meal is consumed.
Which transports vitamin A from liver stores to tissues?
A. Hemoglobin
B. Chylomicrons
C. Opsin
D. Retinol binding protein
D. Retinol binding protein
The hormone that increases sodium reabsorption, enhancing its retention is:
A. aldosterone
B. renin
C. angiotensin
D. adrenal
A. aldosterone
The health benefits of exercise include all of the following except
A. decrease blood pressure
B. increase HDL cholesterol.
C. decrease the sensitivity of tissues to insulin.
D. reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
C. decrease the sensitivity of tissues to insulin.
Which statement about bacteria is incorrect?
A. Even a few bacterial cells can cause foodborne illnesses
B. Most environmental bacteria are harmless
C. Bacteria are present on most surfaces in our homes.
D. Some bacteria are beneficial.
B. Most environmental bacteria are harmless
Metabolic processes take place in the body to keep the body temperature, heart rate, and blood sugar relatively constant. This stable state is called:
A. anabolic processes
B. catabolic processes
C. homeostasis
D. metabolism
C. homeostasis
The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for a selected nutrient would meet the needs of approximately what percentage of individuals in a population?
A. 33%
B. 50%
C. 75%
D. 99%
B. 50%
Which of the following will help prevent foodborne illnesses?
A. thoroughly cooking hamburger, chicken and eggs.
B. storing food properly.
C. preventing cross-contamination.
D. All answer choices are correct.
D. All answer choices are correct.
Which is the least plentiful source of calcium?
A. carrots
B. eggs
C. sardines
D. yogurt
A. carrots
High intake of folate is cause for which of the following concerns?
A. High levels may increase the incidence of colon cancer.
B. High levels may cause other vitamin deficiencies because folate competes for absorption sites.
C. High levels may mask a B12 deficiency, giving rise to permanent nerve damage.
D. High levels may cause acne.
C. High levels may mask a B12 deficiency, giving rise to permanent nerve damage.
Which of the following is used to make the lipid bilayer found in cell membranes in the body?
A. saturated fatty acids.
B. phospholipids.
C. trans fatty acids.
D. eicosanoids.
B. phospholipids.
Pesticide residue in foods may be more of a concern for young children because
A. children are smaller; therefore the amount of residue tends to be greater per unit of body weight
B. children may have been exposed to pesticides prenatally and have developed tolerances for them
C. children often cannot read warning labels about pesticides
D. pesticides are increasingly more prevalent, as well as becoming more toxic
A. children are smaller; therefore the amount of residue tends to be greater per unit of body weight
For exercise lasting less than one hour, the individual should drink:
A. water
B. half water and half sports drinks
C. exclusively sports drinks
D. most juices are adequate to replace the fluids, glucose and electrolytes that are lost.
A. water
Which is the FALSE statement about absorption of calcium?
A. absorption of calcium decreases during pregnancy
B. taking large amounts of calcium supplements may interfere with absorption of copper and iron
C. the presence of lactose enhances the rate of calcium absorption
D. the presence of vitamin D enhances calcium absorption
taking large amounts of calcium supplements may interfere with absorption of copper and iron
Which of the following most accurately describes the chemical structure of a fatty acid?
A. a 3 carbon molecule bonded to nitrogen.
B. a carbon chain bonded to a phosphate group.
C. a multiple ring structure with a sugar group attached.
D. a chain of carbon atoms linked together by chemical bonds.
D. a chain of carbon atoms linked together by chemical bonds.
Which is least likely to be true of aerobic exercise?
A. sustained regular aerobic exercise decreases the resting heart rate
B. aerobic exercise increases the VO2 max
C. the major benefit of aerobic exercise is that it builds muscles
D. aerobic exercise involves activity that raises the heart rate
C. the major benefit of aerobic exercise is that it builds muscles
Sucrose, or table sugar, is composed of
A. many molecules of glucose linked together
B. two molecules of glucose
C. a molecule of fructose and a molecule of glucose
D. two molecules of fructose
C. a molecule of fructose and a molecule of glucose
Chromium is thought to work by
A. binding to insulin.
B. slowing the absorption of glucose.
C. binding to the insulin receptor.
D. stimulating the pancreas.
C. binding to the insulin receptor.
When a person is exercising very intensely, most of the energy used by the body comes from ____________.
