Everyday health care.
Personal experiences and medical knowledge
Client values and medical knowledge
Personal experiences and client values
Medical knowledge and identified challenges
Sound bedside nursing skills
Basic knowledge of your unit
Method for accessing published information
Fundamental safety knowledge
Quality improvement data and integrated reviews.
Integrated reviews and non-peer-reviewed journal
Collegial relationships and lay journals.
Verbal data and practice guidelines.
Patient, situation, intervention, comparison, and practice.
Situation, intervention, comparison, outcome, and time.
Patient, intervention, comparison, outcome, and time.
Patient, situation, intervention, outcome, and data.
Population and outcome
Population and intervention
Intervention and outcome
Comparison and outcome
Neglected in the literature.
Denied by publishers.
Reported in the literature.
Spurned by EBP.
Education, beliefs/attitudes, and support/resources.
Faculty, knowledge, and cost.
Time, beliefs/attitudes, and consumers.
Outcomes, values, and motivation.
Ward clerk or CNA
Doctor or lawyer
Charge nurse or supervisor
Librarian or library
Ask the doctors what they think.
Check the educational level of other nurses on the unit.
Ignore your desire to learn more at this time.
Give a presentation to your peers on the benefits of research.
Faculty members are the only ones prepared to do research.
Most nurses have not been taught research.
Most nurses don’t need to use research.
Faculty members know what’s best for nursing.
Research isn’t necessary for their practice.
Most nurses are too old.
Research is like a foreign language.
Patients don’t expect them to use research.
It costs too much.
Administration wants it.
Search engines are easy to access.
Staffing is not an obstacle.
Doctors order it done.
Administrators don’t have time for research.
Research is nice to know.
Research is the “hallmark of a profession.”
Reaffirm current nursing practice.
Ignore current nursing practice.
Transform current nursing practice.
Eliminate current nursing practice.
Outcomes based on the unique situation
Opinions held by multiple individuals
Research is the only form of evidence
The weight of the evidence is not as important as the amount
Research, decision-making processes, time, and patient preferences.
Evidence, decision-making processes, clinical setting, and patient mix.
Evidence, decision-making processes, nursing experiences, and holistic patient care.
Research, nursing process, nursing experiences, and nursing care.
Determination of the question
Use of MeSH terms
Location of adequate research articles
Determination of a rating system to be used
Understanding what is in the evidence
Clarifying that only research evidence is used
Determining the risk and benefit of the research
Categorizing the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence
The anticipated benefit and/or harm to the patient.
Only the benefit for the nurse.
Gaps and consistencies in the research.
The harm for the nurse.
Turning Research into Practice (TRIP)
Joanna Briggs Institute’s FAME
AHRQ strength of the evidence tool
SUNY Downstate Medical Center’s pyramid
Deontology, empiric, clinical, and aesthetics.
Empirics, aesthetics, ethical, and personal.
Facts, opinions, case studies, and consensus.
Decision making, clinical, ethical, and client.
Grade the evidence used within the guideline.
Score the research articles to be used for a guideline.
Establish the anticipated benefit and/or harm of the guideline.
Provide an additional tool to be used at the bedside.
Identify the research that was used in the process.
Rate the collective evidence that supports a recommendation.
Establish the risk and/or benefit of an activity.
Rank the research articles for use with a guideline.
Identifying clinical problems that require investigation, assisting experienced investigators to gain access to clinical sites, and collecting data.
Creating a climate in the practice setting that promotes scholarly inquiry, scientific integrity, and scientific investigation of clinical nursing problems.
Collaborating with experienced investigators in proposal development, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation of results.
Providing leadership in integrating research into practice.
Stem cell research.
Application of pharmaceuticals in clinical practice.
Chronic illness, health promotion, disease prevention, and end-of-life care.
Researchers identify clinical problems and study them.
Faculty members identify clinical problems and study them.
Clinicians identify clinical problems and researchers design them.
Faculty members and researchers identify clinical problems and study them.
Results in better outcomes than when the interventions are implemented together.
Results in diverse outcomes when the interventions are implemented individually.
Results in confusing information about a single disease or care process.
Provides insufficient evidence to alter clinical practice related to individualized interventions.
All of the above.
Use in academia.
Use in clinical practice.
Use in biochemistry.
Business and occupational settings.
