Psych 105 Final Exam

Dr. Growe is reading about a research in which psychologists investigated the effect of group size on the conformity of group members. Dr. Growe is most likely reading the Journal of _____ Psychology.
Social
Which branch of psychology explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease?
Health psychology
Which of the following statements concerning the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among American psychologists is TRUE?
The number of minority members entering the field is higher than it was 10 years ago.
Personality psychology:
focuses on the consistency in people’s behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another.
Dr. Alvarez studies how the degeneration of certain components of nerve cells in the brain might contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis. Dr. Alvarez’s work BEST exemplifies the _____ subfield of psychology.
behavioral neuroscience
The Gestalt psychologists made substantial contribution to our understanding of:
perception
The phrase tabula rasa may be translated as:
blank slate.
Which of the following was a disadvantage of introspection?
Introspection was not truly scientific.
The computer metaphor is at the heart of the _____ perspective.
cognitive
Recall Watson’s quote – “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors.” Where 1 = extreme nature and 10 = extreme nurture, where would you place Watson on the nature vs. nurture issue?
9 or 10
Race is to ethnicity what _____ is to _____.
biology; culture
Research has shown human beings to be notoriously bad decision makers in general. Which type of psychologist was most likely to have carried out this type of research?
Cognitive
According to the ___________ perspective, we are in control of our lives and have the capacity for positive growth.
humanistic
Dr. Wade uses PET scans to explain that the difference between a male and a female is apparent in the structure and function of the brain. Dr. Wade’s specialty is
neuropsychology.
Jason is struggling with feelings of resentment toward his new stepmom. Outwardly she is a pleasant person, but he just cannot bring himself to accept her. To make matters worse, he is experiencing unprovoked feelings of aggression towards her as well. His therapist insists that he has unresolved issues in regards to his biological mother. Which type of therapist is Jason seeing?
Psychodynamic
Early researchers from which school of thought asked participants to report sensations they were experiencing?
Structuralism
Who conducted the first psychological experiment in 1879?
Wilhelm Wundt
Who is demonstrating psychological skepticism?
Lindsey is wondering if you can really improve your memory over night by taking a pill.
Evolutionary psychologists are especially interested in:
how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.
Dr. Hart investigates how depressive disorders are related to levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Dr. Hart’s research falls within the field of:
clinical neuropsychology.
Fiona helps students with ADHD develop effective study regimens and strategies. Fiona is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist.
counseling
In what way are the diverse subfields of psychology related?
They ultimately share a common goal.
Which of the following individuals is LEAST likely to be a psychologist?
Everett, who has an MD degree
The emphasis of the humanistic perspective is on:
free will.
Which contemporary perspective is CORRECTLY matched with its description?
Behavioral perspective; emphasizes observable behavior and objectivity
_____ is an early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments.
Functionalism
Lassandra takes a sip of cola. “Sweet…cold, wet, tingly…slightly bitter,” she reports. Lassandra is:
introspecting.
Strategies aimed at encouraging one to examine assumptions, evaluate assertions, and think more carefully are specifically called _____ techniques.
critical thinking
Psychologists adhering to the _____ perspective are probably the LEAST likely to take a “nature” stance on the nature vs. nurture issue.
behaviorist
Jean is a psychologist who studies the changes that take place in people over the course of their life spans. Jean most likely specializes in ________ psychology.
developmental
Evolutionary psychology maintains that
All of these
(the traits of living members of a species are the result of survival of the fittest. the traits which one looks for in a potential spouse are based on characteristics which have allowed humans to survive. some behaviors are pre-wired into species as they assist in maintaining the reproductive ability of the species.)
Which of the following best describes the impact that nature and nurture have on a person’s psychological characteristics?
Genetics has a significant impact.
If you were a psychologist who was labeled a structuralist, you would be interested in the ___________ of the mind, and you would use ___________ as your primary research method.
structures; introspection
Kara was surprised to learn that certain hand signals which indicate a “job well done” in the United States are socially unacceptable in other countries. This finding comes from research completed by a ________ psychologist.
cross-cultural
The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a(n)
psychiatrist.
“I am not as concerned about what is going on in your life today as I am with the upbringing you received.” Which type of psychologist is most likely to have uttered these words?
Psychodynamic
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the difference between the PhD and the PsyD degrees?
The PhD requires a dissertation based on an original investigation.
Dr. Hart investigates how depressive disorders are related to levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Dr. Hart’s research falls within the field of:
clinical neuropsychology.
Beatriz has just received her doctoral degree in psychology. All else being equal, in which of the following settings is she most likely to find employment?
A college/university
Psychology is defined as the:
scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Which of the following psychologists is associated with functionalism?
William James
_____ is a procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus.
Introspection
Darwin, when describing the process of natural selection, claimed that
characteristics favored by the environment are more likely to continue.
What was innovative about Wundt’s early work?
He was the first person to introduce the idea of measuring mental processes.
Dr. Ames studies the way groups influence the decisions that people make. She is a ________ psychologist.
social
Psychologists rely on ___________ which is the process of thinking reflectively and actively, and evaluating evidence.
critical thinking
Regarding operational definitions, which of the following statements is most accurate?
For a given hypothesis, many operational definitions are usually possible.
When asked to define “popularity,” Brianna offers, “It’s when everyone likes you.” Chrissy suggests, “It’s basically the number of friends you have.” How do the two girls’ definitions differ?
Chrissy’s is an operational definition; Brianna’s is not.
Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis?
A theory is broader than a hypothesis.
Prediction is to explanation what _____ is to _____.
hypothesis; theory
Which of the following is the first step in the scientific method?
Identifying questions of interest
Wallace is engaged in archival research. In which of the following projects is he most likely engaged?
Examining the registrar’s records at a state university to explore the relationship between SAT scores and freshman GPA
In an experiment, the _____ variable is deliberately manipulated by the researcher.
independent
Using a sample of young adolescents, Dr. Nguyen finds a correlation of +.55 between scores on a measure of neglectful or uninvolved parenting and scores on a measure of delinquent behavior. Which of the following might Dr. Nguyen legitimately conclude?
Parenting that is more neglectful is related to a higher degree of delinquent behavior.
In a negative correlation:
as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases.
DeAndre is recording instances of physical aggression among children in a schoolyard at recess. DeAndre is undertaking:
a naturalistic observation.
Dr. Gigliotti is conducting an in-depth, intensive investigation of a patient with dissociative identity disorder. He uses psychological tests and interviews to better understand the patient. Dr. Gigliotti is undertaking:
a case study.
Experimental research requires that the responses of _____ group(s) be examined.
at least two
A pharmaceutical company wishes to test the efficacy of a new antidepressant using a double-blind procedure. Which alternative correctly describes the procedure the company would use?
The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Also, each patient would not know which type of pill he or she was taking.
In an experiment involving a placebo:
all the participants receive a treatment.
A placebo is intended to minimize _____ expectations; a double-blind procedure minimizes _____.
participant; experimenter expectations
We can predict participants’ scores on Variable A with perfect accuracy by knowing their scores on Variable B. Higher scores on Variable A are associated with higher scores on Variable B. What is the correlation coefficient for the correlation between Variables A and B?
+1.00
What does the positive or negative sign of a correlation coefficient indicate?
Direction of the relationship
Researchers who use ___________ attempt to view behavior without disturbing the environment.
naturalistic observation
“The problem with drinking coffee in the evening,” complained Saundra, “is that it interferes with my ability to fall asleep. My mind keeps racing, but my body is so tired!” Saundra is describing the ________ between caffeine intake and sleep.
negative correlation
The specific description of a behavior to be studied is referred to as the
operational definition.
As compared to the theories about human behavior we all develop in daily life, those formulated by psychologists are:
As compared to the theories about human behavior we all develop in daily life, those formulated by psychologists are:
more formal.
In an experiment, the _____ variable is measured and is expected to change due to the experimenter’s manipulation.
dependent
Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change in some way are referred to as:
variables.
Experimental group is to control group what _____ is to _____.
treatment; no treatment
Wallace is engaged in archival research. In which of the following projects is he most likely engaged?
According to Bibb Latane and John Darley’s theory of _____, the greater the number of bystanders or witnesses to an event that calls for helping behavior, the more the responsibility for helping is perceived to be shared by all the bystanders.
diffusion of responsibility
Which of the following is the first step in the scientific method?
Identifying questions of interest
In an experiment, the _____ variable is measured and is expected to change due to the experimenter’s manipulation.
dependent
Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change in some way are referred to as:
variables.
Experimental group is to control group what _____ is to _____.
treatment; no treatment
Wallace is engaged in archival research. In which of the following projects is he most likely engaged?
Examining the registrar’s records at a state university to explore the relationship between SAT scores and freshman GPA
Experimental research is to correlational research what _____ is to _____.
cause; association
The strength and direction of the relationship between the two variables are represented by a mathematical statistic known as a(n) _____.
correlation
In an experiment, the _____ variable is deliberately manipulated by the researcher.
independent
When cues are transmitted to participants about how they are expected to behave in particular experimental conditions, the research results may reflect _____ expectations. When people develop their own ideas about the topic of the research, the investigation’s outcomes may be biased by _____.
experimenter; participant expectations
Which of the following is not a component of informed consent?
A detailed explanation of the study and its procedures.
In an experiment involving a placebo:
all the participants receive a treatment.
We can predict participants’ scores on Variable A with perfect accuracy by knowing their scores on Variable B. Higher scores on Variable A are associated with higher scores on Variable B. What is the correlation coefficient for the correlation between Variables A and B?
+1.00
The group of participants observed in a research study are referred to as the
sample.
When conducting an experiment, Jamie assigns everybody who arrives before noon to the treatment condition and everybody who arrives after noon to the control group. What is wrong with this experiment?
Jamie has not used true random assignment to conditions.
Kevin has just completed his first day of naturalistic observation at the local high school, and he is concerned about the effects his presence in the classrooms is having on adolescent behavior. This is an important issue since, in truly naturalistic research, researchers cannot
intervene.
If Professor Jung wants to be able to draw cause and effect conclusions from her research, which of the following is the most crucial aspect of her experimental design?
Random assignment
Which of the following is the final step in the scientific method?
Communicating the findings
Regarding operational definitions, which of the following statements is most accurate?
For a given hypothesis, many operational definitions are usually possible.
The approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest is called:
the scientific method.
As compared to the theories about human behavior we all develop in daily life, those formulated by psychologists are:
more formal.
Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between a sample and a population?
A population includes a sample.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of survey research?
The sample may not be representative of the larger population.
In a negative correlation:
as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases.
The correlation coefficient ranges from _____ to _____.
-1.0 to 1.0
Wilma is undertaking survey research. Which of the following is she probably doing?
Asking a sample of students a series of questions about their sexual attitudes and behaviors
Irving has noticed a pattern: The more alcohol people drink, the more aggressive they seem to be. Which research method is aimed at verifying a relationship between two variables?
Correlational research
Which of the following researchers is conducting a case study?
Dr. Innis, who is investigating in detail the tactile perception of a blind woman
What is a placebo?
A false experimental treatment
To guard against participant expectations biasing the results of an experiment, the experimenter may:
try to disguise the true purpose of the experiment.
Which of the following is not one of the reasons that college students are so often used as participants in psychological research?
They are representative of the population at large.
Mean, median, and standard deviation are examples of ___________ statistics.
descriptive
“This cannot be the real opinion of the entire student body! She didn’t ask me to fill out her survey!” Haley complained. Her psychology teacher explained that
a representative sample of responses can indicate the view of the majority.
It has been proposed that students have difficultly returning to their academic schedule after a holiday or break. Specifically, it has been predicted that there will be more student absences on the Monday following spring break than on the Friday prior to spring break. The first statement describes the ___________, while the second is the ___________.
theory; hypothesis
Psychology is defined as the:
scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Fiona helps students with ADHD develop effective study regimens and strategies. Fiona is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist.
counseling
In psychology, William James was highly influential in developing the school of thought known as
functionalism.
Penny is a recovering drug addict. Her treatment program emphasizes the influence of her environment—”people, places, and things”—on her use of her drug of choice. Her program reflects the _____ perspective in psychology.
behavioral
A placebo is intended to minimize _____ expectations; a double-blind procedure minimizes _____.
participant; experimenter expectations
Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between a sample and a population?
A population includes a sample.
In which of the following procedures are participants assigned to different experimental groups on the basis of chance and chance alone?
Random assignment to condition
Which of the following correlation coefficients is indicative of the strongest relationship between two variables?
-0.87
Group A received progressive relaxation training prior to test taking, while Group B received no treatment. Group A is the ________ group, while Group B is the ________ group.
experimental; control
Participants in a study listen to a lecture either in a lecture hall filled with natural light or in a lecture hall with no windows and artificial light. Before leaving the lectures, the participants fill out a mood survey. What is the independent variable in this study?
Type of light
Akira has declared psychology as his major. He will be studying:
behavior and mental processes.
_____ is the idea that people’s behavior is produced primarily by factors outside of their willful control.
Determinism
“People with opposite personality traits are more likely to be attracted to each other.” This is a:
hypothesis.
A pharmaceutical company is conducting an experiment to test the effectiveness of a tricyclic antidepressant. Which of the following, if true, would indicate that the experimenters used a placebo?
The participants in both groups did not know if they were getting a real or a false treatment.
A team of researchers conduct an experiment to test the effectiveness of a new drug in treating anxiety disorders. The participants in the control group receive sugar pills without active ingredients, while those in the experimental group receive the new, anti-anxiety drug. In this example, the researchers use:
a placebo.
Allie has developed a theory concerning test grades. She believes there is a relationship between her frequency of study and the resulting grade. To test her theory, she has to state a(n)
hypothesis.
In a formal experiment, the group that is NOT subjected to a treatment condition is referred to as the ________ group.
control
Which of the following subfields of psychology is INCORRECTLY matched with its description?
Cognitive: examines how people grow and change from conception through death
In order to study mind and behavior, psychologists:
rely on the scientific method.
Contributions of the psychodynamic perspective include all of the following EXCEPT:
a way to look at behavior in a more concrete, objective fashion.
Which of the following sequences correctly arranges the steps in the scientific method from first to last?
Identify problem → formulate explanation → carry out research → communicate findings
Correlation research is:
research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated.
Meaningful results that make it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypotheses is known as a _____.
significant outcome
Random assignment of participants is important in order to ensure that
groups have equal and balanced composition.
If a psychologist were to study “love,” she would need to have a(n) ___________ love. Without this specific information, the hypothesis could not be tested.
operational definition for
In a double-blind experiment,
neither researchers nor participants know who is in the control or experimental group.
Psychology majors are highly valued by employers because they can:
think critically.
The approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions is known as the _____ perspective.
neuroscience
Cognitive psychology can best be described as the
study of higher mental processes.
Many colleges use students’ SAT scores to determine whom they will accept into their programs. Which goal of psychological science are they utilizing?
Predict
Which of the following is a disadvantage of a case study?
Results may not be generalizable beyond the sample.
The placebo effect refers to the
finding that people feel better simply because they believe they are receiving medication.
As many as _____ neurons throughout the body are involved in the control of behaviour.
1 trillion
A cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons is called:
dendrite.
Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses when one neuron communicates with another?
Dendrite → cell body → axon
Dendrite is to axon what _____ is to _____.
receiving; sending
Regarding mirror neurons, which of the following statements is ACCURATE?
Mirror neurons are involved in empathy and language acquisition, but not in face recognition.
Which of the following statements regarding inhibitory messages is TRUE?
Inhibitory messages decrease the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.
A synapse is a(n):
gap
The state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron is known as the _____ state.
resting
The basic elements of the nervous system are called:
neurons
Electrical wires are generally protected by a tube of plastic. A similar insulating function is performed in the nervous system by the:
myelin sheath.
Which of the following best represents the function of myelin sheath in the brain?
Amber is putting wax on her surfboard so that it will move easily through the water.
If a doctor told you that insufficient nutrients were being transported from your blood vessels to your neurons, you might suspect from that the problem was in your ___________ cells.
glial
The nucleus of a neuron is located in the
cell body.
You are sitting in a public place next to a new acquaintance to whom you are attracted. You feel this person’s hand touch yours. You move your hand to return the gesture. Your heart beats faster, and you feel “butterflies” in your stomach. Your hand movement was initiated by your ___________ nervous system, while your increased heart rate and stomach contractions were initiated by your ___________ nervous system.
somatic; autonomic
Which of the following is a role of the autonomic nervous system?
Monitors essential processes
Which of the following best describes how information is transmitted within a neuron?
dendrite → cell body → axon
Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for physiological symptoms such as increased heart rate and butterflies in the stomach?
Sympathetic
After finishing a psychology test, you try to relax by engaging in some meditation techniques. Doing these exercises should increase the response of the ___________ nervous system and result in slower heart and respiration rates and less muscular tension.
parasympathetic
Your brain has instructed your muscles to move so that you avoid an oncoming bicyclist. Which division of the nervous system carried this information to your muscles?
Somatic nervous system
“Running has become an important part of my life. After a good three miles, I begin to feel euphoric. This positive feeling stays with me most of the day.” This runner is describing the
production of endorphins.
A cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons is called:
dendrite.
Dendrite is to axon what _____ is to _____.
receiving; sending
Regarding action potentials, which of the following statements is TRUE?
The action potential moves from one end of the axon to the other like a flame moving along a fuse.
Terminal buttons are found at the end of:
axons.
The reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button is termed as:
reuptake.
An axon is a(n):
long, slim, tubelike structure extending from a neuron.
The neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in:
movement, attention, and learning.
___________ is a neurotransmitter that is produced in insufficient amounts in many Alzheimer’s patients.
Acetylcholine
After finishing a psychology test, you try to relax by engaging in some meditation techniques. Doing these exercises should increase the response of the ___________ nervous system and result in slower heart and respiration rates and less muscular tension.
parasympathetic
Based on the research on oxytocin, if Julia finds herself in a stressful situation she is most likely to
call a friend.
Who is relying most heavily on their mirror neurons?
Chie is taking a golf lesson from the local pro.
Which of the following best describes how information is transmitted within a neuron?
dendrite → cell body → axon
The all-or-nothing principle refers to
action potentials.