A. creatine phosphate
B. fatty acids
C. glucose
D. protein
C. glucose
The normal body pH of 7.4 is
A. slightly basic
B. slightly acidic
C. very basic
D. very acidic
A. slightly basic
Protein supplements
A. provide no benefits if the diet is adequate in protein.
B. are very helpful for the 50% of Americans who do not eat enough dietary protein.
C. cause the formation of ketones.
D. are extremely helpful when trying to increase lean body mass.
A. provide no benefits if the diet is adequate in protein.
Pellagra occurs when _____ is the staple grain in the diet and the diet does not provide adequate variety.
A. corn
B. wheat
C. rice
D. barley
A. corn
Which is not a goal of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)?
A. Prescribing what a person should eat each day
B. Prevention of nutrient deficiencies
C. Promotion of healthful eating
D. Reduction of chronic diseases
A. Prescribing what a person should eat each day
Heartburn is typically
A. caused by acidic stomach contents leaking into the esophagus
B. caused when the stomach bulges through the pyloric sphincter
C. more common in men and those who are underweight
D. all answer choices are correct
A. caused by acidic stomach contents leaking into the esophagus
Obesity
A. increases the amount of work required by the heart.
B. causes low blood pressure.
C. is unrelated to diabetes.
D. decreases the risk of gall bladder disease.
A. increases the amount of work required by the heart.
One problem with beta-carotene supplements is
A. under some circumstances, these supplements can increase oxidative damage rather than decreasing it.
B. they promote macular degeneration.
C. they are difficult to find since most carotenoid supplements contain other carotenoids.
D. they cause the breakdown of vitamin E.
C. they are difficult to find since most carotenoid supplements contain other carotenoids.
When giving advice to someone starting an exercise program, what recommendation is least likely to contribute to long-term maintenance of an activity program?
A. Check with your physician, especially if you are over age 45
B. Do an activity you enjoy
C. Exercise as hard as you can, at least six days a week
D. Make the exercise convenient, fit it into your day
C. Exercise as hard as you can, at least six days a week
Which is an example of anecdotal information?
A. Blood glucose level in runners after they have run in a competition
B. A runner reports having more energy after eating a certain type of power bar
C. Runners are timed before and after eating one power bar a day for a month
D. People take a written test before and after eating power bars for a month; the results are scored
B. A runner reports having more energy after eating a certain type of power bar
Hormone sensitive lipase
A. breaks down stored triglycerides inside fat cells.
B. is needed to deposit fatty acids into adipose tissue.
C. is needed for lipid digestion.
D. is needed to synthesize essential fatty acids.
C. is needed for lipid digestion.
Vitamin A is stable except when exposed to:
A. heat
B. light
C. lack of oxygen
D. fat
B. light
Which of the following is a good source of selenium?
A. eggs
B. fruits
C. vegetables
D. drinking water
A. eggs
An adverse or toxic reaction is most likely to occur if
A. an individual overuses vitamin and/or mineral supplements.
B. the individual cannot absorb nutrients efficiently.
C. the individual’s diet is not varied enough.
D. the individual overeats a particular food.
A. an individual overuses vitamin and/or mineral supplements.
The absorption of some minerals is regulated by being bound to _____.
A. fats
B. starches
C. transport proteins
D. amino acids
C. transport proteins
Which statement about obesity genes is incorrect?
A. when obesity genes are abnormal, the result is abnormal amounts of body fat
B. obesity genes code for proteins
C. obesity genes are the main culprit behind rising levels of obesity
D. obesity genes regulate food intake, energy expenditure or the deposition of body fat
C. obesity genes are the main culprit behind rising levels of obesity
A low calcium intake can cause all of the following problems except:
A. results in lower peak bone mass.
B. causes problems with cell communication and regulation.
C. increases bone loss in adults.
D. increases the risk of osteoporosis.
B. causes problems with cell communication and regulation.
Which is the true statement about iron requirements?