Academic and healthcare settings.
Both urban and rural settings.
Pharmaceutical and business settings.
A well-written plan of nursing care.
A systems approach to nursing care.
Nursing actions that produce desirable patient outcomes.
A way for nurses to justify their care.
Building a safer health system.
Processes to report medication errors.
Transforming the work environment for nurses.
A guide for research and practice.
Considered to be a specific explanation of an idea.
Not essential to research or EBP.
Static and do not change over time.
Valid research to guide practice.
Valid evidence to guide practice.
Generalizable to all practice.
Unlimited to any practice.
The best method to address the problems.
Little comparison of outcomes.
Limited measures of evaluation.
Extra time for the nurse at the bedside.
The study will not be approved by the institutional review board without these constraints.
The protection of human subjects underlies all human research projects.
The results will not be trustworthy and replicable.
The nurse researcher will not be able to get funding for the project and, therefore, will not be able to complete the project.
Value of life, justice, and respect
Beneficence, nonmaleficence, and value of life
Autonomy, nonmaleficence, and respect
Justice, autonomy, and nonmaleficence
He thought the new knowledge overrode any concern he should have for the rights of his son.
He did not know any better.
He ignored the point that he could not get informed consent from his son, who was particularly vulnerable.
Given that smallpox was such a lethal disease at that time, it was better for Jenner to ignore his son’s vulnerability so to gain new knowledge.
Within this environment, expectations for scientific integrity are laid out.
Federal regulations related to ethical standards are adhered to, increasing the likelihood of integrity.
The researcher always works within an ethical environment, which encourages the practice of ethical research behaviors.
Scientific integrity ensures funding, which means that the study will be completed.
This practice ensures that all research projects presented to the IRB will receive fair examination and not be denied without discussion.
Gender studies have not been common until recently, and females react differently to different treatments.
Awareness of local customs and culture means that both IRB members and researchers understand issues of concern in a non-American population.
There is now great interest in researching healthcare issues in persons of different cultures.
It is not ethically appropriate for an incompetent person to conduct research.
An incompetent researcher will not be able to get informed consent from the vulnerable subject, which is unethical.
An incompetent researcher should always work with someone who is competent, so that he or she can learn the process.
Research is a complicated process that has to be learned.
The competence of the researcher to do the research
The availability of funding
The protection of the vulnerable subject
The nurse researcher will not lose his or her license to practice and do research because of the sensitive topic being researched.
If the research topic is particularly sensitive, this certificate protects patients from divulging issues uncomfortable to them.
The certificate protects the researcher and the researched from being coerced by governmental authorities to reveal sensitive information.
The certificate means that no information is shared with those who should not be informed.
The wrong question for the study means the wrong answer.
Carefully developed and refined questions focus the research project.
Without careful development of the questions, the research results will be meaningless.
It is unethical not to develop questions carefully.
Research results will be more meaningful.
The researcher will be adhering to international codes of ethics from which federal regulations are drawn.
The project will be rejected by the IRB, because the subject is not informed about the study.
The consenting subject will understand what the research is about and will have the choice to participate (or not).
Lying about the project to subjects when seeking informed consent
Fabrication, falsification of data, and plagiarism
Attributing only partial authorship to other contributors when they have done most of the work
Making false claims about a project being funded when the researcher is talking about his or her work
It is more difficult to obtain IRB permission to conduct a research project.
With paperless medical records, there are no data to analyze, even when interview data and surveys are involved.
The regulations protect against unauthorized disclosure; although IRB permission includes this protection, additional care is taken under HIPAA.
HIPAA ensures that highly sensitive data (e.g., HIV/AIDS status) is not disclosed.
The researcher does not talk about what the subject shares until the project’s results are published in a peer-reviewed journal.
All data are kept securely locked in a safe place and destroyed when the study is completed.
Care with replication studies must be taken so that original data are not shared in the second study.
All data are kept securely locked in a safe place and may be destroyed only according to IRB instructions.
For the protection of vulnerable clients and patients
For the protection of the nurse researcher
Because of an obligation inherent within the nursing profession
Because practice on which these ethical standards are built focuses nursing research
The age of the researcher.
The number of falls.
The age of the population.
The sample size of the population.
Maintain anonymity and confidentiality of patient information.
Maintain professionalism in gathering patient information.
Provide all staff access to the patient information.