Walter has a degenerative condition that eats away at his myelin sheath. We can expect that his cognitive abilities will
decrease in proficiency.
The neural message being delivered in a synaptic transmission is carried across the synaptic gap by ___________ substances.
chemical
The brain’s special physical capacity for change is referred to as its
plasticity.
Depolarizing the membrane during an action potential first involves the flow of ___________ ions into the membrane.
sodium
Which of the following statements regarding inhibitory messages is TRUE?
Inhibitory messages decrease the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.
The state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron is known as the _____ state.
resting
You cannot fire a gun softly, or flush a toilet halfway. Like an action potential, gun fire and a toilet’s flush follow the _____ law.
all-or-none
The basic elements of the nervous system are called:
neurons.
Regarding mirror neurons, which of the following statements is ACCURATE?
Mirror neurons are involved in empathy and language acquisition, but not in face recognition.
A neurotransmitter that plays a role Parkinson’s disease is
dopamine.
At a job interview, you broke out into a cold sweat and felt your heart pounding. These symptoms were most likely produced by your ___________ nervous system.
sympathetic
Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for physiological symptoms such as increased heart rate and butterflies in the stomach?
Sympathetic
Your brain has instructed your muscles to move so that you avoid an oncoming bicyclist. Which division of the nervous system carried this information to your muscles?
Somatic nervous system
The outer membrane of a neuron is semipermeable. This means that
it allows some substances to pass through the membrane.
The neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in:
movement, attention, and learning.
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of glial cells?
They communicate messages within the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are stored in
terminal buttons.
If a doctor told you that insufficient nutrients were being transported from your blood vessels to your neurons, you might suspect from that the problem was in your ___________ cells.
glial
The nucleus of a neuron is located in the
cell body.
Which neurotransmitter is described INCORRECTLY?
GABA—an excitatory neurotransmitter inhibited by alcohol or tranquilizers
“Running has become an important part of my life. After a good three miles, I begin to feel euphoric. This positive feeling stays with me most of the day.” This runner is describing the
production of endorphins.
Which of the following are the two integrated parts of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Kenny is taking medication to help control some of the symptoms that he experiences from Parkinson disease. If he is given too much of the medication, Kenny might start to exhibit symptoms associated with
schizophrenia.
Which of the following neurotransmitter plays an important role in human bonding?
Oxytocin
The two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the _____ and _____ divisions.
somatic; autonomic
Sensory is to motor what _____ is to _____.
afferent; efferent
Which of the following is TRUE of the spinal cord’s control of behavior?
The spinal cord can control some simple reflexes without the brain’s help.
The _____ division also directs the body to store energy for use in emergencies.
parasympathetic
The _____ gland is a major component of the endocrine system which secretes hormones that control growth and other parts of the endocrine system.
pituitary
The hormone oxytocin has been implicated in each of the following behaviors EXCEPT the:
tendency to produce violent, dangerous behavior.
Violet’s speech is slow and labored; however, she can understand others’ speech. Violet has:
Broca’s aphasia.
Trevor is scratching his head, trying desperately to solve a verbal analogy as part of a standardized entrance examination; Sienna, meanwhile, is giving an oral presentation in a political science class. Of the brain’s hemispheres, Trevor’s _____ hemisphere is most active; Sienna’s _____ hemisphere is most active.
left; left
The _____ is a tiny part of the brain that maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital behavior, such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior.
hypothalamus
The _____ is referred to as the “new brain.”
cerebral cortex
The process by which the brain reorganizes itself throughout development is termed:
neuroplasticity.
The visual area in the cortex is located in the _____.
occipital lobe
The _____ maintains a steady internal environment for the body.
hypothalamus
Which brain imaging technique allows scientists to actually see what is happening in the brain while it is working?
fMRI
The area of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary muscle movement is the
motor cortex.
An fMRI can detect brain activity because
oxygenated blood is more prominent in areas that are active.
Electrical activity in the brain can be captured by placing multiple electrodes on the scalp and then measuring the underlying electrical activity. This method of studying the brain’s activity is referred to as
an electroencephalogram.
Body temperature, emotional states, and coping with stress are functions controlled by the
hypothalamus.
What is unique about stem cells?
They can develop into most types of human cells.
One of the pleasure centers of the brain is found in the
hypothalamus.
A key component of the endocrine system is the tiny _____ gland, which is found near—and regulated by—the _____ in the brain.
pituitary; hypothalamus
With respect to its potential basis in nervous system activity, “voodoo death” has been attributed to:
an overactive sympathetic nervous system.
_____ is an automatic, involuntary response to an incoming stimulus.
Reflex
The “fight-or-flight” response is associated with the _____ division.
sympathetic
_____ are neurons that connect sensory and motor neurons, carrying messages between the two.
Interneurons
The hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of fibers called the:
corpus callosum.
The limbic system contains which of the following structures?
Amygdala
Which of the following generalizations is probably most accurate regarding potential gender differences in the lateralization of language?
Language is more strongly left-lateralized among males than among females.
The visual area in the cortex is located in the _____.
occipital lobe
The _____ is referred to as the “new brain.”
cerebral cortex
The part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons and made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal is known as the _____.
reticular formation
_____ is the creation of new neurons.
Neurogenesis
Which structure of the brain would be most beneficial to a professional golfer who is trying to create a repetitive golf swing?
Basal ganglia
The area of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary muscle movement is the
motor cortex.
The area of the brain that controls the production of speech is
Broca’s area.
What is unique about stem cells?
They can develop into most types of human cells.
The ___________ gland regulates all the other glands.
pituitary
Neurosurgeons can reduce the unbearable seizures some epileptics experience by severing the
corpus callosum.
If a person’s cerebellum were damaged in an accident, you would expect the person to have a problem with
balance and muscle coordination.
The part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations, engaging all the organism’s resources to respond to a threat is known as the _____.
sympathetic division
The hormone oxytocin has been implicated in each of the following behaviors EXCEPT the:
tendency to produce violent, dangerous behavior.
Darnell underwent surgery to control his severe epilepsy. Now, however, Darnell cannot form new memories of his experiences, although he does remember events in the past. Most likely, the surgery destroyed a portion of the _____ in Darnell’s brain.
hippocampus
The part of the brain that controls bodily balance is the _____.
cerebellum
In which lobe is the motor area located?
Frontal
Which brain imaging technique below is CORRECTLY matched with its description?
EEG—records the brain’s electrical activity with electrodes
The thalamus may be likened to a(n):
relay station.
Which brain imaging technique allows scientists to actually see what is happening in the brain while it is working?
fMRI
The corpus callosum is
a band of nerve fiber connecting the right and left hemispheres.
If you had damage to your hippocampus, it would most likely impair
memory formation.
The iron rod which damaged Phineas Gage’s frontal lobe resulted in
changes in personality.
The reticular formation is primarily involved in
stereotyped patterns such as walking, sleeping, or turning to attend to a sudden noise.
When you walk to class, you do not have to think consciously about how to walk. When you get there, you pay attention to the lecture even though it is boring and you are tired. The structure that plays an important role in these activities by manipulation of various neurotransmitters is the
reticular formation.
The brain injury suffered by 19th-century railroad worker Phineas Gage allowed psychologists to learn about the functions of the brain’s:
association areas.
The physical space between two neurons is called the
synapse.
Theus is about to take the bar exam. Which lobe of the brain will he be relying on most to do well?
Frontal
Broca’s area is located in the ___________ hemisphere.
left
Evolutionary psychologists have spawned a new and increasingly influential field:
behavioral genetics.
Somatic is to autonomic what _____ is to _____.
voluntary; involuntary
Warren suffers from Wernicke’s aphasia. Which of the following will he experience in thought or behavior?
Warren will experience difficulty understanding language.
Which of the following generalizations is probably most accurate regarding potential gender differences in the lateralization of language?
Language is more strongly left-lateralized among males than among females.
The part of the brain closest to the spinal cord is the _____; it is important for such functions as _____.
medulla; heart rate and respiration
The practice of women bringing food to other women during times of crisis may have been triggered by which neurotransmitter?
oxytocin
Weber’s law states that a just noticeable difference is a _____.
variable proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus
One can detect a single drop of perfume diffused in an area the size of a one-bedroom apartment. This is due to:
absolute threshold.
Which of the following laws would help explain why a person in a quiet room is more startled by the ringing of a telephone than a person who is already in a noisy room?
Weber’s law
Acme Foods wants to make its chips saltier, but it doesn’t want to spend more than it has to on salt. A sample of consumers are asked to compare its current chip (saltiness = 100) with saltier versions and to say whether the new version is saltier. On average, sample consumers reliably say the new chip is saltier when its saltiness value is 108, but not when its saltiness value is below 108. Assuming Acme Foods’ sample consumers are representative of people in general, which of the following best represents the just noticeable difference for saltiness?
8%
Which of the following statements is TRUE of sensation and perception?
Sensation involves the activation of sense receptors; perception involves interpretation.
The sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and brain is known as _____.
perception
The part of the eye that converts the electromagnetic energy of light to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain is known as the _____.
retina
As compared to cones, rods:
are highly sensitive to light.
In regards to what we see in our world, the range of wavelengths that humans are sensitive to is called the _____.
visual spectrum
_____ is the activation of neurons in the cortex by visual stimuli of specific shapes or patterns.
Feature detection
Suppose you stare at an illustration of the American flag for a while, then glance at a blank white page. The red stripes look green when you glance at the blank page because:
the receptor cells for the red component of the pairing become fatigued.
When you visit a new city for the first time, it often takes a lot of cognitive effort to find your way around. One explanation lies in the fact that new experiences require us to rely primarily on ________ processing.
bottom-up
The ________ theory of color vision most accurately describes the process of color vision at the level of the retina.
trichromatic
Rachel is walking in the woods and feels a sharp prick on her neck. She feels pain and recognizes that she has been stung by a wasp. Which process allowed her to identify the source of her pain?
Perception
Damon is among the 7% of males with color blindness. He suffers from the most common form of color blindness. Which of the following statements best illustrates Damon’s experience of color?
Red apples on a tree seem to be yellow.
Near the center of the retina there is a spot where there are no rods and no cones. This spot exists because of
the optic nerve.
Who is relying most heavily on their rods?
Marcus is trying to find his seat as the movie begins to play.
Every day, you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel stimuli from the outside world. Collecting this data about that world is the function of
sensation.
As young children learn to read, they often have difficulty comprehending what the story is saying because they are working so hard to decode what the words are. This reflects an over-reliance on which type of processing?
bottom-up
In regards to light, wavelength is the ________ and amplitude is the ________.
hue; brightness
The smallest level of added or reduced stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred is known as the _____.
difference threshold
Dr. Breiland examines the relationship between the physical properties of light, such as its amplitude and wavelength, and humans’ perception of color. Which of the following terms MOST ACCURATELY describes Dr. Breiland’s field of study?
Psychophysics
Which of the following statements is TRUE of sensation and perception?
Sensation involves the activation of sense receptors; perception involves interpretation.
Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order in which light passes through the structures of the eye during vision?
Cornea → pupil → lens → retina
Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order in which light stimulates cells early in the visual processing of an image?
Rods and cones → bipolar cells → ganglion cells
The trichromatic theory was first proposed by _____. The opponent-process theory was first proposed by _____.
Thomas Young; Ewald Hering
Which of the following is true of the opponent-process theory?
According to the opponent-process theory, perception of color is influenced by the relative strength with which each of the three kinds of cones is activated.
Which of the following words is most nearly synonymous with the term refract?
Bend
If a student asks you why we can see colors and you want to provide an answer based on the opponent-process theory of color vision, you tell the student it is because there are ________ different types of cone receptors.
four
You arrive at your friend’s apartment for a big party at the end of the semester. When you first arrive, the music is so loud that it almost hurts your ears. After a couple of hours, even though the music is still at the same volume, it doesn’t bother you anymore, and you like it. This change over time describes the process of
sensory adaptation.
Hannah, a first-year psychology student, just discovered she has a blind spot in each eye. Should she be concerned?
No, everyone has blind spots.
You try to note the incredibly fine details of a computer microchip through a magnifying glass. On which area of the retina are you focusing this image?
Fovea
You are outside enjoying a beautiful day. The sky is bright blue. When the sun sets, the sky turns a gorgeous salmon pink. After the sun has set, the sky pales to pink, then lavender; as it gets dark, the sky becomes a deeper purple, then midnight blue, and finally it looks black. The color changes you perceive in the sky are due to the ________ of light that it reflects.
wavelength
When you see the bright color and round shape of a tomato on the vine in your vegetable garden, smell its sun-warmed fragrance, hear the buzzing of a nearby bee, feel the velvety texture of its skin, and taste the flavor as you bite into it, your process of receiving this stimulus energy from the environment is called
sensation
Every day, you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel stimuli from the outside world. Collecting this data about that world is the function of
sensation.
Afterimages refer to
the sensation left over after an image is removed.
_____ is an adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli.
Adaptation
The sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and brain is known as _____.
perception
A snack manufacturer realizes that he must increase the salt content of his company’s chips by 3% in order for a sample of consumers to notice that the chips are saltier than they were before. This example most nearly illustrates the concept of a(n):
difference threshold.
Anna is reading her psychology text. The activation of receptors in her retina by a source of physical energy is called _____.
sensation
A(n) _____ threshold is the stimulus intensity that is detected 50% of the time.
absolute
With respect to the trichromatic and the opponent-process theories of color perception, which of the following statements is most accurate?
Trichromatic process works within the retina itself; whereas opponent mechanisms operate both in the retina and at later stages of neuronal processing.
In regards to what we see in our world, the range of wavelengths that humans are sensitive to is called the _____.
visual spectrum
Contestants on the game show Wheel of Fortune are given labels to assist them solving the puzzles. These labels activate ________ processing.
top-down
Jane is having trouble sleeping. As she sits in bed looking around the darkened room, she notices that her peripheral vision seems to be better than her central vision. This is because vision in low light conditions
depends on the rods.
Near the center of the retina there is a spot where there are no rods and no cones. This spot exists because of
the optic nerve.
You cannot feel the waistband of your underwear, even though you know it is there. This is the result of
sensory adaptation.
You are watching a movie with some scenes set in a noisy bar, some scenes containing gunfire, and some scenes containing very quiet dialogue. During the quiet scenes, you can hear most of the dialogue, but find that if the actors drop their volume on certain lines, you cannot hear what they are saying. This reflects the fact that a message must exceed a(n) ________ in order to be processed.
threshold
To manage Mrs. Sampson’s excruciating pain, a low-voltage electric current is occasionally passed through her lower back, the affected body part. Which of the following pain management techniques in Mrs. Sampson using?
Nerve stimulation
The basilar membrane is a:
vibrating structure that runs through the center of the cochlea, dividing it into an upper chamber and a lower chamber and containing sense receptors for sound.
Which of the following sequences correctly arranges the structures of the inner ear from the largest and most inclusive to the smallest and most specific?
Cochlea → basilar membrane → hair cells
Which of the following statements regarding smell is FALSE?
Men generally have a better sense of smell than women.
The _____ states that different areas of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies.
place theory of hearing
_____ are chemicals nonhumans secrete into the environment that produce a reaction in other members of the same species, permitting the transmission of messages such as sexual availability.
Pheromones
The cochlea is a:
coiled tube in the inner ear filled with fluid that vibrates in response to sound.
From the window of an office on a skyscraper’s 90th floor, taxis on the street look tiny. Of course, you know they are not toy cars; you are just really far up. This example illustrates the _____ cue of _____.
monocular; relative size
In a general sense, the overriding Gestalt principle of perceptual organization is:
simplicity.
_____ are physical stimuli that consistently produce errors in perception.
Visual illusions
Consider the figure within parentheses: (XX XX XX). That we perceive three pairs of Xs reflects the Gestalt principle(s) of:
proximity.
Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the relationship between top-down and bottom-up processing?
Top-down and bottom-up processes occur simultaneously in the perception of the world around us.
Which of the following is a monocular cue?
Motion parallax
Taste buds are bunched together in
the papillae.
At a school social gathering, you hear a professor talking about proximity, continuity, similarity, and closure. You deduce that he is knowledgeable about
gestalt principles of perception.
A door is still perceived as a rectangle even after we view it from different angles. This is due to
shape constancy.
The ________ sense gives you information about balance and movement.
vestibular
Perceiving three dimensions is called
depth perception.
Your mother’s and sister’s voices have the same pitch and loudness, but you can tell them apart on the telephone. This is due to the perceptual quality or ___________ of their voices.
timbre
Smell can elicit more vivid memories than the other senses. What is the reason for this?
The sense of smell takes a different neural pathway than the other senses.
Whenever Mr. Redding catches himself saying, “This pain is ruining my life,” he is supposed to immediately tell himself, “STOP! I am in control of my pain.” This pain management technique is known as _____ restructuring.
cognitive
The eardrum is a:
part of the outer ear that vibrates when sound waves hit it.
Gustation is to olfaction what _____ is to _____.
taste; smell
Nerve receptor cells for the skin senses are:
unevenly distributed throughout the skin.
You are sitting in a stationary train at a busy station. Suddenly, you feel like you are slowly sliding backward as the train next to you begins to pull out. This illusion reflects the operation of the _____ cue of _____.
monocular; motion parallax
At night, the moon appears smaller when it is overhead than when it is on the horizon. This is an example of:
perceptual constancy.
You are standing on the beach; the sea is choppy. You observe that the crests of distant waves appear less distinct than the crests of waves nearer the beach. This example illustrates a monocular cue known as:
texture gradient.
Mark and a Jacob are driving home on a college break. Mark is in the passenger seat. Bored, Mark gazes into the middle of an empty field. He notices that distant hilltops seem to move slowly in the same direction in which their car is moving; by contrast, mile markers on the side of the highway seem to whiz past them in the opposite direction. The difference in the apparent speed and direction of objects’ motion serves as a depth cue termed motion:
parallax.
_____ is series of principles that describe how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Gestalt laws of organization
Gestalt psychologists emphasize that
we learn to perceive the world through experience.
The different pitches of the beeps you hear on a touch-tone telephone are due to differences in the ___________ of the beeps.
frequency
The unit of measure for the amplitude of sound is
decibel.