A. The RDA for young adult women is higher than the RDA young adult men.
B. For adolescents, the RDA is the same for males and females.
C. Iron requirements are increased after menopause.
D. Babies should not be fed iron containing formulas, because of the risk of toxicity.
A. The RDA for young adult women is higher than the RDA young adult men.
What is the primary function of iodine in the body?
A. an antioxidant, to reduce the number of free radicals
B. a component of hemoglobin
C. a component of thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolic rate
D. it functions in carbohydrate metabolism
C. a component of thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolic rate
Which is not an anthropometric measurement?
A. Blood glucose level
B. Height
C. Weight in kilograms
D. Wrist circumference
A. Blood glucose level
Which statement about the processing of foods is true?
A. Processing destroys minerals.
B. The processing of grains causes the loss of magnesium, selenium and zinc.
C. As the structure of foods is lost, sodium is lost from processed foods.
D. Potassium is often added during food processing.
B. The processing of grains causes the loss of magnesium, selenium and zinc.
Postmenopausal bone loss is primarily associated with decreased levels of the hormone
A. aldosterone
B. estrogen
C. progesterone
D. secretin
B. estrogen
A processed food is defined as:
A. having more than five ingredients
B. requiring heating or cooking before it can be eaten
C. a food has which has had preservatives added
D. any food that has been changed from its natural state
D. any food that has been changed from its natural state
The process of adding nutrients to foods is called
A. enrichment
B. fortification
C. milling
D. supplementation
B. fortification
The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are estimated to meet the nutrient needs of what percentage of a healthy population group?
A. 33%
B. 50%
C. 75%
D. 97-98%
D. 97-98%
Fat soluble vitamins are transported from the intestine to the liver in ______.
A. chylomicrons
B. very low density lipoproteins
C. low density lipoproteins
D. high density lipoproteins
A. chylomicrons
98. Which statement about microbial foodborne illness is incorrect?
A. Many microbial foodborne illnesses have similar symptoms
B. Most microbial foodborne illnesses are mild and are often mistaken for “flu”.
C. Microbial foodborne illness is the most common cause of nausea.
D. Microbial foodborne illness can cause kidney failure and death.
A. Many microbial foodborne illnesses have similar symptoms
Folic acid supplements are most often recommended for:
A. post-menopausal women
B. women who are considering pregnancy
C. toddlers
D. the elderly
B. women who are considering pregnancy
The proportion of lean body tissue in one’s body can be increased by:
A. bee pollen
B. increasing protein intake
C. lifting weights regularly
D. vitamin E supplements
C. lifting weights regularly
Another name for vitamin B6 is
A. pantothenic acid
B. pyridoxine
C. pyruvate
D. biotin
B. pyridoxine
One important principle of a healthy diet is to eat a variety of foods. “Variety” means:
A. choose at least one food from each food group on the pyramid daily
B. include low calorie food choices to balance high calorie foods at each meal
C. choose a variety of foods from within food groups as well as from among the food groups
D. make sure portion sizes are matched to energy needs
C. choose a variety of foods from within food groups as well as from among the food groups
Vitamin C deficiency causes which of the following?
A. bleeding gums
B. easy bruising.
C. depression.
D. All answer choices are correct.
D. All answer choices are correct.
The most common nutritional problem worldwide is a deficiency of
A. protein
B. iodine
C. iron
D. thiamin
C. iron
____________ are used when not enough information is available to establish an EAR for a particular nutrient.
A. AIs
B. DRIs
C. RDAs
D. ULs
A. AIs
Which of the following does not affect basal metabolic rate?
A. gender
B. lean body mass
C. level of physical activity
D. age
C. level of physical activity
________ are protein molecules that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions.
A. Hormones
B. Mucus
C. Enzymes
D. Chyme
C. Enzymes
All of the following are adequate sources of nonheme iron except:
A. apples
B. enriched white rice
C. garbanzo beans
D. spinach
A. apples
Which structure prevents food from entering the trachea?