Provide patient information obtained to the hospital board of directors.
Healthcare trends in society.
They are too costly to perform.
Most researchers are not interested in these studies.
They are based on individual values.
Data collection is problematic.
The morality of abortion as a form of birth control
The relationship between cigarette smoking and weight loss
The effect of severe dietary restrictions on well-being
The relationship between religious beliefs and pain perception
Children whose parents stay with them experience less pain.
Hospitalized patients who have a relative with them experience less pain than those who do not.
Hospitalized children ages 3-5 years whose parents stay with them during painful procedures experience less pain than those who do not.
Patients who have a relative with them during a transfusion will experience less anxiety than those who do not.
What affects pain perception?
Obesity negatively impacts self-image in first graders.
This study will compare the effectiveness of antacids.
Does time of day affect appetite?
Teenage boys with type 2 diabetes
Gender and obesity
Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and gender
Music therapy and satisfaction
Satisfaction and type of delivery
“It can take on a wide range of values.”
“A variable that is restricted to whole numbers.”
“It describes the characteristics of the study subjects.”
“A variable that can’t be controlled.”
Age at death
Exposure to pet therapy increases appetite in elderly patients.
Family support and positive attitude decrease symptoms of dysreflexia in spinal cord injured patients.
Social support, balanced diet, and regular exercise decrease the incidence of postpartum depression.
Daily exercise and eliminating carbohydrates from the diet will result in a significant weight reduction in obese diabetic patients.
One is a declarative sentence; the other is a question.
One assumes a relationship; the other denies that one exists.
One is researchable; the other is statistical.
One includes at least two variables; the other does not.
They are the opposite of each other.
One is written in as a question, the other as a declarative sentence.
One assumes a relationship, the other denies that one exists.
They are similar to each other.
Broad and abstract.
Narrow and abstract.
Concrete and continuous.
Narrow and concrete.
Everything that is known about a subject.
An analytical summary of research findings.
All approved data on a research topic.
A compilation of all positive results of research.
Identify a problem that has not been resolved.
Clarify the importance of a research problem.
Identify gaps in the literature.
All of the above.
Near the end of the research process.
Shortly before the analysis of the problem.
Early in the research process.
None of the above.
Seek most information from the Internet.
Gather all data from books.
Gather all data from journals.
Seek assistance from a librarian.
Choose only those practice activities based on evidence.
Describe and analyze published research results.
Use textbook information.
Problem-solve all nursing issues.
A database stores the information.
A search engine takes you to the information.
Databases are specialized by area of knowledge.
All of the above.
Tells the geographic location of the study.
Tells why the study was done.
Is the methodology of the study.
Tells what the study is about.
Missing pieces in the knowledge of the research area.
Questions about the research that have not been explained.
Suggestions for future research made by the author.
All of the above.
A research article reports statistics on surveys and a non-research article does not.
A research article describes research by the original author.
A non-research article describes the methods of how the study was conducted.
A non-research article conducts analysis and statistical testing on the data presented in the article.
Stratified random sampling.
Nursing students in the programs that were randomly selected
Nursing students in the state from which the programs were randomly selected
Nursing students in the United States
All nursing students
Determine a large effect size.
Estimate sample size.
Test for internal validity.
Set the level of significance.
The “rule of 30.”
Saturation and redundancy.
Group subjects according to attending physician.
List subjects alphabetically, divide the list in half, place the first 25 names in the treatment group and the last 25 in the control group.
Assign each participant a number, place even numbered participants in the treatment group and the odd numbered in the control group.
Assign each participant a number, place the numbers in a box, draw numbers from the box, alternating placement in either the treatment group or the control group.
The dependent variable.
The independent variable.
No manipulation and control of the dependent variable.
Only measurement of the dependent variable.
No manipulation and control of the independent variable.
Both B and C.
Cause of two or more variables.
Relationship of two or more variables.
Effect of two or more variables.
Both A and C.
Manipulation of all variables, ethics, and feasibility.
The Hawthorne effect, ethics, and sample size.
Treatments, interventions, and no manipulation of variables.
Feasibility, the Hawthorne effect, and research questions.
R O X O
O X O
O O X O O
O O O X O O O
The nonexistence of bias.
New data sets for analysis.
The nonexistence of confounding variables.
Correlation of the variables.