In depth perception, familiar size, height in field of view, and shading are examples of
monocular cues.
The tendency for perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in raw sensations is called
perceptual constancy.
_____ is the number of wave cycles that occur in a second.
Frequency
How does light therapy work?
It stimulates the production of healing enzymes.
How many basic types of taste are there?
4-5
Which of the following treatments for pain is most effective for people who continually say to themselves, “This pain will never stop,” “The pain is ruining my life”?
Cognitive restructuring
The human sense of smell permits us to detect _____ separate smells.
more than 10,000
Whenever Mr. Redding catches himself saying, “This pain is ruining my life,” he is supposed to immediately tell himself, “STOP! I am in control of my pain.” This pain management technique is known as _____ restructuring.
cognitive
Which of the following statements is most accurate with respect to the role of gestalt psychology in contemporary psychology?
Gestalt psychology no longer plays a prominent role, but the Gestaltists’ focus on the organization of perceptual elements remains influential.
Perception that is guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations is known as _____.
top-down processing
Mark and a Jacob are driving home on a college break. Mark is in the passenger seat. Bored, Mark gazes into the middle of an empty field. He notices that distant hilltops seem to move slowly in the same direction in which their car is moving; by contrast, mile markers on the side of the highway seem to whiz past them in the opposite direction. The difference in the apparent speed and direction of objects’ motion serves as a depth cue termed motion:
parallax.
Perception that consists of the progression of recognizing and processing information from individual components of a stimuli and moving to the perception of the whole is known as _____.
bottom-up processing
When sound waves enter the ear canal, they first
vibrate the eardrum.
The different pitches of the beeps you hear on a touch-tone telephone are due to differences in the ___________ of the beeps.
frequency
Which depth cue accounts for why parallel lines appear to grow closer together the farther away they are?
Linear perspective
The _____ consists of three tubes containing fluid that sloshes through them when the head moves, signaling rotational or angular movement to the brain.
semicircular canal
Which of the following statements is true?
Place theory accounts for the perception of high-frequency sounds; frequency theory explains our perception of low-frequency sounds.
The _____ suggests that the entire basilar membrane acts as a microphone, vibrating as a whole in response to a sound.
frequency theory of hearing
The difference in the images seen by the left eye and the right eye is known as _____.
binocular disparity
Why might contemporary, mainstream psychologists reconsider the possibility that ESP exists?
The topic has been addressed by a credible and prestigious psychological journal.
Shape constancy is our ability to
see an object as being the same shape even though we move closer to it or farther from it.
If we see a German shepherd standing 30 feet from us, we still recognize its size even though the image on our retina is much smaller than if the dog was directly in front of us. This is primarily due to
size constancy.
Abel knows that his legs are crossed and that his hands are on top of his head. This is a demonstration of
proprioceptive feedback.
Looking at a quarter in your hand casts a different image on your retina compared to looking at a quarter across the room, yet we know that the quarter is the same and retains the same dimensions. This phenomenon is known as
size constancy.
You are standing outside with a friend as an airplane flies over your head. You watch as the plane appears to get smaller and smaller and is eventually gone from your visual field. Which aspect of perceptual constancy allows you to understand that the airplane is not shrinking?
Size constancy
A(n) _____ threshold is the stimulus intensity that is detected 50% of the time.
absolute
Anna is reading her psychology text. The activation of receptors in her retina by a source of physical energy is called _____.
sensation
With respect to the trichromatic and the opponent-process theories of color perception, which of the following statements is most accurate?
Trichromatic process works within the retina itself; whereas opponent mechanisms operate both in the retina and at later stages of neuronal processing.
Adelaide notices a flicker of motion out of the corner of her eye as she hurries down a dim alley late at night. Sydney deciphers a complex wiring diagram under the bright glare of her desk lamp. Adelaide’s vision is driven mainly by her _____. Sydney is mainly using her _____.
rods; cones
Which of the following treatments for pain is most effective for people who continually say to themselves, “This pain will never stop,” “The pain is ruining my life”?
Cognitive restructuring
Although several bulbs are burned out on the movie theater’s sign out front, Caleb can still read the announcement for the upcoming movie. Which gestalt principle accounts for this phenomena?
Closure
Sigmund Freud’s theory that dreams represent unconscious desires that dreamers want to see fulfilled is known as _____.
unconscious wish fulfillment theory
Which figure best approximates the proportion of people afflicted by insomnia?
1/3
How long is a typical sleep cycle, in which a sleeper progresses through some or all of the sleep stages?
90 minutes
_____ is/are sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that is accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physiological arousal.
Night terrors
Which of the following statements is true of dreams occurring in REM sleep and NREM sleep?
Dreams occur in NREM sleep, but less frequently than in REM sleep; NREM dreams are also less vivid than are dreams in REM sleep.
Which of the following is true of daydreams?
They are under one’s control to a greater extent than dreams that occur during sleep.
Which of the following statements is true of REM sleep and dreaming?
The major muscles of the body appear to be paralyzed during REM sleep.
_____ are unusually frightening dreams, that occur fairly often.
Nightmares
Anya pulled all-nighters both last night and the night before. Tonight, finally, she anticipates going to bed at her usual time. Which of the following alternatives MOST accurately describes and identifies what Anya is likely to experience?
Anya will spend a greater proportion of her sleep time than usual in the REM stage. This phenomenon is called rebound.
Thomas seems unaware that his mom has been calling him for the last five minutes. He is playing his video game and about to move to the last level. What is Thomas demonstrating?
Selective attention
Dreams occurring during ________ sleep are briefer, less vivid, and less emotionally charged compared to those that occur during ________ sleep.
non-REM; REM
The teacher has called on Sarah four times, yet she has not responded or acknowledged the teacher in anyway. She has a slight smile on her face. What is Sarah demonstrating?
Daydreaming
William James described the human mind as a
stream of consciousness.
During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reed suddenly lapsed into a stage of REM sleep. Mr. Reed apparently suffers from
narcolepsy.
Night terrors typically occur
during non-REM sleep.
Grandpa is napping in his recliner and snoring loudly. When he suddenly stops snoring, you look to see if he is OK. He appears to not be breathing. For a moment you wonder if he’s dead, but suddenly he snorts and resumes snoring. Grandpa appears to suffer from
sleep apnea.
Jorge has a big history exam tomorrow so he has been studying most of the day. If he wants to remember most of what he has been studying, he should
go to bed.
What do drugs, trauma, fatigue, hypnosis, and sensory deprivation have in common?
They produce altered states of consciousness.
Psychological research on sleep and memory has found that staying up all night to study for an exam is likely to
decrease memory performance.
According to the _____ dreams permit us to reconsider and reprocess during sleep information that is critical for our daily survival.
dreams-for-survival theory
Which sleep disturbance is correctly matched with its description?
Sleep apnea— difficulty breathing during sleep
Which of the following solutions will help overcome insomnia?
Exercising during the day
Four-year old DeMarcus falls asleep shortly after his 8:30 p.m. bedtime. At about 9:45, he suddenly sits up in bed, breathing rapidly and appearing to be in a state of sheer panic. DeMarcus is experiencing:
night terrors.
According to Freud, the _____ content of dreams is the “disguised” meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects.
latent
The _____ focuses on the random electrical energy that the brain produces during REM sleep, possibly as a result of changes in the production of particular neurotransmitters.
activation-synthesis theory
During _____ images sometimes appear, as if we were viewing still photos.
stage 1 sleep
_____ is the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.
Stage 4 sleep
Most people today sleep between _____ hours each night.
7-8
Kathy says that when she meditates, she feels like she becomes one with the universe. Kathy experiences ________ during her meditative sessions.
an altered state of consciousness
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by
irresistible urges to fall asleep.
Your friend Helen works the night shift at the local grocery store every other day. She has trouble sleeping, which is most likely due to
the fact that her circadian rhythms do not follow a 24-hour cycle.
Narcolepsy is a disorder involving
periodic attacks of uncontrollable sleep attacks.
According to Sigmund Freud, dreams are
our unconscious desires that we wish to fulfill.
Mr. Owens always sleeps restlessly, snoring and gasping during the night. It is most likely that Mr. Owens suffers from
sleep apnea.
In general terms, how do brain waves change as a sleeper progresses from stage 1 sleep to stage 4 sleep?
The brain waves become slower.
A class project required a student nurse to make hourly records of her own blood pressure and body temperature over a 30-day period. When the data were graphed, it became clear that these readings changed in a predictable way on a daily basis. The reason for this regularity is that many physiological processes are
governed by circadian rhythms.
The 24-hour biological cycle that regulates our pattern of sleep is referred to as
circadian rhythm.
Which of the following notions regarding hypnosis is TRUE?
People cannot be hypnotized against their will.
When traditional practitioners of the ancient Eastern religion of Zen Buddhism want to achieve greater spiritual insight, they turn to a technique that has been used for centuries to alter their state of consciousness. This technique is called _____.
meditation
Which of the following is true of altered state of consciousness?
People feel a sense of ineffability.
To which of the following traits does an individual’s susceptibility to hypnosis seem related?
The tendency to become absorbed in one’s activities
Which of the following is not a psychoactive drug?
Antibiotics
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the effect of caffeine and the other stimulants on the nervous system?
They have an arousal effect on the central nervous system.
Methadone is used to treat addiction to:
heroin.
Depressants are drugs that:
slow down the nervous system.
The “date rape” drug is _____; it is a _____.
rohypnol; depressant
Fawn consumed a large amount of the most popular street drug at a party. It gave her a sense of energy and alertness although she also became anxious and irritable. Which of the following drugs has she most likely consumed?
Methamphetamine
Voluntary motor behavior becomes affected when one’s blood alcohol content level reaches:
.10.
The most widely used stimulants are
caffeine and nicotine.
Morphine and heroin are derivatives of
opium.
Drug addiction occurs when a(n)
physical or psychological dependence on taking the drug develops.
________ is a psychological state of altered attention and expectation in which an individual is more open to suggestions.
Hypnosis
What type of drug is crystal meth?
Amphetamine
You decide to undergo hypnosis out of curiosity. You expect that hypnosis will result in a state of
heightened openness to suggestion.
Research on the legalization of marijuana in California found
no effect on overall usage.
The most widely used illegal drug by high school students is
marijuana.
Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding potential cross-cultural variation in the attempt to alter consciousness?
The attempt to alter consciousness appears to be universal, but the particular means to do so vary from culture to culture.
Which of the following notions regarding hypnosis is false?
People lose all will of their own.
Which of the following is true of altered state of consciousness?
People feel a sense of ineffability.
Which of the following is the first step in the hypnosis process?
A person is made comfortable in a quiet environment.
MDMA and lysergic acid diethylamide are _____.
hallucinogens
_____ drugs are drugs that influence a person’s emotions, perceptions, and behavior.
Psychoactive
In _____ dependence, people believe that they need the drug to respond to the stresses of daily living.
psychological
Nicotine activates neural mechanisms similar to those activated by _____.
cocaine
Which of the following withdrawal symptoms are related to the use of stimulants?
Apathy, general fatigue, prolonged sleep
“Medical marijuana” is known to
All of these.
(promote appetite, relieve pain, calm anxiety.)
Tranquilizers and alcohol belong to a drug category called
depressants.
Kate, a longtime coffee drinker, complains of pounding headaches and lowered mood when she skips her coffee in the morning. What is the likely cause of these complaints?
Caffeine withdrawal
LSD and marijuana fall into the psychotropic drug category of
hallucinogens.
College students who consume large amounts of alcohol on weekends are abusing which type(s) of drugs?
Depressants
Drugs that create a sense of relaxation and lowered inhibitions by reducing the activity of the central nervous system are called
depressants.
Dr. Gremillion argues that dreams function to focus on and consolidate memories. They represent concerns about our daily lives, illustrating our uncertainties, indecisions, ideas, and desires. Dr. Gremillion subscribes to the _____ theory of the function of dreams.
dreams-for-survival
Four-year old DeMarcus falls asleep shortly after his 8:30 p.m. bedtime. At about 9:45, he suddenly sits up in bed, breathing rapidly and appearing to be in a state of sheer panic. DeMarcus is experiencing:
night terrors.
REM sleep is paradoxical because:
the brain is active, but the major skeletal muscles appear to be paralyzed.
_____ is the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.
Stage 4 sleep
_____ is/are sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that is accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physiological arousal.
Night terrors
According to famed hypnosis researcher _____
Hilgard, hypnosis causes a division of consciousness.
According to the text, the DARE program is used in approximately _____ of the school districts in the U. S.
80%
Your friend reported feeling greater energy and a sense of well-being after taking a drug.
Medical tests reveal increased activity of her central nervous system. The drug she took is most likely some type of
stimulant.
Drugs that create a sense of relaxation and lowered inhibitions by reducing the activity of the central nervous system are called
depressants.
_____ are unusually frightening dreams, that occur fairly often.
Nightmares
_____ is the awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings we experience at a given moment.
Consciousness
Which of the following best characterizes a night of sleep?
Our depth of sleep alternates up and down many times.
The use of _____ results in euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, heightened sense of oneself and insight, and disoriented behavior.
hallucinogens
The definition of a binge drinking episode is having more than ___________ drinks in a row.
5
Sleepwalking occurs during ________ of the sleep cycle.
stages 3 and 4
Which of the following withdrawal symptoms are related to the use of stimulants?
Apathy, general fatigue, prolonged sleep
LSD and Ecstasy influence the operation of the neurotransmitter _____ in the brain.
serotonin
You are aware of the thoughts running through your mind and the emotions triggered by some of those thoughts. You are also aware of the sounds you hear and the things you see in the room and outside the window, and of the smell of coffee brewing in the kitchen and the smell of freshly cut grass coming in the window. You would be considered to be in a state of
consciousness.
_____ stimulus is a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned.
Unconditioned
Stimulus _____ provides the ability to differentiate between stimuli.
discrimination
Nature is to nurture what _____ is to _____.
unconditioned response; conditioned response
Janine completed several tours of duty in Afghanistan. She suffers from PTSD. Now, back home in Texas, she is frightened by firecrackers and cars backfiring. The fact that these sounds scare her reflects a process of stimulus:
generalization.
Which of the following scenarios exemplifies extinction?
Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses cocaine, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
June’s cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can opener, which she has learned is used to open her food when her dinner is about to be served. The cat does not run when a blender is used, although it sounds similar. June’s cat is demonstrating stimulus:
discrimination.
Classical conditioning is most successful when the neutral stimulus begins:
just before the unconditioned stimulus begins.
Learning reflects _____. Maturation reflects _____.
nurture; nature
_____ refers to a decrease in the response to a stimulus when it is presented repeatedly, whereas _____ refers to the eventual disappearance of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented.
Habituation; extinction
Which of the following terms best expresses the relationship between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination?
They are opposites.
In classical conditioning situations, the ____________ connection is innate, while the ____________ connection is learned.
UCS-UCR; CS-CR
Tyler’s grandmother used to receive emails from him every day, so she would check her in-box regularly. Since Tyler went off to college, the emails have basically stopped. As a result, she no longer checks her in-box on a daily basis. If this pattern continues, we can expect ____________ to occur.
extinction
Little Julie is watching Dora the Explorer help her mother clean up the kitchen after dinner. After the show, she walks into the kitchen to help her mommy clean up. Little Julie is demonstrating
observational learning.
Kenny ate several hot dogs at the baseball game. Several hours later he got very nauseous and spent most of the night being physically sick. We can expect that he will
be unable to eat a hot dog at the next ball game he attends.
Pavlov’s dog learned to anticipate food whenever he was presented with stimuli associated with food. Pavlov knew that his dog associated specific stimuli with food because the ____________ was elicited by the stimuli.
CR
Which of the following statements about classical conditioning is accurate?
It is a form of respondent behavior.
Marcia was romantically involved with John. Unfortunately, Marcia eventually discovered that John was being a complete jerk, so she ended the relationship. One day in the mall, she suddenly gets a whiff of the cologne that John always wore. All the former good feelings come pouring back. This is an example of
spontaneous recovery.
As Natalie, who has extremely long nails, approaches the chalkboard, many of her classmates cover their ears. What represents the conditioned stimulus?
Natalie approaching the board
Dr. Meyer is known for his difficult pop quizzes. Immediately before he springs a pop quiz on his students, he typically goes to the classroom door and closes it. Students soon learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever Dr. Meyer closes the classroom door. Closing the door has become a(n)
CS.
Watson and Raynor conditioned fear in Little Albert using a ____________ as a CS.
white rat
In what way does learned taste aversion seem to contradict the basic principles of classical conditioning?
Learned taste aversion can occur after only a single CS-UCR pairing.
In Pavlov’s study, the UCS was _____; the neutral stimulus was _____; and, finally, the CS was _____.
meat; the bell; the bell
_____ is the decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
Habituation
Which of the following is true of stimulus generalization?
The greater the similarity between two stimuli, the greater the likelihood of stimulus generalization.
In classical conditioning, how are the neutral stimulus and the conditioned response related?
The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus.
Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies spontaneous recovery?
Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
Which pair below CORRECTLY identifies a stimulus or response in Watson and Rayner’s “Little Albert” study?
Unconditioned stimulus—noise
Which of the following behaviors indicate learning?
Simon whines whenever he wants something.
It should take about 30 minutes for the aspirin Manny just took to relieve his headache, but Manny feels better within minutes. This is an example of
the placebo effect.
Boris is trying to use classical conditioning to teach his goldfish to come to the top of the tank to eat whenever he turns on the aquarium light. He drops food into the tank and then turns on the light. After several such trials, the fish show no more inclination to come to the top of the tank when the light is turned on than they did on the first trial. What would you suggest that Boris do to improve his training technique?
He should turn on the light before he drops the food into the tank.
In Pavlov’s well-known study on classical conditioning, the bell was the ____________ before conditioning and the ____________ after conditioning had occurred.
neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus
Bubba, a very smart German shepherd, has learned that if he barks at the neighbors while they are grilling, they will throw him a treat. However, his owner, Paul, does not want Bubba to eat “people” food. When Paul is in the yard, Bubba never barks at the neighbors. According to operant conditioning principles, Bubba is demonstrating that he can
discriminate.