A. Trachea.
B. Pharynx.
C. Esophageal sphincter.
D. Epiglottis.
D. Epiglottis.
Positive nitrogen balance can occur when
A. an individual is wasting as a result of protein-energy malnutrition
B. protein intake does not meet the body’s protein requirements.
C. the individual is growing
D. total body nitrogen balance does not change for 30 days.
C. the individual is growing
Which of the following statements about glycogen is false?
A. glycogen is a storage form of starch in humans and animals
B. glycogen is composed of many glucose molecules
C. glycogen is made and stored in liver and muscle
D. muscle glycogen’s primary role is to keep blood glucose levels normal
D. muscle glycogen’s primary role is to keep blood glucose levels normal
Which is TRUE regarding Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)?
A. For some groups, there is an established benefit of consuming nutrients at this level.
B. It is a not a recommended level for consumption.
C. Consuming nutrients at this level will probably cause adverse health effects.
D. The UL is set at the level of intake that causes adverse effects in 5% of the population.
A. For some groups, there is an established benefit of consuming nutrients at this level.
Healthy blood pressure is defined as
A. 120/80 mm of mercury or less
B. 140/90 mm of mercury or less
C. 160/100 mm of mercury or less
D. between 120/80 and 140/90
A. 120/80 mm of mercury or less
Endurance is greatest when the diet contains a higher proportion of calories from _____________
A. fat
B. protein
C. carbohydrate
D. alcohol
C. carbohydrate
Meeting all dietary requirements for vitamins and minerals is most difficult for:
A. soccer players with high energy needs
B. basketball players trying to gain weight
C. distance runners consuming large volumes of fluid
D. female athletes consuming low energy diets
D. female athletes consuming low energy diets
Cholesterol is an example of a(n)
A. trans fatty acid.
B. phospholipid.
C. essential nutrient.
D. sterol.
D. sterol.
Which food group provides the largest variety of minerals?
A. vegetables
B. fruits
C. dairy
D. meat and beans
D. meat and beans
Which statement about organic farming techniques is untrue?
A. Organic produce can cause microbial foodborne illness.
B. Organic farming is more ecologically sound than standard farming methods.
C. Organic foods are usually cheaper since expensive chemicals are not used.
D. Organic farming decreases, but does not eliminate, pesticides in foods.
C. Organic foods are usually cheaper since expensive chemicals are not used.
The concentration of glucose in the blood is primarily regulated by
A. pancreatic enzymes.
B. pancreatic hormones.
C. enzymes produced by the small intestine.
D. liver hormones
B. pancreatic hormones.
What causes an atherosclerotic plaque to begin developing?
A. an essential fatty acid deficiency
B. low blood pressure.
C. an injury to the artery wall causing inflammation.
D. All answer choices are correct.
C. an injury to the artery wall causing inflammation.
During hot weather, athletes should consume fluids ___________ exercise.
A. before
B. during
C. after
D. All answer choices are correct.
D. All answer choices are correct.
The enzyme _________ promotes the uptake of fatty acids and glycerol by cells to be used as fuel or for storage.
A. lipoprotein lipase
B. lingual lipase
C. pancreatic lipase
D. glycerase
A. lipoprotein lipase
Vitamin D regulates _______ and ________ balance in the body.
A. calcium, phosphorus
B. energy, fat
C. sodium, potassium
D. estrogen, progesterone
A. calcium, phosphorus
Which of the following is formed during lipid digestion?
A. micelles
B. cis fatty acids.
C. trans fatty acids.
D. acetyl CoA.
A. micelles
Under-nutrition does not include
A. starvation, a deficiency of energy.
B. eating too much saturated fat.
C. the deficient intake of single nutrients.
D. the inability to absorb a particular nutrient.
B. eating too much saturated fat.
The recommended approach to dealing with overweight children is to
A. strictly limit kcalories
B. encourage physical activity and moderate kcalorie intake
C. institute moderate levels of drug therapy
D. encourage liquid weight loss products at lunch
B. encourage physical activity and moderate kcalorie intake
Which region of the brain regulates long-term food intake and energy expenditure?
