Global Health Final

Ability to conceive and produce a child. Over the last 60 years, total fertility has decreased. However, the number of children per women still ranges from 1-6. Women in areas with low access to contraceptives and non-industrialized countries tend to have higher fertility rates (i.e. Africa). They may not be able to control how many children they’re conceiving, but they also may have more children because they know most of their children won’t survive.

Unmet contraceptive need
A condition in which people who are having sex, without the use of contraceptives, and are able to conceive a child, but do not wish to have one and do not have the ability to get contraceptives live under. A consequence is that the total fertility levels may fall above wanted fertility for families. Reasons for an unmet need are lack of access or knowledge (not major), religious opposition, health/side effects, infrequent sex, and postpartum/breast feeding. There is also the consequence of unplanned pregnancy. Example: Nigeria is the 3rd highest country in number of births yearly. Birth rate is so high because women must have permission from husband for contraceptive and family planning materials and misconceptions about contraceptive use.

Malnutrition can be over- or under-nutrition. Over-nutrition occurs when people consume too many calories. Under-nutrition occurs when diets do not provide adequate calories or protein for growth and maintenance or people are unable to fully utilize the food they eat due to illness. Approximately 30% of the world’s population experiences so form of malnutrition

Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
The most common type of malnutrition which primarily results from inadequate food intake or diseases like parasites. Kwashiorkor is a type of protein deficiency that occurs when protein intake is severely low and causes an edema (swelling which masks effects of malnutrition). Marasmus is a severe energy deficiency

Low birthweight
A birthweight of less than 5 pounds. Low birthweight is usually the result of intergenerational undernutrition – mothers were malnourished as children themselves and therefore give birth to smaller children

Vitamin A deficiency
Vitamin A deficiency is most directly linked to immune development (innate immunity) and function. It protects the skin and mucous and increases leukocyte activity. Without it, immune development is hundred, which can lead to higher susceptibility to infections or partial/total blindness

Iron Deficiency
Iron deficiency is the most common type of micronutrient malnutrition. It affects 40-50% of kids under the age of 5 in developing countries. Iron is needed for cellular function and oxygen transport. Consequences of iron deficiency include lower immune defense, severe anemia (which can lead to high mortality), impaired child development, decreased work capacity, and pregnancy complications

Iodine deficiency
Iodine is a nutrient needed for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency results in brain damage, mental retardation, goiters, stillbirth and miscarriage, and can lower ones IQ by 10-15%. This is the leading cause of birth defects and brain damage worldwide. Example: Ladakh

Micronutrient Malnutrition
Malnutrition that affects growth, activity, and development. The most common micronutrient deficiencies include iron, iodine and vitamin A

Height for age is low compared to reference population

Low weight for your height compared to individuals of the same height

Chronic disease
“Non-communicable” or “lifestyle” diseases that take a long time to become fully established. They require long-term, systematic approaches to treatment which can be very expensive

Lifestyle Factors
Factors that contribute to the development of chronic diseases and are controlled by the people they affect. Factors may include smoking, diet, exercise versus a sedentary lifestyle

Dual burden
The dual burden is the effect of classic problems of under-nutrition related to poverty, inadequate intake of good quality food and infection resulting in stunting, underweight, and micronutrient deficiencies coexisting with emerging problems of excess energy consumption relative to energy expenditure contributing to obesity (over nutrition). Also, the prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases are beginning to occur in the same areas. Chronic disease deaths are beginning to dwarf infectious disease deaths

Nutrition transition
Semi-recent trend of over-eating and not exercising enough that has been seen as globalization increases.
Behavioral – Changes in food consumption, calories, and portion size; less physical activity
Economic and environmental – Higher availability of cheap oils and processed foods; ubiquity of fast food and advertising
Cultural – social status, norms, and values; changing jobs and expectations
Political/macroeconomic – globalization and marketing; “coca-colonization” and trade

The globalization of American culture pushed through popular american products

Food deserts
Areas people are living in with no cars/transportation and no access to supermarket stores within a mile. Food deserts are concentrated in the southeast US and seen with high levels of obesity and poverty and low levels of fruit consumption

Condition when you have a high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass. Obesity correlates to a BMI of 30+ and is associated with an increased risk of a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes and heart disease

Type II Diabetes
Used to be called adult-onset diabetes, but increasingly more children are being diagnosed with type II diabetes. It is a type of diabetes where your body is not able to use insulin properly. 90-95% of diagnosed diabetes cases are type II. It is typically associated with obesity and has negative health effects

Pancreatic hormone that regulates glucose uptake and storage

Thrifty genotype
Evolutionary hypothesis that suggests that populations that used to be affected by famine and now have high calorie diets are most prone to diabetes. Metabolically thrifty genes utilize food more efficiently

Thrifty phenotype
Slower growth, smaller size, reduced muscle mass and altered metabolism due to a constrained environment. In the short term, it is beneficial for survival. The organism, however, is set for life with a phenotype designed for constraint

Health disparities
Differences in health status among distinct segments of population (gender, race/ethnicity, education/income, disability, or geography) that adversely affect groups who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health

Neuropsychiatric disorder associated with chronic stress

Physical or psychological challenge that threatens to disturb homeostasis

Movement of people within or across borders, voluntary or forced, regular or irregular, temporary, seasonal, or longer term/permanent. Migration is a key part of globalization

Process by which immigrants adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs, and behaviors of a new culture

Latino Paradox
The idea that Latino immigrants come to the US with strong family ties and community networks, social cohesion and hope for the future. The longer they spend in America, Mexican Americans develop much higher levels of mental health conditions – similar to the levels of Americans

Allostatic load
Individuals and groups disadvantaged with exposure to a pathogenic factor tend to be exposed to multiple risk factors

Social determinants of health
Condition in which people live, grow, work, and age. Social determinants include educational attainment, changing family structures, social isolation, age, environmental factors, hope and self-worth

Stress hormone that is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, weight gain and immune suppression

Chronically elevated blood pressure caused by obesity, insulin resistance, genetics, age, or salt sensitivity. This is a risk factor for stroke, heart attack, and renal failure

“1. A patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus asks the nurse what “”type 2″” means in relation to diabetes. The nurse explains to the patient that type 2 diabetes differs from type 1 diabetes primarily in that with …

Low social economic status differences in health status Lower life expectancy (life expectancy is around three years lower for most disadvantaged groups) Higher mortality & Morbidity Higher hospitalisation rates Higher cancer stroke, suicide and respiratory disease rates. Low social economic …

The concept of health promotion consists of efforts to prevent rather than to cure disease or disability. This description best describes: a. tertiary prevention b. secondary prevention c. primary prevention d. morbidity prevention c Standards for well child care and …

A client asks the nurse why the provider bases his medication regimen on his HbA1C instead of his log of morning fasting blood glucose results. Which of the following is an appropriate response by the nurse? A. HB A1C measures …

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