During the winter months, Alfred receives a static shock each time he touches his car door when exiting his vehicle. Now Alfred flinches right before he touches the door. What represents the conditioned response?
Flinching before touching the door
_____ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology.
Pavlov
Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges the phases of the classical conditioning process, from first to last?
Acquisition → extinction → spontaneous recovery
_____ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears.
Extinction
Jennifer was stung by a bee several days ago. Now she cries out whenever any flying insect comes too close. Jennifer is demonstrating
generalization.
Some children with seizure problems bang their heads against a wall, causing themselves serious injury. As a result, a psychologist might administer a brief electric shock to such a child every time she bangs her head on the wall. This would be an example of
aversive conditioning.
Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an example?
Positive punishment – Laurel’s mother yells at her when Laurel takes $20 from her mom’s purse
Imagine that you graphed the cumulative number of bar-press responses over time of four rats, each reinforced on a different one of the four schedules of intermittent reinforcement. Each rat’s behavior is graphed on a separate line. The line with the greatest slope should be that displaying the behavior of the rat reinforced on the _____ schedule.
variable-ratio
As part of a behavior modification program, Kendra and her partner each agree to praise the other if she completes her assigned household chores by the end of the day. Such praise is an example of:
secondary reinforcement and positive reinforcement.
A variable-ratio schedule is a schedule:
by which reinforcement occurs after a fluctuating number of responses rather than after a fixed number.
One reason Carlos continues to work at his job is the check he receives every two weeks. Carlos’ paycheck is a _____ reinforcer.
secondary
A(n) _____ reinforcer refers to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus, putting on a sweater when your cold for example, which leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.
negative
A privately funded program pays low-income parents $50 every two months for each child who attends school regularly during that period. This incentive illustrates a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-interval
Dr. Simonelli is a practicing behavior analyst. What does she do?
She specializes in behavior modification techniques.
Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an example?
Negative reinforcement – Jeff puts up his umbrella when it starts to sprinkle so he won’t get wet
Typically long pauses in responding are found in _____ schedules.
fixed-interval
_____ learning occurs without reinforcement.
Latent
The cognitive learning concept of _____ learning is associated most prominently with _____.
latent; Tolman
Recall Tolman’s latent learning experiments in which rats learned to run a maze. What was the critical result?
Rats that began to receive an incentive halfway through the experiment rapidly matched the performance of rats that had been reinforced from the beginning of the experiment.
Some bears kept in captivity allow veterinarians to routinely give them total body checkups. These bears open their mouths for teeth cleaning and present their paws for nail clipping. Your friend wonders how anyone could ever get these dangerous animals to be so cooperative without anesthesia. From your study of psychology, you quickly surmise that the bears have undergone an extensive ________ program.
shaping
In Sweden, it is illegal for parents to spank their children. Since the laws were passed, youth rates of crime have
remained the same.
Which of the following is the response most parents give when asked why they physically punish their children?
The parent was spanked as a child and his or her child also needs strong discipline.
David earns $1,000 every time his sales reach $100,000. For David, the bonus is an example of ________ reinforcement.
positive
If, through experience, you come to the conclusion that all things are beyond your control and therefore you should not even try, you are exhibiting
learned helplessness.
Kayla is selling her Girl Scout cookies in the neighborhood. She never knows how many houses she will have to visit before she sells all of her cookies. Kayla is operating on a ________ schedule.
variable ratio
A worker is paid $25 for every 20 wind chimes that she builds. On which schedule of reinforcement is she being paid?
Fixed ratio
Sheryl makes pleasant small talk and pays her boss a compliment before asking for a personal day, because such a strategy was successful with a few of her previous bosses. This example most clearly illustrates:
stimulus generalization.
A variable-interval schedule is a schedule:
by which the time between reinforcements fluctuates around some average rather than being fixed.
Which of the following scenarios exemplifies negative reinforcement?
Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound.
A fixed-ratio schedule is a schedule:
by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made.
_____ weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus.
Positive punishment
The root of operant conditioning may be traced to _____’s early studies of hungry cats learning to escape from cages.
Thorndike
Which of the following does not accurately reflect a distinction between classical and operant conditioning?
Classical conditioning applies to voluntary behavior, while operant conditioning applies to involuntary behavior.
Ewan is convinced that a woman across the bar is “sending signals.” A learning theorist would term such signals:
discriminative stimuli.
Observational learning is based in part on the activity of _____ neurons in the brain.
mirror
The cognitive learning concept of _____ learning is associated most prominently with _____.
latent; Tolman
_____ learning occurs without reinforcement.
Latent
Gary takes his car to the auto shop for routine maintenance every 3,000 miles. He is trying to avoid a major repair bill in the future. His behavior demonstrates
negative reinforcement.
Matt wants to train his dog, Buster, to sit on command. He gives Buster a doggie biscuit each time Buster sits when commanded, but only for the first 10 trials. He then changes the rules. Buster now has to sit on command three times before he gets a biscuit. Matt first used a ________ schedule, and then a ________ schedule to train Buster.
continuous reinforcement schedule; fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
On the way home from work, you decide to explore a side street that you have passed on several occasions. You are surprised to find that it runs parallel to the expressway. Several weeks later, there is a major accident on your usual travel route so you take this alternate route home. This is an example of ________ learning.
latent
Cecil turns off all the lights in his house to avoid a huge electric bill. Cecil’s behavior is an example of
negative reinforcement.
Which of the following is an example of positive punishment?
Getting scolded
In operant conditioning
the consequences of behavior produce change in the probability of the occurrence of the behavior.
For the past month, Larry has been grounded each time he hits his little brother. Lately, Larry’s misbehavior toward his little brother has decreased. Grounding Larry is an example of
negative punishment.
Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called _____ reinforcers.
primary
Negative reinforcement:`
increases the likelihood that preceding behaviors will be repeated.
“Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated.” This is the law of:
effect.
Learning by watching the behavior of another person, or model is known as _____.
observational learning
Josh has a crush on the girl at the movie rental store. He knows that she works every Thursday afternoon, so he only visits the store on Thursdays. Josh is operating on a ________ schedule.
fixed interval
The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated is called:
reinforcement.
Behavior that is reinforced every time it occurs is said to be on a(n) _____ reinforcement schedule
continuous
_____ punishment consists of the removal of something pleasant.
Negative
Which of the following approaches to treating a phobia is/are CORRECTLY matched with the type of learning it reflects?
Reinforcing client directly by interacting with the feared object – operant conditioning
Kevin used to cry, whine, throw temper tantrums, and eventually start screaming in the department store whenever he wanted a toy. His mother would resist initially but when he would start screaming she would give in. Eventually, Kevin started with the screaming to get his toy. Kevin is demonstrating
the law of effect.
Which of the following is NOT associated with Skinner?
Conditioned stimulus
Four-month-old Simon quickly learns that he will be picked up if he cries. From a behaviorist perspective, picking up Simon whenever he cries is a ________ for the baby.
positive reinforcer
Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?
Candy
Which process determines whether or not an imitated or modeled act will be repeated?
Reinforcement
John is taking an agent that causes nausea every time he smokes a cigarette. This is a form of
aversive conditioning.
Which of the following is an example of negative punishment?
Informing an employee that he has been demoted because of a poor job evaluation.
Which of the following promotions exemplifies the use of a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement?
A café offers its customers a punch card. Each time a patron purchases a beverage, a hole is punched; when ten holes are punched, the patron receives a free beverage.
Sheryl’s parents have told her that she is “grounded” and will not be allowed to watch any television for a week, because she is not completing her assignments on time. This is an example of:
negative punishment.
Dr. DiFonzo notices several students nodding in agreement as he lectures. Subsequently, his rhetoric becomes more confident and more passionate. The students have provided _____ reinforcement.
positive
Which of the following expressions best reflects the capacity of short-term memory?
About seven +/- two chunks
_____ memory is memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts.
Semantic
We look up a number in the phone book, push the book away, and then begin to dial the number. Why do we discourage an interruption during this process?
Information lasts only 15-25 seconds in short-term memory.
Which of the following best describes the effect of stress on working memory capacity?
Stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity.
Long-term potentiation refers to the process whereby:
neural pathways become activated more easily as learning occurs.
Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of stages in the three-stage model of memory?
Sensory memory → short-term memory → long-term memory
The recency effect refers to the fact that:
items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented in the middle of a list.
Rehearsal refers to the:
repetition of information that has entered short-term memory.
Which of the following is true of the neuroscience of memory?
The amygdala is especially involved with memories involving emotion.
A research participant is required to report as much of a poem as he can remember immediately after having read the poem once. We would expect the greatest number of recall errors in lines:
in the middle of the poem.
The activation of information that a person already has in storage is referred to as
priming.
Jacob is a server in a fancy restaurant. He takes orders without writing anything down. Which memory process does he use first?
Selective attention
Margaret fell down her basement stairs and suffered serious injury to her amygdala. What memory problems is she most likely to experience?
Difficulty with emotional memories
You are amazed at how the server in the fancy restaurant accurately remembered all of the orders from you and your 11 friends without writing them down. It is likely that while the server was taking your orders, he
did not notice the woman at the next table who was putting food in her handbag.
Kim was telling her friend about her most recent trip to her grandmother’s house, but was having trouble remembering certain details. Later that month she visited her grandmother again and the details came flooding back. This is an example of
the effects of context on retrieval.
When asked to memorize these 15 letters—C I A C B S A B C F B I I R S—Mary reorganized them into CIA, CBS, ABC, FBI, and IRS. Mary used the tactic of
chunking.
According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the following three systems?
Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
Talking to people about what you have learned is a form of
rehearsal.
You are engrossed in your favorite TV show in the living room. Your roommate yells for you to bring a flyswatter to the kitchen. Vaguely aware that a request is being made of you, you ask your roommate to repeat herself. Before she can reply, however, the sound of the words “bring a flyswatter to the kitchen” play through your mind. This is an example of ________ memory.
echoic
Your mom is always giving you grief about how you surf the Web and send text messages while you are studying. You explain that multitasking does not affect your grades. Is your position supported by the information presented in the textbook?
No; studies have confirmed that individuals do not do well on memory tests of information that was acquired while performing other tasks.
“I know it! It’s um . . . um . . . ,” begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is engaged in a test of her _____ memory.
explicit
Some psychologists consider classical conditioning to be a form of implicit memory. Which of the following is probably the best reason for suggesting that classical conditioning is a type of implicit memory?
Classical conditioning occurs outside awareness.
“I know it! It’s um . . . um . . . It starts with ‘G’,” begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is falling prey to the _____ effect.
tip-of-the-tongue
According to the levels-of-processing theory, which of the following students should retrieve information more successfully on classroom tests?
Irene, who pays close attention to what is taught in class
_____ is a memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives.
Recognition
_____ amnesia occurs when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he or she encountered it.
Source
Ralph is preparing a report on his academic field trip to a manufacturing plant. He is trying to remember each event of the trip in the order in which it occurred to prepare an accurate report in a presentable form. Which of the following memory tasks is Ralph using?
Recall
During a conversation, Jerry told his friend that their favorite rock band was coming to perform in their city. However, he could not remember the medium through which he got the information about the show. Jerry was experiencing:
source amnesia.
Chad is puzzling over a difficult question on a multiple-choice sociology test. He re-reads the question, scans the options beneath the question, and glances at other questions on the test. Most likely, Chad is looking for:
retrieval cues.
With respect to the potential influence of a written language on the recall ability of a culture’s members, research has:
revealed that a written language probably has little influence on people’s memory ability.
Pierre has been an alcoholic for several decades. Now in his 50s, his intellectual abilities are intact, but he suffers from memory deficits and hallucinations. Based on this information, you suspect that Pierre may be afflicted with:
Korsakoff’s syndrome.
Jerry is at a party. He is introduced to three different people in the span of a moment. Later, he is approached by the first person he met and cannot remember her name. Which of the following is most likely the source of Jerry’s difficulty?
Jerry failed to encode the woman’s name.
In _____ amnesia, memory is lost for events preceding an injury or accident; in _____ amnesia, memory is lost for events following an injury or accident.
retrograde; anterograde
Owen has trouble remembering a friend’s new phone number; he keeps recalling the old number instead. Completing a rental application, Pippa finds she can’t recall one of her previous addresses, as she’s had several addresses since. Owen is experiencing _____ interference; Pippa is experiencing _____.
proactive; retroactive interference
In _____ interference, information learned earlier disrupts the recall of information learned more recently; in _____ interference, recently learned information disrupts the recall of information learned earlier.
proactive; retroactive
Eyewitness accounts of crimes are
prone to errors.
Encoding failure occurs when
the information was never entered into long-term memory.
A few years ago, you had a boyfriend named Phil. Now, you have a new boyfriend named Stephen. Because of ________, you sometimes call Stephen by the wrong name.
proactive interference
Shauna is an excellent student. She rewrites her class notes after each class. Rewriting her notes is a form of memory
rehearsal.
An individual’s autobiographical memory forms the core of the individual’s
personal identity.
The conscious repetition of information to ensure its survival in short-term memory is termed _____ rehearsal.
elaborative
The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information is known as _____.
memory
_____ memory is memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts.
Semantic
On your computer desktop, you can see all sorts of different files, each immediately accessible. Because you are actively working on them, and because you can open them whenever you want, these files are in fact very similar to the kind of information held in:
working memory.
Which of the following is true of the neuroscience of memory?
The amygdala is especially involved with memories involving emotion.
In John’s favorite picture, he is riding with his father on a lawn mower. John also likes the smell of freshly mowed grass. Which of the following cues do you predict will elicit the strongest emotional memory in John?
Smell of freshly cut grass
You most likely store the seven-digit phone number from your previous address in ________ memory.
long-term
Your mom is always giving you grief about how you surf the Web and send text messages while you are studying. You explain that multitasking does not affect your grades. Is your position supported by the information presented in the textbook?
No; studies have confirmed that individuals do not do well on memory tests of information that was acquired while performing other tasks.
Your roommate, Rhiana, asks your advice on how to best study for her final exams. Because of your knowledge of context dependent memory, you recommend that she study
quietly in the classroom in which she is to take her exam.
Kim was telling her friend about her most recent trip to her grandmother’s house, but was having trouble remembering certain details. Later that month she visited her grandmother again and the details came flooding back. This is an example of
the effects of context on retrieval.
Christopher clearly remembers that he was practicing his dialogues for his school play when he heard that the governor of his state had been assassinated. This is an example of a(n) _____ memory.
flashbulb
The idea that disturbing memories may be repressed derives from:
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
Mickey is about to take his psychology final. Just before the exam, the person sitting next to Mickey asks him the name of the physiologist who worked on classical conditioning. Mickey suddenly realizes that he cannot quite remember the name, but he knows that it starts with a P and is two syllables long. Mickey is experiencing:
the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
Which of the following is true of the levels-of-processing theory?
At an intermediate level of processing, information is translated into meaningful units.
_____ is a process in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events.
Constructive process
Which of the following best describes the results of Ebbinghaus’s work on forgetting?
You’ll forget most of it right away, and you’ll keep on forgetting more of it, though at a slower rate.
According to Hermann Ebbinghaus,
most forgetting occurs soon after we originally learned something.
An individual’s autobiographical memory forms the core of the individual’s
personal identity.
You are taking both Spanish and French this semester. As you study the vocabulary words for your French test, you realize that the French words are disrupting the memory of the Spanish vocabulary words you studied last week. This is an example of
proactive interference.
In a _____ heuristic, known items are seen as superior to those that are unknown.
familiarity
Syllogisms are used to study:
reasoning.
_____ intelligence is the field that examines how to use technology to imitate the outcome of human thinking, problem solving, and creative activities.
Artificial
Which of the following terms best captures the meaning of the term heuristic, as cognitive psychologists use it?
Strategy
When you use the representativeness heuristic, you are:
assuming that something is typical of its class.
A rule that guarantees the solution to a problem when it is correctly applied is termed as a(n):
algorithm.
Which of the following is true about mental images?
They are representations in the mind of an object or event.
Which of the following most likely makes use of heuristics?
An article by a Nobel Prize winner titled “How to Succeed in Science”
Clint is mentally rehearsing his golf swing in his mind’s eye. Based on the text’s discussion of mental imagery, which of the following statements is MOST accurate?
Clint’s mental rehearsal should improve his golf swing. Carrying out the task involves the same network of brain cells as the network used in mentally rehearsing it.
The _____ heuristic involves judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory.
availability
Which of the following would NOT be a defining property of the prototype of an airplane?
It is silver.
What is the main difference between an algorithm and a heuristic?
An algorithm always leads to a correct solution, while a heuristic does not.
Maria is extremely active in politics. She has strong conservative beliefs about what is correct and what is not. Each day when she reads the newspaper, she pays close attention to the editorial section in particular. According to confirmation bias, what will she do when she reads them?
She will only read the editorials that she agrees with.
You would be most likely to seek out information that refutes your hypothesis when you engage in
critical thinking.
Creative thinkers are NOT usually
motivated by the feedback of others.
After the outcome of an election is announced, you state that you knew all along what the outcome would be. This is a form of
hindsight bias.
Cathy just got transferred to a new department. She has long believed that her new supervisor is a cranky, disagreeable person. According to confirmation bias, what will Cathy most likely do on her first day in the new supervisor’s department?
She will look for negative behaviors on the part of the supervisor.
Being receptive to other ways of looking at things is best described as
open-mindedness.
You have to cook dinner for 30 people on Saturday of this coming weekend. Your apartment is a mess, and you have nothing to wear. You decide to do your laundry Thursday night, buy the groceries on Friday, clean the apartment Saturday morning, and cook the dinner Saturday evening. This process of defining intermediate problems is known as
creating subgoals.
Your roommate argues that computers can perform several complex tasks better and more accurately than humans. You counter her argument with the mention of ___________, a task that only humans can perform.
developing new learning goals
_____ psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of higher mental processes, including thinking, language, memory, problem solving, knowing, reasoning, and judging.