A. cerebellum
B. cortex
C. frontal lobe
D. hypothalamus
D. hypothalamus
The function of synovial fluid is to
A. wash away dirt.
B. lubricate joints.
C. provide a protective cushion around the developing fetus.
D. lubricate the mouth.
B. lubricate joints.
The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) diet is best characterized by
A. plenty of fruits and vegetables; no dairy foods
B. plenty of fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy foods
C. plenty of grains and high-protein foods; low in dairy
D. plenty of high-protein foods; high in dairy foods
B. plenty of fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy foods
The zinc deficiency in Iranian and Egyptian men occurred because
A. they did not eat meat.
B. the diet was low in zinc since local soils were low in zinc.
C. tannins in the diet bound too much zinc, making it unavailable.
D. phytates in the diet bound too much zinc, making it unavailable.
D. phytates in the diet bound too much zinc, making it unavailable.
The absorptive surface of the small intestine is increased by the presence of
A. sphincters.
B. microvilli.
C. a lymph vessel (lacteal).
D. gastric pits.
B. microvilli.
The role of water in urine is to
A. transport
B. provide a medium for chemical reactions
C. detoxify
D. maintain acid base balance
A. transport
An impetus for the development of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans was
A. the increased incidence of infectious diseases
B. the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies
C. chronic diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes, affecting a large segment of the population
D. the discovery of more essential nutrients
C. chronic diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes, affecting a large segment of the population
Vitamins may be lost when food is processed. When these vitamins are added back to the processed food at the same or higher level, the food is said to be:
A. enhanced
B. fortified
C. enriched
D. supplemented
C. enriched
Symptoms of ariboflavinosis do not include:
A. inflammation of the eyes and mouth
B. scaly, greasy skin eruptions
C. brittle hair
D. confusion
C. brittle hair
Aerobic metabolism occurs in
A. the cytoplasm of a cell
B. the mitochondria of a cell
C. the nucleus of a cell
D. none of these are correct
B. the mitochondria of a cell
Oligosaccharides are:
A. a form of artificial sweetener
B. a storage form of plant starch
C. a carbohydrate containing 3-10 sugar units
D. a disaccharide found in fruits and vegetables
C. a carbohydrate containing 3-10 sugar units
Which of the fat soluble vitamins can be synthesized by bacteria in the intestine?
A. vitamin A
B. vitamin D
C. vitamin E
D. vitamin K
B. vitamin D
Dietary fiber can help reduce blood cholesterol levels by
A. binding cholesterol and bile acids in the GI tract.
B. blocking reabsorption of bile acids in the GI tract.
C. inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the liver
D. all answer choices are correct
D. all answer choices are correct
When the gastroesophageal sphincter contracts, food
A. flows from the esophagus into the stomach.
B. is prevented from reentering the esophagus from the stomach.
C. leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine.
D. is eliminated from the body through the anus.
B. is prevented from reentering the esophagus from the stomach.
The ______ controls which substances enter and exit the cell
A. cytoplasm
B. mitochondria
C. cell membrane
D. cell wall
C. cell membrane
Which statement about frozen food is incorrect?
A. The process of freezing vegetables can cause some nutrient losses.
B. Fresh produce from the grocery store always has more nutrients than frozen produce.
C. Produce is often frozen in the fields where it is grown.
D. Freezing stops the loss of nutrients due to time and exposure to heat, light and air.
D. Freezing stops the loss of nutrients due to time and exposure to heat, light and air.
Which governmental agency is responsible for inspection of meat and poultry?
A. Center for Disease Control
B. Food and Drug Administration
C. Environmental Protection Agency
D. United States Department of Agriculture
D. United States Department of Agriculture
Which group of people is most at risk for developing a thiamin deficiency?