Cognitive
When you go to the supermarket, you see the brand of cookies you usually buy, and settle for it. Usually it’s a good rule of thumb, because it saves a lot of time. You do not ponder over every type of cookie available in the store. This is an example of a(n) _____.
familiarity heuristic
Formal reasoning in which people draw a conclusion from a set of assumptions is known as _____ reasoning.
syllogistic
The _____ heuristic involves judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory.
availability
“You always clam up when I ask you what’s wrong,” Iris tells her boyfriend. Iris is probably making this frequency judgment because she can remember a few times that her boyfriend wouldn’t tell her what was bothering him. Iris is using the _____ heuristic.
availability
An effective way to strategize your organization of subgoals is to
work backward in your planning.
When comparing algorithms and heuristics, what is a potential advantage of using heuristics for solving real-life problems?
Convenience
Which activity probably requires mindfulness?
Studying psychology
Someone relying on convergent thinking would answer _____ to the query “What can you do with a toothbrush?”
“You brush your teeth with it”
_____ is defined as a sudden awareness of the relationship among problem elements; it is thought to lead rapidly to the problem’s solution.
Insight
A jeweler is unable to fix a particular mounting in a ring because she can imagine only the conventional uses for her tools. This best demonstrates which of the following?
Functional fixedness
Millie is stumped by a problem in her pre-calculus text. She furtively glances at the answer provided in the back of the text to get an idea of how the solution should look before she returns to the problem. Millie’s strategy most closely resembles the problem-solving heuristic of:
working backward.
Nigel often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports; he appears to ignore editorials critical of the candidate. Nigel appears prone to:
the confirmation bias.
_____ refers to the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist.
Mental set
The text’s discussion of insight suggests that its key characteristic is its:
suddenness.
Which of the following is true of creativity?
Cognitive complexity is an important aspect of creativity.
The ability to generate original ideas or develop novel solutions to problems is known as:
creativity.
The _____ hypothesis suggests language leads to thought.
linguistic-relativity
Which of the following sequences correctly orders the components of language, from the smallest or most specific to the broadest?
Phoneme → syntax → semantics
Approximately how many phonemes are found in English?
52
The text reports the case of a girl named Genie, who was exposed to virtually no language from the age of 20 months until the age of 13. In what way does Genie’s case offer support for the notion of a critical period in language acquisition?
Even with intensive instruction, Genie acquired only a very small vocabulary after the age of 13; furthermore, she never mastered the complexities of language.
Linguists have identified more than _____ different phonemes among all the world’s languages.
more than 800
Phonology is the study of:
speech sounds.
Connie is telling her mother a story about a scary dog she encountered in a neighbor’s yard. “Then I runned away,” Connie concludes. Which language acquisition phenomenon is Connie demonstrating? About how old is Connie?
Connie is overgeneralizing. She is probably 3-4 years old.
Theorists taking an interactionist approach to language acquisition:
agree that the brain is hardwired to acquire language.
The bicycle talked the boy into buying a candy bar. This sentence is
syntactically correct but semantically incorrect.
The term universal linguist refers to the idea that
infants can distinguish all of the sounds that make up human speech.
You tell your roommate, “I misplaced my wallet.” Your roommate exclaims, “Oh my goodness, you lost your wallet?” You respond, “No, I didn’t lose my wallet, I misplaced it.” This exchange best demonstrates the ________ aspect of language.
semantic
Mental representations of objects are called _____; mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people are called _____.
images; concepts
Which of the following is TRUE of heuristics?
Heuristics represent commonly used approaches to the solution of a problem.
Although used often, the comparison between the computer and human information processing is oversimplified. Why?
Computer information input is precoded and ambiguities are removed before processing.
Samantha’s belief that Gabe, who is muscular and wearing gym shorts, is a member of the football team is an example of
the representativeness heuristic.
The study of insight is associated with the German psychologist _____; he studied problem solving among _____.
Kohler; chimpanzees
As compared to less creative individuals, creative persons:
prefer more complex stimuli.
In written language, letters most closely represent _____, whereas sentences may be said to reflect _____.
phonemes; syntax
In _____, students are educated in their native language and in English simultaneously; in _____, they are educated only in English.
bilingual education; immersion programs
What is meant by the notion of a critical period for language acquisition?
It is the time in one’s childhood in which a child is particularly sensitive to language cues and most easily acquires language.
The term universal linguist refers to the idea that
infants can distinguish all of the sounds that make up human speech.
Infinite generativity refers to the ability to
create unlimited numbers of meaningful sentences.
Many smokers like to point to the late George Burns, a famous actor who smoked cigars continuously for many years and lived to be nearly 100, as evidence that smoking is relatively harmless. These individuals tend to ignore the thousands of people who die every year from lung cancer. They are utilizing
confirmation bias.
The fact that we hear about airplane crashes on the news more often than we hear about automobile crashes may lead us to believe that we are more likely to die in a plane than a car. This is an example of a(n)
availability heuristic.
Thomas Edison invented the lightbulb only because he experimented with thousands of different kinds of materials for a filament before he found one that worked (carbon). This shows that at the most basic level, we can solve problems through _____.
trial and error
The theory that language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioning is known as the _____ approach.
learning-theory
Contemporary tests of intelligence are in widespread use in the United States EXCEPT the:
Spearman G Scale.
Early theorists such as Spearman argued that g represented general intelligence. According to these theorists, individuals high in g:
have an advantage in every intellectual endeavor.
According to Sternberg, intelligence related to overall success in living is known as _____ intelligence.
practical
In the introduction to its discussion of intelligence, your text suggests that conceptions of intelligence vary cross-culturally. To the Trukese of the South Pacific, for example, intelligence may mean the ability to navigate on the open water without technological assistance; to an American high schooler, it may mean the ability to score well on standardized tests of academic achievement and aptitude. Nevertheless, one element of the understanding of intelligence that is consistent across culture is:
the ability to use the resources provided by one’s environment.
The g-factor is:
a broad factor that supports every aspect of intelligence.
A researcher develops a questionnaire to assess the personality trait of impulsivity among adults. In a journal article, she presents evidence that college students tend to get essentially the same score if they take the test twice, two months apart. She also presents the average score, the highest score, and the lowest score obtained by two large samples: one of 2,000 college students, and one of 750 community-dwelling noncollege adults. However, when you look at the sample questionnaire items she included in the article, it seems to you that they relate more to whether a person is sociable, outgoing, and fun than to whether an individual is impulsive. You are questioning the _____ of the researcher’s questionnaire.
validity
Below are several statements about the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Which statement is CORRECTLY identified as false?
The same items are used for test-takers of different ages – False
The property by which tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure is known as _____.
reliability
The three types of intelligence proposed by Sternberg include each of the following except _____ intelligence.
logical
An online intelligence test yields a different IQ each time you take it. The test is:
not reliable, and probably not valid either.
Traditional tests were designed to relate to _____.
academic success
The practical problem Alfred Binet was trying to solve when he developed his intelligence test was:
identifying slow learners for remedial aid.
Peyton has an IQ score of 60. Although her development was typically slower than that of her peers, she is now able to hold a job and will soon start a family of her own. Peyton is most probably:
mildly retarded.
Terman’s long-term study of the intellectually gifted found that they tend to be:
outgoing.
Which of the following alternatives offers the most accurate assessment of the origin of familial retardation in nature on the one hand, or nurture on the other?
We do not know the extent to which familial retardation reflects nature and nurture.
Imagine that American children and African children are asked to memorize the locations of objects on a chessboard. In one condition, the objects are rocks; in the other, they are household objects common in the West. What might you predict regarding the children’s performance?
The performance of the African children will exceed that of the American children when the objects are rocks but not when they are Western household objects.
A test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group is termed as a _____ test.
culture-fair
Which theory of intelligence is best suited to explain the abilities of individuals with savant syndrome, or individuals with extremely high levels of intelligence in one area and virtually little or none in other areas?
Gardener
Dr. Ambrose feels that a particular intelligence test is probably culturally biased. Which of the following test questions would concern Dr. Ambrose the most?
In which month of the year is the Super Bowl played?
If an intelligence test produces the same score over multiple administrations but it does not accurately measure intelligence, then the test is ___________ but not ___________.
reliable; valid
Which of the following is true of academic success and career success?
Academic success and career success are based on two different types of intelligence.
Studies of changes in intelligence as a function of aging suggest that:
fluid intelligence tends to decline with age in adults.
Which of the following is true about tests?
Test validity and reliability are prerequisites for accurate assessment of intelligence.
Etta is taking an intelligence test based on Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory. How is Etta’s performance likely to be scored?
She will receive a score for each of eight types of intelligence.
Which of the following best expresses the distinction between the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV?
The WAIS-IV is used to test adult intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is used to test children’s intelligence.
In what way do current theories of intelligence differ from those offered earlier in psychology’s history?
Contemporary theories propose that there may be many multiple forms of intelligence, rather than just one.
Early theorists inferred the existence of a general intelligence g factor from:
the positive correlations among tests of different intellectual skills.
The _____ area of the brain is critical to juggling many pieces of information simultaneously and solving new problems.
lateral prefrontal cortex
About 95% of the population have an IQ score between _____ and _____.
70; 130
The IQ of intellectually gifted individuals is _____.
130 or above
Peyton has an IQ score of 60. Although her development was typically slower than that of her peers, she is now able to hold a job and will soon start a family of her own. Peyton is most probably:
mildly retarded.
Intellectual disability in which no apparent biological defect exists but there is a history of it in the kin is known as _____ retardation.
familial
Based on the text’s discussion of the Flynn effect, how might the IQ of the average 18-year-old today compare with that of his/her counterpart 60 years ago?
The IQ score of the average 18-year-old today is about 15 points higher than that of his/her counterpart 60 years ago.
Jorge’s parents talked and communicated with him a great deal from the time he was born. Based on the research in the text, which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to Jorge’s IQ?
The stimulation provided by Jorge’s parents will positively affect his IQ.
Most subjects in Terman’s study were
doctors, lawyers, and businesspeople.
Which theory of intelligence is best suited to explain the abilities of individuals with savant syndrome, or individuals with extremely high levels of intelligence in one area and virtually little or none in other areas?
Gardener
_____ intelligence is the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of one’s mental state.
Emotional
Collectivist cultures, such as Taiwan’s, place a high priority on how individuals relate to each other. It might be reasonable to hypothesize that Taiwanese adults might outscore American adults on a test of Gardner’s _____ intelligence.
interpersonal
Gardner’s theory includes each of the following types of intelligence EXCEPT:
tacit intelligence.
In contrast to _____, _____ is more a reflection of the culture in which a person is raised.
fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence
Intellectual disability in which no apparent biological defect exists but there is a history of it in the kin is known as _____ retardation.
familial
Terman’s long-term study of the intellectually gifted found that they tend to be:
outgoing
Challenges to writing culturally fair test questions include ___________ factors.
All of these.
(time, language, experience)
The batting averages of major league baseball players have shown a steady increase over the last 30 years. This parallels which observation made from the world of intelligence testing?
Flynn effect
The practical problem Alfred Binet was trying to solve when he developed his intelligence test was:
identifying slow learners for remedial aid.
According to the text, a positive feature of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences is:
that it has led to the development of intelligence tests that allow test takers to be creative.
Knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself is termed as _____.
intrapersonal intelligence
Ashley, a psychology major, remarks that she has become interested in the study of intelligence. In other words, Ashley is interested in:
the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively.
_____ refers to skills involved in the production and use of language.
_____ refers to skills involved in the production and use of language.
People who are high in _____ intelligence are able to learn general norms and principles and apply them appropriately.
practical
Higher intelligence is related to the thickness of the _____.
cerebral cortex
Imagine that overall, 6-year-olds can complete a particular block design puzzle in 5 minutes. It takes Bailey almost 8 minutes to complete the task. In Binet’s terms, Bailey’s _____ age is _____ than 6.
mental; lower
Dancers, athletes, actors, and surgeons display:
bodily kinesthetic intelligence.
Based on the text’s discussion, which of the following alternatives best captures the difference, if any, between the terms mental retardation and intellectual disability?
Intellectual disability is becoming the preferred term, while mental retardation is the traditional term.
Which of the following alternatives offers the most accurate assessment of the origin of familial retardation in nature on the one hand, or nurture on the other?
We do not know the extent to which familial retardation reflects nature and nurture.
The inclusive philosophy behind the educational mainstreaming of mentally retarded individuals reflects federal laws passed in the:
mid-1970s.
Which of the following is true of full inclusion?
Full inclusion is a controversial practice.
Regarding the integration of mentally retarded students into regular classrooms, which of the following statements is true?
In full inclusion programs, mentally retarded students are integrated into regular classroom activities to a greater extent than in the case of mainstreaming.
In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray argued that:
the IQ gap between Caucasian and African Americans reflects genetics.
You have been asked to review a set of test items that are being considered for a standardized intelligence test. The test constructors want to eliminate all items that contain any possible cultural bias. With this task in mind, which of the following questions would you eliminate first?
What is the name of the main character in The Wizard of Oz?
The new term for “mental retardation” is
intellectual disability.
A psychologist has developed a new test to measure the verbal ability of third graders. To determine the range of scores (and what is a good and bad score), he gives the test to 10,000 third graders. In the future, he will compare the performance of others to this reference group. This process of determining meaningful scores establishes testing
norms.
Dhiraj has an insightful mind and excels at solving new types of problems with unique solutions. Which of Sternberg’s intelligences would best explain this?
Creative
The formula for the intelligence quotient as Binet defined it is:
MA/CA x 100.
In approximately _____ of the cases of mental retardation there is an identifiable biological cause; the most common of these is _____.
one-third; fetal alcohol syndrome
Which of the major intelligence concepts described in your text is CORRECTLY matched with a description?
Crystallized intelligence – information, skills, and strategies learned through experience
Society’s view of the ideal body:
varies from one culture to another.
Charlotte meets Will, an old high school friend, at a party and is startled to learn his weight increased from 150 to 280 pounds in the year since his automobile accident. Damage to which hypothalamic nucleus might account for his weight gain?
Ventromedial
The _____ is an interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people.
need for affiliation
When is the set point for weight established during an individual’s life?
During the first year of life
Which figure best approximates the number of people in the United States who are overweight?
200 million
_____ is the rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body.
Metabolism
Does drive theory offer a comprehensive account of motivation? Why or why not?
No. Drive theory offers a satisfactory explanation of physiological motives, but fails to account for more psychologically oriented motives.
The arousal approach to motivation suggests that:
if levels of stimulation and activity are too low, we will try to increase them by seeking stimulation.
What is homeostasis?
A built-in tendency to regulate bodily conditions
_____ approaches to motivation emphasize the appealing properties of external objects or goals.
Incentive
Motivational tension that energizes behavior to fulfill a need is termed a(n):
drive
Incentive approaches to motivation are:
theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals.
According to self-determination theory, _____ is the need to produce desired outcomes.
competence
A marathon runner would best be served by eating ________ prior to a race.
lasagna
Learning to perform a task so well that it becomes automatic is referred to as
overlearning.
The act of going to the refrigerator because you are hungry best represents a(n)
drive.
Paris thinks her best friend, Nicole, may be suffering from an undiagnosed case of anorexia nervosa. She shares her concerns with Nicole, but Nicole insists that anorexia nervosa is “no big deal.” What is the most serious consequence of anorexia nervosa?
It has the highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder.
If you had to write a research paper on Maslow’s hierarchy of motives, which of the following titles would you choose to capture the essence of Maslow’s theory?
“Be all that you can be, from eating right to feeling content.”
According to Maslow, before you can feel safe, you need to
be satisfied physically.
While free breakfast and lunches provided at school are an attempt to satisfy one of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, students may still fail to achieve unless they
feel safe at school.
With respect to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, more recent research:
has disconfirmed the idea that emotional experiences are controlled by the thalamus.
The _____, a limbic system structure, is strongly involved in our experience of emotion.
amygdala
Hakiro, a Japanese, reports experiencing hagaii. He is experiencing a:
mood of vulnerable heartache colored by frustration.
One of Cannon’s major objections to the James-Lange theory of emotion was that:
physiological arousal alone leads to the perception of emotion.
According to the text, the functions of emotions include which of the following?
Helping us interact more effectively with others
According to the facial-feedback hypothesis:
facial expressions can actually determine our emotional experience.
“Fight-or-flight” responses entail activity of the _____ nervous system.
sympathetic
According to the _____ theory of emotion, emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation.
James-Lange
Sarah, from Tahiti, reports experiencing musu. She is experiencing a:
feeling of reluctance to yield to unreasonable demands made by one’s parents.
According to the two-factor theory, if Shelby wants her boyfriend to find her more attractive, she should approach him after
bungee jumping.
Tim and Margaret are enjoying a picnic on the edge of a large forest. Suddenly, a huge black bear invades their space and heads for the picnic basket. According to the James Lange theory of emotions, the couple will
run away and then experience the emotion of fear as a result of the physical changes in their bodies.
Which of the following theories is best supported by the facial feedback hypothesis?
James-Lang
A professor conducts an experiment in which she asks her students to either hold a pen between their teeth or hold a pen between their lips. After five minutes, she finds that the students who held the pen between their teeth reported being happier than those who held it between their lips. These results most strongly support the
facial feedback hypothesis.
Which of the following are included in the definition of emotion?
All of these
Which of the following best describes the male participants’ thoughts/feelings regarding the female experimenter in the Capilano River Bridge Experiment?
Men found the experimenter on the high bridge more sexually attractive than the one on the low bridge.
Polygraph examiners can
record physiological responses.
“It seemed like the two cars crossed the finish line at exactly the same time,” the commentator yelled. Which theory of emotion most closely resembles this outcome?
Cannon-Bard
The most effective element of the polygraph test lies in the
belief it is accurate in detecting deception.
According to the James-Lange theory of emotions, crying over spilled milk will result in
sorrow because you are crying.
Which alternative below correctly identifies one of the results in Schachter and Singer’s experiment?
The confederate’s behavior had the expected effect on participants’ emotional state.
As many as _____ of women suffer from bulimia at some point in their lives.
10%
_____ leads the body to store excess sugar in the blood as fats and carbohydrates.
Insulin
Drive-reduction approaches first appeared in the psychology of motivation in the:
1940s.
Cognitive approaches to motivation are:
theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people’s thoughts, expectations, and goal.
_____ refers to the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms.
Motivation
According to self-determination theory, _____ is the perception that we have control over our own lives.
autonomy
You stayed up all night to study for a math exam. After the test, you returned to your dorm room and slept for seven hours. Your sleeping behavior was regulated by the body’s tendency to maintain
homeostasis.
After watching an episode of the Dr. Phil TV show, Shanae wonders why anyone would want to air their interpersonal dirty laundry in front of 70 million viewers. Shanae is most likely wondering about the ________ of Dr. Phil’s guests.
motivation
After being in a car accident, Sally’s ventromedial hypothalamus was severely damaged. She should expect that she will
gain weight rapidly.
Dr. Know-It-All hosts a TV talk show. One of his guests, Joe College, complains of his intense annoyance with people who talk on their cell phones while driving. Joe asks Dr. Know-It-All to explain why he reacts so strongly to this type of situation. Dr. Know-It-All immediately pronounces that Joe has an instinct for cell phone irritation. Is Dr. Know-It-All correct to assume that instinct is the cause of Joe’s behavior?
No-most behavior is too complex to be explained on the basis of instinct.
Dr. Lynch shows a) members of a preliterate Andean culture and b) American college students a series of photos of either Andeans or Americans displaying emotional expressions. She asks Andeans and Americans to identify the emotion displayed in each photo. Based on previous research, what might Dr. Lynch predict?
Participants should identify emotions accurately both when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group and when they are displayed by members of the other group.
What is the main problem with using polygraph results as an indication of whether or not a person is lying?
Different emotions can cause the same physiological changes.
Each semester, during advising week, Dylan asks his faculty advisor to identify the easiest courses and teachers that would satisfy his degree requirements. Dylan’s need for achievement is probably:
low.
The _____ is a tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others and to be seen as an influential individual.
need for power
What is homeostasis?
A built-in tendency to regulate bodily conditions
Which of the following is true of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?
In some cases providing rewards for desirable behavior actually may decrease intrinsic motivation.
Paige is an expert at golf and is bored by the thought of the upcoming tournament. Mary is pretty good at golf and is somewhat excited but not overly anxious about the tournament. Sara has only recently learned to play but has very high expectations and is really nervous about the tournament. Jenna is also a beginner but she does not expect to play well. According to optimum arousal theory, who will perform the best?
Mary
The concept of visceral experience can be attributed to which of the following theories of emotion?
James-Lange
How often should you exercise?
At least 30 consecutive minutes, three times each week
Dr. Fiore conducts a study in which two groups of participants work on challenging puzzles: one group is extrinsically motivated whereas the other is intrinsically motivated. Thus, one group is paid for its participation, while the other is not. Dr. Fiore records the length of time each participant spent working on the puzzle and how enjoyable each participant rated the puzzle. Based on the text’s discussion of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, what might you expect?
The paid group would not work as long on the puzzle and like it less than the unpaid group.
“Dance like no one’s watching. Work like you don’t need the money. Love like you’ve never been hurt,” exhorts a sign on Dr. Elliott’s office door. This sign underscores the importance of _____ motivation.
intrinsic
Ray played basketball all of his life because he loved the sport. He became so good that he was given the opportunity to play professionally and eventually he signed a very lucrative contract. After that contract ran out, the team offered him slightly more money, but he decided that it was not enough. Which of the following best explains Ray’s behavior from a motivational perspective?
The extrinsic motivation had replaced Ray’s intrinsic motivation to play.
According to Maslow, Kenny probably has trouble committing to a relationship because
his expectations are too high.
Which of the following individuals is most at risk for developing anorexia nervosa?
Jill is 17 and lives in the suburbs.
Which of the following is most related to extrinsic motivation?
Reward
_____ is a severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance—which can become skeleton-like—are unusual.
Anorexia nervosa
According to self-determination theory, _____ is the need to be involved in close, warm relationships with others.
relatedness
Which approach to motivation is CORRECTLY paired with a behavior to which it is especially appropriate?
Drive-reduction—eating
Danielle is a normal weight female, whereas Ron is an obese male. Whenever Danielle and Ron go out to dinner together, Ron always eats more food. Ron, a psychology major, correctly explains this difference in food intake by pointing out that
he has more fat cells than Danielle and he is not satiated until all his fat cells are full.
The impact of extrinsic motivation depends on
the behavior being rewarded.
“I am so tired of dieting. It seems like it controls my life. I wonder what my real weight would be if I just ate only when I’m hungry.” This dieter is curious about her
set point.
Though her weight is normal, Ashley is terrified of becoming heavy. She knows she should stick to a healthy diet, but she often consumes huge servings of junk food—up to 5,000 calories in one sitting. Desperate to keep from gaining weight, she then uses laxatives and diuretics to purge the calories. Ashley is suffering from
bulimia nervosa.
Marsha does a good job because she knows her performance will result in a bonus if she meets her goals. Dianna does an adequate job but lacks motivation to perform in a timely manner. Georgia does a good job because she feels a sense of accomplishment when she meets her goals. All three women do the same kind of work. Who is likely to be the most competent?
Georgia
Max, a German, reports experiencing schadenfreude. He is experiencing a:
feeling of pleasure over another person’s difficulties.
Which of the following sequences best expresses the order in which the needs in Maslow’s pyramid must be fulfilled, from the first to the last?
Physiological and safety → love and belongingness → esteem → self-actualization
Females are often thought to outshine males on verbal tasks. What does contemporary empirical evidence have to say with respect to this notion?
It’s a myth—there’s basically no difference between men and women in verbal performance.
Gender _____ include the set of expectations regarding the appropriate behavior of men, on the one hand, and women, on the other.
roles
The influence of formal education as an agent of gender socialization:
continues even during the college years.
On average, in the United States, a woman earns about _____ for every dollar that a man earns.
$0.80
When does the male-female difference in the level of aggression become apparent?
By age 2
Amelia is having a sexual intercourse with her husband; her breasts and vagina are expanding and her breathing rate has increased. Also, her muscle tension is increasing as she is preparing for orgasm. Amelia is in the middle which of the following phases of sexual responsiveness?
Plateau phase
Which alternative below best describes the method used in Masters’ and Johnson’s pioneering sexual response cycle research?
Controlled laboratory research
Which of the following describes the refractory period?
The interval after orgasm in which the body returns to its unaroused state, reversing the changes brought about by arousal
Male sex hormones secreted by the testes at puberty are known as _____.
androgens
The evolutionary perspective predicts that, compared to men, women will be
more selective when choosing a mate.
________ are glands that produce sex hormones and generate ova in females and sperm in males.
Gonads
Carolina tells her friends that she helps take care of her little brother because that is what girls are supposed to do. Carolina’s statement describes her
gender role.
With respect to the potential genetic basis of homosexuality, studies of identical twins have revealed that when one twin self-identifies as gay or lesbian:
the other twin is more likely to self-identify as gay or lesbian than is a random member of the population, even when the twins were raised apart.
Sadie can only achieve an orgasm when she masturbates; she is unable to have an orgasm when she has sex with her partner. Sadie suffers from:
anorgasmia.
Kinsey’s early studies of human sexual behavior exemplify the _____ research technique.
survey
_____ are people who believe they were born with the body of the other gender.
Transsexuals
Sexual behavior is abnormal if it is:
harmful.
The occurrence of homosexuality ranges from ________ percent of the population.
2 to 10
The vast majority of “tomboys” turn out to be
heterosexual.
Melissa is attracted to members of the opposite sex. She is considered to be
heterosexual.
Which alternative best expresses the proportion of men who experience problems associated with sexual performance?
One-third
Drug therapy may successfully treat _____; learning or cognitive therapies are useful in cases of _____.
erectile dysfunction; premature or inhibited ejaculation
A 2011 survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that, there is a _____ chance that a woman will be a victim of a rape within her lifetime; approximately one _____ of rapes and sexual assaults are reported.
20%; third
Sexual self-stimulation is known as _____.
masturbation
Inhibited sexual desire refers to:
sexual dysfunction in which the motivation for sexual activity is restrained or lacking entirely.
Most experts suggest that _____ of both men and women are exclusively gay or lesbian during extended periods of their lives.
5%-10%
Which of the following is true of transsexualism?
A transsexual can seek sex-change operations in which their existing genitals are surgically removed and the genitals of the desired sex are fashioned.
Which of the following factors predicts sexual orientation?
None of these
Which is the correct definition of sexual behavior?
All of these
(activities that are involved in reproduction, activities that lead to arousal and a sexual response, activities that are pleasurable to a specific individual)
The ________ phase of human sexual response begins the process of erotic responsiveness.
excitement
Leslie has two mothers. We can expect that Leslie will
be relatively unaffected.
Based on research, the most effective type of sex education is a(n)
comprehensive program.
The direction of one’s erotic interests refers to a person’s
sexual orientation.
In regards to parenting, the best predictor of good psychological adjustment in adolescence is having
a close relationship with parents.
Patterns for how people should behave sexually are called
sexual scripts.
Identify the accurate statement regarding men’s verbal and nonverbal behavior.
In conversations with people of the other sex, men look at their partners about the same length of time while listening and speaking.
A _____ refers to a mental framework that organizes and guides a child’s understanding of information relevant to gender.
gender schema
The female protagonist of a novel is a brave and ferocious woman who fights wars and saves the people of her motherland. From this information, one can infer that the novel does not include the stereotypical aspects of _____.
socialization
In which part of the world is gender equality the highest?
Iceland
Gender _____ include the set of expectations regarding the appropriate behavior of men, on the one hand, and women, on the other.
roles
Which of the following is true about differences between men and women?
Men and women are more similar to one another in most respects than dissimilar.
Hines, Fink, and Alexander studied a group of children whose mothers accidentally took drugs containing androgen, a hormone, prior to their birth. They related this concentration of the hormone to the play preferences of the same children. Which of the following alternatives best expresses the results of the study?
For both boys and girls, androgen was positively related to male-typical play preferences.
Men are capable of sexual activities without any regard to biological cycles because:
the level of androgen production by the testes is fairly constant.
Androgen is to estrogen as _____ is to _____.
testes; ovaries
During which of the following phases of sexual responsiveness do the penis and clitoris swell with blood?
Plateau phase
Approximately _____ of people entertain sexual fantasies during intercourse; _____, these fantasies involve someone other than the current sexual partner.
60%; often
Female circumcision:
involves removing the clitoris.
The male and female sex organs are known as _____.
genitals
The body’s erogenous zones:
are especially sensitive to touch.
The period in which an arousing stimulus begins a sequence that prepares the genitals for sexual intercourse is called the _____ phase.
excitement
In females, the small sensory organ located where the labia meet is called the
clitoris.
________ occurs among members of the same sex as they vie for the opportunity to mate with members of the opposite sex.
Competition
According to Darwin, ________ drives sexual selection.
competition
As compared to Piaget, Vygotsky placed _____ emphasis on the _____ bases of cognitive development.
more; social
Which of the following Swiss scholars had suggested in the 1970s that children around the world proceed through a series of four stages in a fixed order?
Piaget
Two children are participating in a memory research: Heather, a preschooler, and Illeana, a sixth-grader. When the children fail a recall task, the researcher asks each child what she might do to succeed at the task the next time. Heather suggests that she would simply try again; Illeana proposes that she might try to write the items down. The difference in the girls’ responses most clearly illustrates an increase in _____ during childhood.
metacognitive ability
Which infant reflex is CORRECTLY matched with its description?
Babinski reflex; an infant’s toes fan out when the edge of the sole of the foot is stroked
Mazie’s mom is loving and nurturing, sets clear boundaries, and engages in a lot of verbal give and take. In terms of parenting styles, she would be described as
authoritative.
The nurture side of the nature vs. nurture debate refers to
experience.
In Piaget’s cognitive development theory, the ___________ stage occurs during the period of infancy.
sensorimotor
A cross-sectional study is one in which
different age groups are tested at the same time.
The difference between cross-sectional research design and longitudinal research designs is that:
Longitudinal studies assess change in behavior over time, whereas cross-sectional studies assess differences among groups of people.
Dr. Edward is testing the same individuals repeatedly over time as part of a research study, while Dr. Janice is comparing the performance of different people of various ages at the same time. Dr. Irwin is using a _____ research design; Dr. Jenner is using a _____ design.
longitudinal; cross-sectional
The one-celled entity formed by the union of an egg and sperm is called a:
zygote.
Clarissa’s mother was thirty-eight years old when she gave birth to her. Clarissa suffers from an intellectual disability and doctors have diagnosed that her condition was due to the extra chromosome that she had received at the moment of conception. Identify the condition afflicting Clarissa.
Down syndrome
The longest part of a pregnancy, from the 8th week through to birth, is the _____ period.
fetal
Jacques is thirteen years old. On Monday, Jacques announces to his parents that he wants to be called “Jack.” On Wednesday, he says he wants to drop out of school. On Friday, he says he wants to get a tattoo and become an architect. In Erikson’s terms, Jacques is most likely experiencing the _____ crisis.
identity-versus-role-confusion
Jack registered as a conscientious objector during the Vietnam War. He believes that it is wrong to take human life. He is willing to serve time in jail, rather than take part in an armed conflict. Jack’s reasons for not going to war reflect the _____ stage of moral reasoning established by Kohlberg.
postconventional
During the Vietnam War, Michael moved from the United States to Canada to avoid the draft. He didn’t want to go to war because he was afraid he might be killed or seriously injured. Michael’s reasons for not going to war reflect the _____ stage of moral reasoning established by Kohlberg.
preconventional
According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, which of the following is the stage in which a person aware of his impending death is likely to try to think of ways to postpone death and dedicate their lives to religion?
Bargaining
Which theory of aging suggests that human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproduction and that they are no longer able to divide after a certain time?
Genetic preprogramming theory
Puberty marks the onset of
adolescence.
According to Kohlberg, which of the following phrases describes the basis of moral reasoning in early childhood?
Don’t get caught.
Dona is a graduate student investigating the development of fine motor skills. She selects a group of children and assesses their fine motor skills every six months over a two-year period. In this example, Dona is using a(n) _____ research design.
longitudinal
The difference between cross-sectional research design and longitudinal research designs is that:
Longitudinal studies assess change in behavior over time, whereas cross-sectional studies assess differences among groups of people.
Which of the following statements CORRECTLY identifies an advantage or a disadvantage of the developmental researchers’ research designs?
Longitudinal – indicate changes in behavior over time
Which of the following primarily studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life?
Developmental psychology
Sensitive or critical periods in development can occur:
either before or after birth.
A normal fertilized egg, or zygote, contains _____ pairs of chromosomes.
23
The primary criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is:
its potential lack of generality across cultures.
Girls typically experience the adolescent growth spurt _____ than do boys.
2 years earlier
Which alternative below best approximates the frequency of adolescent suicide?
It is among the top five leading causes of death among teenagers; every 90 minutes, a teenager commits suicide.
The time at which a woman’s menstrual cycle slows down and stops is called:
menopause
Which of the following figures best approximates the percentage of married women with school-age children who work outside the home?
75%
From the late teens into the mid-20s, individuals are in a transitional phase that developmental psychologists call _____adulthood.
emerging
Bea is 70 years old and works part-time at a discount store. She has kept herself busy by engaging in various activities she enjoyed during middle adulthood. She volunteers occasionally at a local food bank, and enjoys the company of her family and the members of her bridge club. According to the _____ theory of aging, Bea is aging successfully.
activity
According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, individuals who are willing to risk their lives and freedom for a belief operate on the ___________ level of moral development.
postconventional
At the preconventional level of moral development, individuals decide right and wrong based on
punishments or rewards.
At twelve months of age, Jordan is classified as a securely attached child by his pediatrician on the basis of the criteria set by Mary Ainsworth. Which of the following behaviors in the strange situation would be most consistent with this classification?
Jordan is moderately distressed when mother leaves him alone and pleased when she returns.
Derwood is 8 years old and he likes to do art projects at school. However, the projects he has completed so far have not received good grades, and in several instances his friends have made fun of his work. Based on Erikson’s theory, Derwood is most likely to develop:
feelings of inferiority.
Walter’s parents strongly believe that Walter should make his own decisions, so they set very few rules regarding homework, bedtime, and household chores. Since they believe that freedom and responsibility are important, they patiently tolerate all of Walter’s behavior, whether childish or mature. The parenting style adopted by Walter’s parents is called:
permissive.
According to Piaget, mastery of the principle of conservation marks the beginning of the _____ stage of development.
concrete operational
As psychologists use the term, habituation means:
decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
A _____ reflex prompts babies to clear their throat.
gag
Hailey’s parents demand that she follow their instructions without asking any question. Isabella’s parents are firm as well, but are more likely to reason with her and explain the consequences of her behavior. In Baumrind’s terms, Hailey’s parents are _____; Isabella’s are _____.
authoritarian; authoritative
Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, from birth through adolescence?
sensorimotor → preoperational → concrete operational → formal operational
The majority of children of divorced parents
do not have adjustment problems.
Bob has an unknown liquid and must determine what it is. He decides to systematically use a number of tests to determine the correct answer. What stage of cognitive development has Bob reached?
Formal operational
Jill’s parents set very few limits or boundaries for her. They use a(n) ___________ parenting style.
permissive
In Harry and Margaret Harlow’s classic attachment study, they found that monkeys
were more attached to the artificial mothers who were warm and soft.
According to Piaget, accommodation refers to
adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences.
Mazie’s mom is loving and nurturing, sets clear boundaries, and engages in a lot of verbal give and take. In terms of parenting styles, she would be described as
authoritative.
You give your younger brother Joe a big cookie. He accidently drops it, and it breaks into many smaller parts. Suddenly he gets very excited and says, “Joe, look how many cookies I have now!” He is most likely in which developmental stage?
Preoperational
The ability to use abstract concepts is a key component of the ___________ stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
formal operations
Mabel is thrilled to find out she has finally become pregnant. She wants to make sure that she does not jeopardize the health of her baby. She should avoid all of the following EXCEPT
prescription drugs of all types.
The ability to overcome hardship during childhood again and again is referred to as
resilience.
Maura and Trish are eighth graders who have been caught smoking. Maura’s parents yell at her and refuse to let her explain things. They ground her for a month, and take away her television and Internet privileges for two months. Trish’s parents talk to her about their disappointment and concern; additionally, they make her spend every afternoon for a week at the library, researching the dangers of smoking and discussing her findings with them each night at dinner. Most likely, Maura’s parents are _____ and Trish’s are _____.
authoritarian; authoritative
Lev Vygotsky recognized that cognitive development
All of these
(is an interpersonal process. happens in a cultural context. is facilitated by the process of scaffolding.)