A. cigarette smokers
B. endurance athletes
C. older adults
D. chronic alcoholics
D. chronic alcoholics
Glucose can be derived from all except
A. fatty acids
B. glycogen in muscles
C. amino acids
D. dietary sources
C. amino acids
Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may cause in_____________ in the infant.
A. cretinism
B. diabetes
C. fetal goiter syndrome
D. hypoglycemia
A. cretinism
When salt is dissolved in water, the sodium and chloride ions
A. associate.
B. dissociate.
C. form an ionic bond.
D. form a covalent bond.
B. dissociate.
Absorption of B12 is dependent upon all of the following EXCEPT:
A. adequate stomach acid
B. R-proteins
C. intrinsic factor
D. amylase (pepsin is needed for B12 absorption)
D. amylase (pepsin is needed for B12 absorption)
Lactic acid is produced in the muscles when __________ is not available.
A. glucose
B. oxygen
C. protein
D. water
B. oxygen
Which statement about sources of protein is false?
A. Animal sources of protein are used more efficiently by the human body than plant sources
B. It is difficult to meet most people’s protein requirements without consuming animal proteins
C. Legumes provide about as much protein per ½ cup serving as a cup of milk
D. Plant sources of protein can easily meet most people’s protein requirements.
B. It is difficult to meet most people’s protein requirements without consuming animal proteins
Approximately 1000 high school students were asked to keep a record of what supplemental vitamins they took and how many colds they had over the course of a year. The amount of vitamin C consumed was compared with the students’ incidences of colds. This type of study is called:
A. clinical trial
B. epidemiological study
C. intervention study
D. laboratory study
B. epidemiological study
Which of the following is most likely to inhibit gastric secretion and motility?
A. The sight and smell of food.
B. The release of the hormone gastrin from the stomach.
C. The passage of chyme into the small intestine.
D. The release of bile from the gallbladder.
C. The passage of chyme into the small intestine.
The temperature range between ______ and _______ supports the most rapid bacterial growth.
A. 0 F; 65 F
B. 25 F; 100 F
C. 40 F; 140 F
D. 55 F; 212 F
C. 40 F; 140 F
Which is NOT considered a good source of vitamin E?
A. peanuts
B. soybean oil
C. fortified breakfast cereals
D. orange and yellow vegetables
D. orange and yellow vegetables
Meeting B12 needs from the diet is especially difficult for:
A. infants
B. pregnant women
C. people following strict vegan diets
D. athletes undergoing rigorous training
C. people following strict vegan diets
A substance in a plant food which cannot be made by the body and is not necessary to sustain life, but has healthful benefits, is
A. an herbal supplement
B. a phytochemical
C. enzymes
D. sodium
B. a phytochemical
Enzyme supplements can be helpful for
A. individuals with deficiencies of digestive enzymes.
B. normal individuals who want their digestive system to work more efficiently.
C. people who have difficulty sleeping.
D. diabetics.
A. individuals with deficiencies of digestive enzymes.
Which of the following is NOT a good source of heme iron?
A. beef
B. chicken
C. salmon
D. spinach
D. spinach
Heat related illness is characterized by all of the following except:
A. decreased blood volume
B. increased blood pressure
C. rise in core body temperature
D. reduced sweat production
B. increased blood pressure
Alcohol dehydrogenase converts alcohol to:
A. acetaldehyde
B. NADH
C. fatty acids
D. energy
A. acetaldehyde
The three main categories in the Exchange List are carbohydrate, meat and meat substitutes and _________.
A. alcohol
B. sugar
C. fruit
D. fat
D. fat
Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that
A. splits glucose into two molecules of pyruvate.
B. generates glucose from glucogenic amino acids.
C. synthesizes glycogen.
D. creates glucose molecules from glycogen
A. splits glucose into two molecules of pyruvate.
One reason body weight increases as people age is
A. EER declines
B. food intake increases
C. exercise increases
D. EER increases
A. EER declines
The endorphins released with exercise do all of the following except
A. increase muscle mass.
B. cause a natural euphoria.
C. reduce stress.
D. reduce the perception of pain.
A. increase muscle mass.
Fat soluble vitamins require _____ and _____ for absorption into the mucosal cell.