The symptoms of FASD are most likely to include
below-average intelligence.
?
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality assessment widely used in business, industry, and education. Ultimately, it stems from _____ theory.
Jung’s
Which of the following is NOT one of the neo-Freudian psychoanalysts?
Cattell
Which component of the personality uses defense mechanisms, and why?
The ego uses defense mechanisms to prevent excessive anxiety.
Which of the following alternatives best expresses the relationship between the preconscious and the unconscious in Freud’s theory?
The preconscious is a small portion of the unconscious mind.
What do the id and the superego have in common?
They are both unrealistic.
The _____ is the final personality structure to develop in childhood, represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught and modeled by a person’s parents, teachers, and other significant individuals.
superego
To Freud, much of our personality is determined by our _____.
unconscious
When regression is used as a defense mechanism people:
behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development.
Developmental periods that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges are known as _____ stages.
psychosexual
Probably the most primary of the defense mechanisms is that of:
repression.
According to Jung, _____ are universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience (such as good and evil).
archetypes
According to _____, parents can facilitate their children’s development by:
Adler; helping them overcome feelings of personal inferiority.
Which defense mechanism is CORRECTLY matched with a definition?
Displacement – an unwanted feeling is redirected from a threatening individual to a less threatening one
The study of defense mechanisms is associated not only with Sigmund Freud but also with:
Anna Freud.
According to Freud’s theory, _____ is only a small part of our psychological makeup and experience.
conscious experience
If Freddie’s id was in charge when his boss told him that he was an incompetent fool, Freddie might
punch his boss in the face.
According to Freud, the ego is referred to as a mediator because it
must balance the needs of the id, superego, and reality.
Kira finds an abandoned wallet with $300 in it and no identification. The decision to keep the money or turn it in will cause the greatest conflict between the
id and the superego.
Which of the following is a defense mechanism?
Reaction formation
Oberon has always been fascinated by fire, but he knows that it can be dangerous and sometimes lethal. When he finished high school, he decided to become a firefighter. The job is extremely fulfilling for him. Freud would probably say that Oberon’s fascination with fire
has been sublimated into a socially desirable behavior.
According to Freud, the _____ stage is a stage from birth to age 12 to 18 months, in which an infant’s center of pleasure is the mouth.
oral
Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which Freud’s personality structures develop during infancy and childhood, from first to last?
Id → ego → superego
Why do dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue offer important data, in the view of psychoanalytic psychologists?
Dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue offer clues to the contents of the unconscious mind.
How do neo-Freudians’ thought differ from Freud’s original theory?
The neo-Freudians tended to emphasize the importance of the ego rather than that of the id.
What defense mechanism is being used when the ego transforms the unacceptable (e.g., looking at pornography) into the acceptable (e.g., becoming a vocal advocate against pornography)?
Reaction formation
Cartoons sometimes depict personal conflict by showing an individual with an angel speaking into one ear and a devil speaking into the other ear. The angel represents Freud’s idea of the ________, and the devil represents Freud’s idea of the ________.
superego; id
Every time Antony, a 30-year-old architect, experiences hardship, he goes home to his parents to find comfort in his childhood bedroom. What defense mechanism is in play here?
Regression
George’s cubicle at work is spotless. Everything on his desk is arranged according to a specific purpose. He gets very agitated if something is moved or rearranged. Freud might argue that George is fixated at the ________ stage.
anal
Which of the following approaches to personality is LEAST likely to emphasize the stability of personality?
Learning
In Allport’s view, how many central traits do most people possess?
5-10
According to the text, studies of the potential genetic basis of personality have identified a gene that may contribute to differences between people in the trait of:
thrill-seeking.
Dr. Plater believes that personality is simply the sum of learned responses to the external environment. Dr. Plater endorses the _____ approach to personality.
learning
Which term indicates the ability of a test to measure what it is actually designed to measure?
Validity
Behavioral assessment relies most heavily on:
observing people in their own settings.
Self-report tests are most closely associated with which perspective on personality?
Trait
Projective tests are most closely aligned with which perspective on personality?
Psychodynamic
Brittney is a counselor who believes that her clients have the innate ability to make good choices. She accepts each individual as they are and as a person in the process of change. It is important to her that her clients learn to evaluate themselves and not depend on the opinion of others. Brittney is practicing
humanistic counseling.
A graduate student is using a statistical method of identifying associations among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns. She is performing a _____ analysis.
factor
_____ is the component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations.
Self- esteem
Mrs. Linley is a middle school math teacher. She provides constant, consistent feedback on her students’ math assignments. She wants her students to have faith in their abilities to produce positive outcomes. Mrs. Linley is trying to develop her students’ self-:
efficacy.
The text suggests that the neurotransmitter most closely related to individual differences in thrill- or sensation-seeking is:
dopamine.
Which of the following specific traits is CORRECTLY paired with a description in terms of the Big Five dimensions?
Imaginative – high openness
_____ is the belief that we have the personal capabilities to master a situation and produce positive outcomes.
Self-efficacy
Dr. Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality and consistencies in individuals’ behavior. Dr. Montgomery is a(n) _____ theorist.
trait
_____ traits are characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential than other traits.
Secondary
Humanistic psychologists suggests that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential, each in a unique way; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward self-:
actualization.
Dr. Cavanaugh examines the relationship between the trait of hardiness and senior citizens’ compliance with medication regimes; however, the hardiness measure he uses was based on college students. Based on this information, which of the following is the most apparent weakness of Dr. Cavanaugh’s study?
The norming of the resilience measure
One of the best examples of a self-report measure, and one of the most frequently used personality tests, is the:
MMPI-2.
Dr. Portillo’s research team uses many methods to assess the trait of extraversion. Dr. Portillo is interpreting participants’ responses to TAT pictures. Her postdoctoral research fellow is recording the number and length of conversations participants initiate in a laboratory situation. Finally, Dr. Portillo’s graduate student is examining her own extraversion scores on a test of the Big Five dimensions. Which research team member is CORRECTLY paired with the type of personality assessment he or she is using?
Graduate student – self-report measure
Because of federal legislation, race norming on tests such as the General Aptitude Test Battery:
was discontinued in the early 1990s.
DeShawn graduated from college with honors and approaches most aspects of life with the expectation that he will be successful. He expects a great deal of himself and sets his goals high. After his interview for a job in the most prestigious company in his state, he was convinced that he would get the job. You could say that he
has high self-efficacy.
Which of the following accurately describes how factor analysis is used to identify personality traits?
Factor analysis identifies which traits go together in terms of how they are rated.
Maria claims that she is a mind reader. While she has quite a few believers, you notice that she seems to use very vague comments during her mind-reading sessions. Maria is likely using ________ to her advantage.
the Barnum effect
Vickie is doing a research paper on projective personality tests. What conclusions should she draw regarding the Rorschach inkblot test?
Many psychologists have questioned the reliability and validity of the test.
According to Freud, a period beginning around age 3 during which a child’s pleasure focuses on the genitals is known as the _____ stage.
phallic
A study conducted by Lehman and Taylor reports that California students living in dormitories unlikely to withstand an earthquake were more likely to doubt earthquake predictions than were students living in safer structures. This example best illustrates:
a defense mechanism.
The strategy of preparing for stress before it happens is termed _____ coping.
proactive
Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress are termed:
coping.
Which category of stressor is correctly matched with an example?
Personal stressor—being fired
Stress may impair our production of disease-fighting white blood cells called:
lymphocytes.
Which of the following is true about the general adaptation syndrome?
The first stage of the general adaptation syndrome is known as the alarm and mobilization stage.
Sally was irritated as her cell phone got switched off due to low battery. This is an example of a _____.
background stressor
In the long term, the most effective means of reducing smoking may be:
changes in societal norms and attitudes toward the habit.
Annie is a Type A individual. She would be characterized by _____ behavior.
hostile
Which of the following is supposed to be the most successful method of quitting smoking?
Attending counseling, along with using nicotine replacement patches or gums
Identify the correct statement relating to happy people.
Happy people like to be around other people.
Tim was told by his doctor that if he did not stop eating fast foods, he would turn diabetic and obese. This is an example of a _____ health message.
negatively
Most people think that they are _____ famous people like Oprah Winfrey.
happier than
Josh was just in an automobile accident. The first thing he does is call his insurance company and begin the claim process. Josh is engaging in ________ coping.
problem-focused
You walk into your biology class and unexpectedly see a quiz waiting for you on your desk. If you are not prepared for the quiz, you are likely to experience the ________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
alarm
Lifestyle choices, behaviors, and psychological characteristics are the main focus of ________ psychology.
health
Which statement is NOT correct concerning the relationship between the immune system and stress?
Acute stressors produce enhanced immune system functioning.
A situation, circumstance, or event that challenges the individual and requires some form of coping mechanism best defines the term
stressor.
According to the text, a key element in predicting whether Barry will change his drinking behavior is
how ready he is to change the behavior.
Based on the text, which of these is an accurate description of the relationship between stress and the immune system and cancer?
The physiological effects of stress inhibit immune responses to cancer.
Happy people:
hold moderately inflated views of themselves.
Which of the following statements is true regarding male and female physicians’ communication with their patients
Female physicians provide more patient-centered communication than do male physicians.
Research shows that winning the lottery usually leads to:
an initial surge in happiness, followed by a slow return to previous levels.
Which of the following is true of physicians’ communication with their patients?
Patients may be reluctant to volunteer information that might cast them in a bad light.
Which of the following statements is NOT one of the preliminary hypotheses in regards to the relationship between stress and the immune system?
Stress directly promotes disease-producing processes.
The general adaptation syndrome refers to the
body’s response to stressors.
Which of the following accurately describes the sequence of stages in the general adaptation syndrome?
Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
Jennie’s father comes home after a long day of work and has a couple of strong drinks to help him relax. His motive for drinking would be characterized as
coping.
A fundamental premise of the general adaptation syndrome is that
a stressor produces the same physical symptoms in all people.
Shirley is talking to a group of third graders about the importance of drinking plenty of water every day. She is focused on
health promotion.
A surge in ________ caused by severe emotional distress may contribute to one’s risk of a heart attack.
adrenaline
A(n) ________ activity is defined as one that increases heart rate and lung functioning.
aerobic
Who is NOT engaged in what psychologists refer to as health behaviors?
Jim is studying his history notes.
Once you get over the initial stress associated with your first exam of finals week, the fact that you have several more exams will likely lead your body to enter the ________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
resistance
If Jason decides that the snake he sees is dangerous, he has made a
cognitive appraisal.
Based on the text, which of these is an accurate description of the relationship between stress and the immune system and cancer?
The physiological effects of stress inhibit immune responses to cancer.
Which of the following sequences best captures the “stress cycle,” from the beginning to the end of one cycle?
Stressor → stress → coping → adaptation
Wishful thinking and the use of drugs exemplify the use of _____ coping.
avoidant
Susan has been working tirelessly for the past few weeks due to tight deadlines. She is also being pressurized by her parents to get married and settle in life. Susan is stressed and has been detected with high blood pressure, skin rashes, and fatigue. She is in a helpless state and thinks her life is messed up. Susan is suffering from a(n) _____.
psychophysiological disorder
Faced with overlapping, unrealistic deadlines at work, Ivan recruits his friends to perform some of the routine clerical tasks associated with the projects. Ivan is engaged in _____ coping.
problem-focused
Which of the following is true of the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
In some cases, exhaustion allows people to escape a stressor.
Which of the following is true about problem-focused coping?
Problem-focused coping leads to changes in behavior or to the development of a plan of action to deal with stress.
Dr. Alastair examines the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain. Dr. Alastair is a:
psychoneuroimmunologist.
Which of the following statements best captures the relationship between background stressors and daily hassles?
Background stressors and daily hassles are the same thing.
Which of the following is true of resilience?
Resilience results in the release of the hormone cortisol which is helpful in responding to challenges, although too much can produce damage.
Which of the following are strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically affect many people at once?
Cataclysmic events
Eve was stressed as she had got transferred to Italy. She decided to look at the brighter side of her relocation by telling herself that it will be a new experience, that she will be able to meet different people, and see new places. Eve is observing _____ coping.
emotion-focused
In the psychology of health and stress, Hans Selye is associated with the study of:
the general adaptation syndrome.
PTSD may result from:
cataclysmic events and severe personal stressors.
The component of the Type A pattern most strongly linked to coronary heart disease is that of:
hostility.
Martha has a Type B behavior pattern. Which of the following characteristics would be observed in Martha?
Cooperation
The Type A and Type B behavior patterns are best seen as:
ends of a continuum.
The _____ behavior pattern is a cluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven.
Type A
The greatest strength of the behavioral perspective is its:
objective approach for examining behavior.
Of the following perspectives, which is MOST likely to take a strong “nurture” position on the origin of psychological abnormality?
Sociocultural
Insanity is a(n) _____ term.
legal
The humanistic perspective in psychology is primarily associated with the work of:
Abraham Maslow.
_____ is a major somatoform disorder that involves an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to use a sensory organ or the complete or partial inability to move an arm or leg.
Conversion disorder
Thomas has been suffering from insomnia for the past two years. He has also been experiencing tension headaches and heart palpitations. His medical reports show that he is not suffering from any physiological or genetic disorder. Thomas is most likely suffering from:
generalized anxiety disorder.
Which of the following brain abnormalities is associated with schizophrenia?
Limbic system disturbances
Which of the following neurotransmitters plays a major role in depression?
Serotonin
Alex has an intense, unwarranted fear of dogs. Bailey feels driven to wash her hands repeatedly. Callista is plagued by chronic, debilitating worry. Doran sometimes feels dizzy and short of breath; he feels as if he might die. Which of these individuals is CORRECTLY matched with the anxiety disorder he or she displays?
Doran – Panic disorder
Lionel is two years old. His communication is severely impaired. He appears withdrawn and unresponsive to affection. He is most likely to be diagnosed with:
autism.
The common thread among dissociative disorders is that:
they allow people to escape from some anxiety-producing situation.
_____ is a disorder in which people have a constant fear of illness and a preoccupation with their health.
Hypochondriasis
About _____ percentage of the 8000 subjects interviewed in the United States, between the ages of 15 and 54 reported experiencing a psychological disorder at some point during their lives.
50
When Sandra was 18 years old, she was in a serious car accident. Although she made a full recovery from her injuries, she experienced extreme anxiety afterward. Sandra is now very anxious when driving, will not drive near the site of the accident, has nightmares about the accident, and flinches when she goes through intersections. Sandra has symptoms suggestive of
posttraumatic stress disorder.
Oscar feels that if he does not circle his car five times before he gets in it, he will have an accident. The feeling that he is going to have an accident represents a(n)
obsession.
Martin refuses to leave his house because he believes that his body odor is toxic to those around him. Martin’s behavior is an example of
All of these (statistical deviance. personal distress. a maladaptive behavior.)
A possible behavioral explanation for depression focuses on
learned helplessness.
Jasmine is an attractive, well-dressed female who appears normal to those individuals she works with. However, Jasmine may still be considered abnormal if
All of these
(she is statistically deviant, her behavior is maladaptive, she suffers from personal distress.)
Joshua has received low grades in math throughout his school years. In the lower grades, he would study hard, but the results were always the same. Eventually, he stopped trying to do better in math because nothing seemed to work. Joshua has developed
learned helplessness.
Marilyn is depressed a great deal of the time so she seeks help from a doctor. She is diagnosed as having a mental illness caused by a chemical imbalance. Marilyn is most likely being treated by someone who adheres to the ________ model of psychological disorders.
medical
Which disorder is associated with having too few serotonin and norepinephrine receptors?
Major depressive disorder
An implication of the medical model of psychological disorders is that
the individual should not be blamed for the disorder.
Robert’s teacher has sent several notes home to his family during the past school year. Robert is inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive. Robert will most likely be diagnosed with
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
In movies that focus on war, soldiers who have returned from the frontlines often struggle with overwhelming anxiety, nervousness, depression, and flashbacks. In many cases, the soldiers have problems with memory and an inability to experience happiness. These movie characters are most likely experiencing ________ disorder.
posttraumatic stress
Riley routinely blows every little setback out of proportion. For example, when she forgot to turn in her algebra homework, she was convinced that she would fail the class. Riley is at risk for developing
depression.
Alex is almost always anxious at school, at home, and even when he is with his friends. Alex is most likely suffering from
generalized anxiety disorder.
The tendency to ruminate on negative experiences is most closely associated with
depression.
Which psychological approach would attribute a person’s depression to escalating negative and self-defeating thoughts?
Cognitive
John has sudden attacks of intense fear in which his heart races, he feels faint, and he has trouble catching his breath. During these attacks, he worries that he is going to die. From this description, it sounds like John has
panic disorder.
Anxiety disorders involve fears that are
All of these
(uncontrollable. disproportionate to the actual danger. disruptive to ordinary life.)
A fear of strangers is referred to as
xenophobia.
Which of the following disorders is associated with a particular culture?
Anorexia nervosa
Amy often offends other people because she does not seem to be able to read their emotions accurately. She shows little or no emotions herself and maintains an immobile facial expression when interacting with other people. She does not plan or engage in goal-directed behaviors and jumps from one low-paying job to another. Her family thinks she is lazy. Amy is most likely
suffering from schizophrenia.
Which of the following is a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
Flat affect
Evan decided to take an F in English class rather than have to get up in front of the class to make an oral presentation. Evan probably suffers from
a social phobia.
Mrs. Johnson recently returned home after being gone for nearly five months. She has no memory associated with those five months. She most likely experienced a(n)
dissociative fugue.
What cognitive attribution style can serve as a protective factor against depression?
Optimism
Evette believes that she must touch the door knob seven times before she opens the door so that her mother will not become deathly ill. What is her compulsion?
Touching the door knob
A classification system for psychological disorders allows clinicians to do all of the following except make predictions about
how other people might react to the diagnosis of a disorder.
DSM-IV-TR relies most heavily on the _____ approach to abnormal behavior.
medical
On the basis of the results of Rosenhan’s study, which of the following is the most accurate evaluation of the DSM-IV-TR’s system of classifying psychological disorders?
Rosenhan’s results are worrying, because they suggest that diagnostic labels strongly affect how behavior is perceived.
Grace has schizophrenia. What is the approximate likelihood that her identical twin Joy also has schizophrenia?
50%
Paige has hypochondriasis. This means that:
she misinterprets minor sensations as evidence of a serious disease.
_____ is a class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs.
Schizophrenia
Butch alternates between periods of dark despair and times of elation, great energy, recklessness, and creativity. Butch is most likely suffering from _____ disorder.
bipolar
At any given time, _____ of the U.S. population is clinically depressed; about _____ of college students have received a diagnosis of depression.
6-10%; 15%
The condition in which an individual’s hand become entirely numb, while an area above the wrist, controlled by the same nerves, remains sensitive to touch is referred to as:
glove anesthesia.
Which of the following statements accurately identifies either a similarity or dissimilarity between social phobia and agoraphobia?
Similarity – Both agoraphobia and social phobia can prevent people from leaving their homes
Which of the following major anxiety disorders is CORRECTLY paired with a description?
Generalized anxiety disorder – Persistent, uncontrollable, free-floating worry
Which of the following dissociative disorders is correctly matched with its description?
Dissociative identity disorder—An individual displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities.
Psychological disorders that take on physical symptoms, but for which there is no medical cause are called _____ disorders.
somatoform
How does dissociative amnesia differ from simple amnesia?
Simple amnesia involves an actual loss of memory; dissociative amnesia does not.
Brain-imaging studies indicate that a person with schizophrenia is most likely to have:
shrunken hippocampi.
Roger is a manipulative, callous individual who has no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society or the rights of others. It is most likely that he has:
antisocial personality disorder.
_____ is a disorder in which a significant, selective memory loss occurs.
Dissociative amnesia
Carrie is dramatic and emotionally volatile. She rapidly forms intense relationships that seem to blow up or fall apart just as quickly. Although she tends to distrust others, she also needs their attention to define her. Carrie is most likely to be diagnosed with _____ personality disorder.
borderline
Omar finds himself in front of a pet supplies display in a Boise, ID discount store. His last memories are of his childhood in Greensboro, NC; he cannot recall anything about his present life. Which of the following most accurately describes Omar’s condition?
Dissociative amnesia
Clara has been depressed after losing her job. Of late she has been complaining that she has a severe backache and this is affecting her daily life. However, her physician has examined her and found that there is no medical cause for her condition. It is most likely that she is suffering from:
somatoform disorder.
_____ is a form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior.
Aversive conditioning
Which of the following is a suitable way of handling transference?
The therapist can take advantage of transference to help the patient “redo” difficult relationships.
_____ is a form of therapy that attempts to restructure a person’s belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior.
Rational-emotive behavior therapy
_____ therapy seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively.
Psychodynamic
Why has psychodynamic therapy remained a viable approach to psychological treatment, despite criticism of it?
It facilitates the development of deep insight into one’s life.
According to the text, the effectiveness of various approaches to therapy found that although success rates vary somewhat by treatment form, most treatments show that success rates range from about _____% greater success for treated compared with untreated individuals.
75-80
How is contemporary person-centered therapy different than it was in Rogers’s day?
Therapists are more likely to nudge clients towards insights rather than merely reflecting back their statements.
Regarding group therapy, which of the following statements is TRUE?
Group therapy is generally more economical than individual therapy.
Therapy in which the goal is to reach one’s potential for self-actualization is known as _____ therapy.
person-centered
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was introduced in the _____; it is used to treat severe _____.
1930s; depression
In _____ appraisal, clients are asked to evaluate situations, themselves, and others in terms of their memories, values, beliefs, thoughts, and expectations.
cognitive
In the _____, surgeons performed prefrontal lobotomy on thousands of patients often with little precision.
1930s and ’40s
Approximately what percentage of U.S. families includes a member who has taken an antianxiety drug?
50%
The first major antipsychotic drug to be introduced was _____; it was used to treat _____.
chlorpromazine; schizophrenia
Judy thinks she is depressed because of her teacher’s criticism of her term paper. Judy’s therapist explains to her that Judy’s own irrational belief—that the criticism means she is stupid—is really why she is depressed. Judy is likely to be seeing a therapist who is providing ________ therapy.
rational-emotive
Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy has found that
All of these.
(no one form of psychotherapy works better than any other. psychotherapy is significantly more effective than a placebo control intervention. the likelihood of clinical improvement increases as the number of therapy sessions increases.)
Dr. Houltin is a therapist who believes that it is important for clients to share information and provide feedback to each other. Dr. Houltin is practicing ________ therapy.
group
Luanne is being treated for depression after a breakup with her boyfriend. Her therapist points out that her thoughts, and not the situation itself, is causing her to be depressed. This information suggests that Luanne’s therapist practices ________ therapy.
Beck’s cognitive
Which of the following statements accurately describes well-being therapy?
WBT is about learning to notice and savor positive experiences.
The group of drugs known as SSRIs work primarily by interfering with the reabsorption of ________ in the brain.
serotonin
“My client must confront the conflicts which are left over from childhood and gain release from this burdening anxiety.” This statement would likely be made by a psychologist who practices ________ therapy.
psychodynamic
“First, I would like you to get in a comfortable position and begin the breathing techniques which we have been practicing. When you sense that you have arrived at complete relaxation, we will proceed.” This therapist is initiating
systematic desensitization.
From Freud’s psychodynamic perspective, what is the best way to gain insight into a person’s core problems?
Bring unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness.
Who is being treated with the flooding technique?
Dan is being forced to touch a live snake.
The therapy that is based on the assumption that abnormal behavior is due to self-defeating and irrational beliefs is
cognitive therapy.
Beck’s cognitive therapy focuses on
eliminating illogical and self-defeating thoughts.
Which of the following is the most important determinant of whether or not therapy is successful?
Quality of the client’s participation
The widespread increase in the number of individuals taking SSRIs to combat their depression is primarily due to the
reduction in side effects as compared to other antidepressants.
In family therapy, it is assumed that the
problem originates in the interactions among the family members.
Ivan is very depressed and the danger of suicide is imminent. He is not responding to the drugs normally employed to treat depression. Which of the following treatments is most likely to prove helpful in rapidly reducing Ivan’s depression and suicidal behavior?
Electroconvulsive therapy
Cognitive-behavior therapy attempts to produce change by
helping clients to eliminate self-defeating thoughts.
A remarkable finding from research on cognitive-remediation therapy is that this therapy produces changes in the
person’s brain functioning.
Jan is afraid of crowds. If her therapist uses the flooding technique, which of the following will Jan most likely be asked to do?
Attend a sold-out rock concert with no way home until after the concert
In psychoanalytic theory, transference is used to describe
how the client comes to relate to the therapist in ways that resemble his or her other relationships.
When resistance occurs in therapy, what event is taking place?
The client is using unconscious defense strategies that prevent progress.
Dr. Billings is a therapist who specializes in psychoanalysis. She focuses on
using free association and dream interpretation.
Which of the following BEST describes the psychoanalytic notion of resistance?
Avoidance
Which of the following therapies emphasizes the challenging of irrational, unrealistic beliefs?
Rational-emotive behavior therapy
_____ is an inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal particular memories, thoughts, or motivations.
Resistance
_____ treatment approaches teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional notions about the world and themselves.
Cognitive
Which of the following operant conditioning techniques is INCORRECTLY paired with its description?
Token system—The therapist reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an aversive, unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior.
{Correctly paired: Observational learning—An individual models desired behavior for the client.
Contingency contracting—The therapist and client create a written agreement specifying the consequences for desirable and undesirable behaviors.
Token system—An individual is rewarded for desired behavior with such items as chips or play money, which he or she can exchange for desired items.)
A hierarchy of fears may be used in:
systematic desensitization.
_____ rewards a person for desired behavior with a poker chip or some kind of play money.
The token system
How might one best respond to the charge that behavior therapy produces only a superficial change in external behavior?
Neuroscientific evidence shows that behavioral treatments produce actual changes in the functioning of the brain.
Which of the following approaches to psychotherapy is CORRECTLY matched with its description?
Behavioral approach—Classical and operant conditioning principles are used to change people’s behavior.
Which of the following mental health professionals is CORRECTLY matched with a brief description?
Counseling psychologist – treats everyday adjustment problems, often in a university mental health clinic
According to a behavior therapist, how might psychological disorders be treated MOST EFFECTIVELY?
The client should learn new behaviors to replace the faulty skills.
Therapy in which the goal is to reach one’s potential for self-actualization is known as _____ therapy.
person-centered
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an example of _____ therapy.
self-help
Therapy in which people meet collectively with a therapist to discuss problems is specifically known as _____ therapy.
group
_____ therapy is therapy in which the underlying rationale is that people have control of their behavior, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems.
Humanistic
Atypical antipsychotics affect both _____ and _____ levels in certain parts of the brain.
serotonin; dopamine
Prozac is an example of a(n) _____.
antidepressant drug
The newest antipsychotics are called _____ antipsychotics.
atypical
Mary has been working with a therapist because she has felt very confused and unsure about herself for the past few years. Mary’s therapist tends to be very nondirective and devotes a great deal of the session to allowing Mary to explore her identity, wants, and dreams for the future. The therapist rarely gives direct advice and instead is primarily interested in helping Mary clarify her own ideas and feelings. Mary’s therapist is most likely associated with the ________ perspective of psychotherapy.
humanistic
Lithium is to ________ as clozapine is to ________.
bipolar disorder; schizophrenia
According to the psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy, which of the following is an essential part of the job of a psychotherapist?
Interpret the disguised revelations of the unconscious mind.
Josie went to a psychoanalyst but found his style too cold and uninvolved. She wanted a therapist with whom she could have more of a relationship. She switched to a Rogerian therapist. The therapeutic setting is now one of
warmth and acceptance.
Social psychologist Leon Festinger is associated with the study of:
cognitive dissonance.
Which of the following is true of schemas?
Schemas help us predict what others are like on the basis of relatively little information.
One forms an impression of another individual:
very quickly, within a few seconds.
_____ are brought about by something in the environment.
Situational causes
Classic experimental studies of conformity were conducted in the 1950s by:
Solomon Asch.
Which of the following is true of the findings made by Asch on conformity?
Groups that unanimously support a position show the most pronounced conformity pressures.
Which alternative below correctly defines a social influence concept?
Compliance – a change in behavior or attitudes in response to direct social pressure
Identify the correct statement regarding conformity.
People without a clear answer are more susceptible to conformity.
Which of the following compliance techniques is correctly matched with its description?
That’s-not-all technique—When a salesperson offers you a deal at an inflated price, immediately after the initial offer, the salesperson offers an incentive, discount, or bonus to clinch the deal.
In Juanita’s community, girls are not expected to enjoy or excel at mathematics. Juanita’s algebra grades drop; by the time she is a high school junior, she is enrolled only in consumer mathematics courses. Which concept does Juanita’s example best illustrate?
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Which of the following potential explanations is correctly paired with the process it reflects?
Awareness of a negative view of ones’ group generates anxiety, which impairs performance – stereotype threat
According to instinct theories of aggression, which of the following statements is most likely to be true regarding aggression?
Certain stimuli act as aggressive cues, making aggressive acts much more likely when the cues are present.
Roger was screaming for help as he was being beaten up by a group of muggers on a street. There were about 15 people standing nearby. However, none of the bystanders come forward to help Roger. This scenario representing lack of help illustrates:
diffusion of responsibility.
The likelihood that an individual will help someone in an emergency situation is _____ correlated with the number of other people present.
negatively
Which of the following is suggested by Sternberg in his theory on love?
The different combinations of the three components vary over the course of relationships.
Susan drives by a particularly unusual apartment building each day on her way to and from work. Initially, she does not think much of the structure and actually has a mild dislike for it. However, after several months of commuting, she starts to like the apartment building and is even considering trying to rent an apartment there. This change in Susan’s feelings about the building best demonstrates
the mere exposure effect.
Mr. and Mrs. Lee warn their new babysitter, Alison, that their son, Dennis, is very aggressive and mischievous. As a result, Alison starts calling the child “Dennis the Menace,” and she behaves in ways that elicit aggressive and mischievous behaviors from Dennis. This example best demonstrates the phenomenon called
the self-fulfilling prophecy.
According to research on stereotype threat, we should be especially concerned about standardized tests if they
ask for race/ethnic information before the test starts.
While they are sitting eating their lunch, several of Sheldon’s friends suggest that the new girl in class is very pretty. Sheldon does not think that she is pretty. He will probably
agree with his friends and say she is very attractive.
A study by Rosenthal and Jacobson found that children who were labeled as “late bloomers” at the start of the school year showed larger IQ gains than other, non-labeled students, even though these particular children were chosen randomly. The children’s teachers were informed about these labels, but the students themselves were not. The results from this study are most relevant to which of the following?
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Behavior that helps others but that involves some self-sacrifice is termed:
altruism.
_____ involves a state of intense absorption in someone that includes intense physiological arousal, psychological interest, and caring for the needs of another.
Passionate love
The notion of a diffusion of responsibility is most usually applied to the study of:
prosocial behavior.
Which of the following strategies did your text offer as effective means of dealing with anger?
Minimize the importance of the situation.
“But are you in love?” Lynette asks her friend. Lynette is trying to determine whether her friend is experiencing _____ love.
passionate
If you were to donate one of your kidneys to whoever might need it, you would be demonstrating a(n) ________ view of human nature.
altruistic
June is usually a very quiet individual, but she recently discovered a different side of herself. She was at the Mardi Gras and found herself swept up in the festivities, doing the things that the other party revelers were doing. These were not behaviors that she would have ever considered doing on her own. Social psychologists would most likely attribute June’s behavior to
deindividuation.
The bystander effect occurs because
All of these
(we tend to look to the behavior of others for cues about what to do. if no one else is helping, we assume help is not needed. responsibility is diffused among witnesses.)
The advertising committee for a politician is going door to door and asking people to put a big ugly election sign on their lawn. If people refuse, they ask them if they would consider putting a smaller sign on the lawn. The committee is using
the door-in-the-face strategy.
The idea of “do onto others as you would have them do onto you” best describes
reciprocity.
A study by Rosenthal and Jacobson found that children who were labeled as “late bloomers” at the start of the school year showed larger IQ gains than other, non-labeled students, even though these particular children were chosen randomly. The children’s teachers were informed about these labels, but the students themselves were not. The results from this study are most relevant to which of the following?
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Affectionate love is also called ________ love.
companionate
Research findings indicate that frustration
can lead to aggression or passivity.
When you do poorly on a test, you remind yourself of all the distractions you had at school that week. You are displaying
self-serving bias.
It appears that many attractive people possess a number of positive characteristics. This is possibly due to
the self-fulfilling prophecy.
“Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I’ll die having a good time.” This statement illustrates an attempt to reduce
cognitive dissonance.
Tommy just hit the game winning home run for his team. He is most likely to attribute his success to
himself.
Fiona got an e-mail from her manager, Rebecca, asking her to meet to discuss a past project. Unfortunately, Fiona was struggling to complete a project due that afternoon and had to reply that she was too busy to meet today. Rebecca was not pleased with Fiona’s refusal to meet and told another coworker that she thought Fiona was “too busy and important” to meet with her supervisor thus she is an unpleasant snob. Rebecca is making a ______ attribution of Fiona.
dispositional
Perceived causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality factors are called _____ causes.
dispositional
Sets of cognitions about people and social experiences are called _____.
schemas
Which of the following attribution biases is correctly matched with its definition?
Halo effect—An initial impression that an individual has some positive (or negative) traits leads us to infer that they have many other positive (or negative) characteristics as well.
If you are exhibiting the self-serving bias, which would be your most likely explanation for a poor grade on the test?
“The professor doesn’t know how to teach.”
The fundamental attribution error is very common because:
of the nature of information available to the people making an attribution.
Sharon was made the captain of her softball team due to her excellent playing skills. However, the fact that she did not display good team management skills and was not very cooperative with her teammates was ignored while making her the captain. Which of the following biases is illustrated in this instance?
Halo effect
On late-night TV, you see an infomercial claiming that the price of the product has been slashed for a special offer and now includes a bonus sample size of something that is in adjunct to the product. This illustrates the _____ compliance technique.
that’s-not-all
The classic “shock” study of obedience is associated with:
Stanley Milgram.
Which of the following is true of the findings made by Asch on conformity?
Groups that unanimously support a position show the most pronounced conformity pressures.
The influential “prison” study of the power of social roles was conducted by:
Philip Zimbardo.
Milgram’s participants were told that the study concerned:
learning.
According to Asch’s pioneering work on conformity, which of the following statements is true?
Having just one person present who shares the minority point of view is sufficient to reduce conformity pressures.
Which alternative below correctly defines a social influence concept?
Compliance – a change in behavior or attitudes in response to direct social pressure
Compliance – a change in behavior or attitudes in response to direct social pressure
status
Which of the following is true of groupthink?
Under groupthink, members lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view.
Which of the following was a significant finding in studies conducted by Asch on conformity?
Conformity is considerably higher when people must respond publicly.
_____ refers to a negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members.
Prejudice
A(n) _____ is an expectation about the occurrence of a future event or behavior that acts to increase the likelihood the event or behavior will occur.
self-fulfilling prophecy
Which of the following attribution biases is correctly matched with its definition?
Halo effect—An initial impression that an individual has some positive (or negative) traits leads us to infer that they have many other positive (or negative) characteristics as well.

An insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference. Psychoanalysis A psychoanalytic technique in which clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as …

According to the _______ of helping, we are especially likely to help and to care for our close relatives over strangers. Evolutionary Perspective You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error …

Psychologists ____ agree on a definition of intelligence. do not To regard an abstract concept as a concrete entity is to commit the error known as ____. By doing this, we are viewing intelligence as something a person has, rather …

Operant or instrumental conditioning was theorized by _____. Thorndike and Skinner A problem with the cultural norms criterion for abnormality is that: most people would object to labeling certain behaviors that are positive for the individual and society as abnormal. …

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