A. bile and lymph
B. lymph and dietary fat
C. lymph and chylomicrons
D. bile and dietary fat
D. bile and dietary fat
Which of the foods is less refined?
A. raisins
B. bran muffin
C. mashed potato
D. oatmeal
D. oatmeal
Intestinal treatment of diverticulitis usually includes:
A. antibiotics and temporary decrease in fiber
B. more fluid intake and antiacids
C. insulin injections
D. exercise and weight loss.
A. antibiotics and temporary decrease in fiber
All of the following occur when the concentration of sodium in the blood rises except:
A. renin is released.
B. water moves into the blood.
C. blood pressure rises.
D. blood volume rises.
A. renin is released.
Daily Values are based on a ___________ kcalorie diet.
A. 1000
B. 1500
C. 2000
D. 2500
C. 2000
Which of the following digestive secretions functions as a “chemical messenger”?
A. Mucus
B. nzymes
C. Chyme
D. Hormones
D. Hormones
The function of bile in triglyceride digestion is
A. to hydrolyze (split) the bond that attaches fatty acids to glycerol.
B. to act as an emulsifier.
C. facilitate the formation of chylomicrons.
D. circulate lipids in the blood.
B. to act as an emulsifier.
The richest source of copper in the diet is
A. organ meats such as liver and heart.
B. brewer’s yeast.
C. avocados.
D. chicken and turkey.
A. organ meats such as liver and heart.
___________ is an inherited condition that causes individuals to absorb and accumulate too much iron.
A. hemochromatosis
B. hematocrit absorption syndrome
C. hyperferritosis
D. reverse anemia
A. hemochromatosis
The acceptable range of carbohydrate intake for a healthy diet has been set at ______ of the total energy required.
A. 15-10%
B. 30-45%
C. 45-65%
D. 65-80%.
C. 45-65%
Which statement about amino acid absorption is false?
A. Each amino acid has its own specific transport system
B. Groups of similar amino acids share the same transport system
C. If one amino acid is supplemented, it can slow the absorption of other amino acids
D. Dipeptides and tripeptides are broken down to amino acids before leaving the mucosal cells of the small intestine.
A. Each amino acid has its own specific transport system
Which food presents the greatest risk of food-borne illness?
A. hot dogs left in the refrigerator for four days
B. milk two days past the “sell by” date
C. a turkey thawed at room temperature
D. a bruised banana
C. a turkey thawed at room temperature
Women tend to develop heart disease later than men because
A. women have lower levels of HDLs compared to men.
B. women tend to consume more trans fatty acids than men.
C. the hormone estrogen has a protective effect in women before menopause.
D. women have more blood vessels than men which helps blood to circulate more efficiently.
C. the hormone estrogen has a protective effect in women before menopause.
Moderate drinking is ___ drink(s) a day for women.
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
A. 1
Which of the following is least likely to result in an increased need for water?
A. taking a calcium supplement daily
B. eating a high fiber diet
C. eating a high protein diet
D. lactation
A. taking a calcium supplement daily
As calcium intake increases
A. the percentage absorbed declines.
B. active transport becomes more important.
C. more vitamin C is required.
D. more iron is absorbed.
A. the percentage absorbed declines.
The human diet has
A. always been high in salt.
B. historically been higher in potassium and lower in sodium than presently.
C. historically been lower in both sodium and potassium than presently.
D. historically been higher in both sodium and potassium than presently.
B. historically been higher in potassium and lower in sodium than presently.
The __________ is the site of most vitamin absorption into the body.
A. mouth
B. stomach
C. small intestine
D. large intestine
C. small intestine
A(n) ________ bond links one amino acid to the next.
A. disulfide
B. ionic
C. glycosidic
D. peptide
D. peptide
The process for ensuring safe and ethical treatment of human subjects in a study is called:
A. peer review
B. double blind
C. prior authorization
D. informed consent
D. informed consent
Vitamin A is essential for which of the following?
A. normal reproduction
B. normal growth
C. immune function
D. all answer choices are correct
D. all answer choices are correct
Electrolyte deficiency occurs,
A. when people don’t choose foods carefully.
B. when losses are extreme.
C. when fewer than 8 glasses of water are consumed per day.
D. as a result of decongestant medications.
B. when losses are extreme.
A child who consumes adequate calories but insufficient amounts of protein is most at risk for developing
A. beriberi
B. goiter
C. kwashiorkor
D. marasmus
C. kwashiorkor
Phosphorous is essential for energy production since it is part of:
A. ATP
B. NADH
C. FADH2
D. DNA
A. ATP
Raw hamburger patties are taken to the grill on a platter. After they are cooked, the patties are returned to the unwashed platter and served. This is an example of
A. cross contamination
B. efficient use of kitchen equipment
C. food adulteration
D. food intoxication
A. cross contamination
Which statement about canned vegetables is untrue?
A. The canning process exposes vegetables to high temperatures, which reduces their nutrient content.
B. Canned vegetables are high in salt.
C. Canned vegetables keep for a long time without spoiling.
D. Canned vegetables are never the right choice for a healthy diet.
D. Canned vegetables are never the right choice for a healthy diet.
The release of bile and pancreatic enzymes into the small intestine is controlled by
A. hormones secreted by the lining of the small intestine.
B. stimulation of stretch receptors in the stomach.
C. the hormone gastrin.
D. salivary amylase.
A. hormones secreted by the lining of the small intestine.
Which nutrient is found in plant protein foods and not in animal protein foods?
A. iron
B. zinc
C. calcium
D. fiber
D. fiber
All of the following statements about the destruction of vitamin E are true except:
A. Vitamin E can be destroyed when oil is repeatedly used in high temperature deep fat frying.
B. Vitamin E can be destroyed by exposure to oxygen.
C. Vitamin E can be destroyed during food processing and storage.
D. Vitamin E is often completely destroyed in the normal cooking process.
D. Vitamin E is often completely destroyed in the normal cooking process.
The most common cause of ulcers is
A. stress.
B. eating fatty foods.
C. bacterial infection.
D. the pain reliever Tylenol.
C. bacterial infection.
Which is generally not characteristic of the aging process?
A. decrease in maximum heart rate
B. decrease in proportion of adipose tissue
C. decrease in lean body mass
D. decrease in cardiovascular endurance
B. decrease in proportion of adipose tissue
One possible adverse effect of excessive fiber consumption is:
A. an increase in blood cholesterol
B. decreased absorption of calcium and iron
C. increased incidence of colon cancer
D. increased incidence of diverticulitis.
B. decreased absorption of calcium and iron
Which statement about the impact of dehydration on exercise performance is correct?
A. Even a mild dehydration of 1% can impair exercise performance.
B. The body is resilient and can tolerate mild dehydration without a loss of exercise performance.
C. Exercise performance begins to decline at a mild dehydration of 3%
D. Exercise performance begins to decline at a moderate dehydration of 5%.
C. Exercise performance begins to decline at a mild dehydration of 3%
Which mineral is found in varying amounts in food depending on the mineral’s concentration in soil and water at the food’s source?
A. calcium
B. iodine
C. magnesium
D. pyridoxine
B. iodine
A limiting amino acid
A. does not supply the element nitrogen.
B. is present in short supply relative to the body’s need.
C. cannot be used by the body during protein synthesis.
D. is used to synthesize nonprotein molecules that contain nitrogen.
B. is present in short supply relative to the body’s need.
To maximize performance, priorities for post-competition meals should be:
A. adequate fluid, low-carbohydrate meal
B. adequate fluid, high-protein meal
C. adequate fluid, high carbohydrate meal
D. sodium repletion; high protein meal
C. adequate fluid, high carbohydrate meal

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