The dependent variable is manipulated with randomization and a control group.
The independent variable is manipulated with randomization and a control group.
The independent variable is manipulated with no randomization and no control group.
The dependent variable is manipulated with no randomization and no control group.
Timing of test intervals and the setting.
Randomization of subjects and control groups.
Flexible inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Control of history and maturation.
To calculate statistics.
To write research reports.
The study design applies to practice.
To design a research study.
Generalizability of the results to current practice.
Exclusion of subjects.
The credentials of the researcher.
The same as scientific inquiry.
Different from scientific inquiry.
To focus on only patient satisfaction.
A rigorous approach for research.
Finding a quality of a phenomenon and looking for examples of the quality
Taking an outsider’s view of a phenomenon
Exploring the way members of a group view themselves
Validating perspectives about a group through interviews
Qualitative studies often require a larger sample size than quantitative studies.
Qualitative studies don’t require evidence of reliability and validity.
Qualitative studies don’t allow for the use of computerized data analysis.
Qualitative research is often inductive in nature, whereas quantitative research is deductive in nature.
Combining the methods to capitalize on their strong points while negating their flaws.
Combining the methods to blend both their strengths and their weaknesses.
Separating the strengths from the weaknesses within the different designs.
Separating the weaker method from the stronger method.
Introduction, sampling, and problem identification
Problem identification, data collection, and analysis
Sampling, data collection, and analysis
Introduction, data collection, and analysis
Lack of understanding about the methods and the research community.
Lack of willingness to engage in the use of, and lack of confidence in, one research method.
Lack of vision and risk taking.
Lack of willingness and overconfidence.
Likert scale tool with a demographic component
Observation of teaching sessions with videotaping
Focus group discussion with audiotaping
Likert scale tool with focus group discussion
Implementation, prioritization, and integration
Implementation, analysis, and investigation
Analysis, prioritization, and integration
Collection, prioritization, and analysis
Establish a team to aid in the management of the study.
Reevaluate the decision, because quantitative research is the stronger method.
Ensure that confidentiality is maintained within the process.
Document the rationale for the decisions made within the process.
Source of funding
Preference of the research team
Increase the biases associated with the use of two designs.
Provide insight into the complexity of the problem under study.
Impart rigor to the examination of the intricacies of the problem under study.
Decrease the impartiality associated with the use of one design.
Cost and additional time required.
Extensive and comprehensive research questions involved.
Vivacity of the evidence provided.
Complementary insights and perceptions provided.
Focus group discussions
Work excitement instrument
Project progress reports
Secondary (existing) data
Participant does not modify his or her behavior to meet the expectations of the study.
Researcher modifies his or her behavior because of conducting the study.
Researcher modifies the participants’ behavior based on the data collected.
Participant modifies his or her behavior as a result of engagement in the study.
The categories are not mutually exclusive.
The categories are not exhaustive.
The categories are written in a closed-ended format.
There is no problem with this set of response categories.
Use a variety of items and approaches to appraise conceptual ideas.
Ensure that each question addresses the entire scope of the topic.
Use simple but appropriate jargon for the designated topics.
Both A and B.
Provide hints toward the response.
Use jargon as needed.
Use single-topic questions.
Use cultural aspects to provide context.
Open-ended questions are used to collect primarily quantitative data.
Closed-ended questions are used to collect quantitative data information, because the researcher provides the answers for selection.
Open-ended questions provide confirmatory information, because the data are focused by the question.
Closed-ended questions are used to collect exploratory data, because the information is left up to the individual.
Clear directions related to the operational definitions of the selected behavior must be determined.
Ethical considerations are a minor concern within this method of data collection.
Observation data collection strategies result in manageable amounts of field notes to analyze.
Within observational sessions, the observer is always known to the participant.
Be concise and reasonably brief.
Code and weight the responses prior to the administration of the tool.
Conduct a pilot testing of the tool with a select group of the target population.
Use double-negative questions regularly within the tool.
Complete blood count
Reports about clinical standards.
Research and other documents which address the topic being reviewed.
Only opinion documents that address a topic of interest.
Only quantitative research reports.
Consistently measures the same thing.
Measures what it is supposed to measure.
Measures demographic data.
Consistently measures the same sample.
With dependence on validity.
With only independence of validity.
Independently of validity.
None of the above.
Observed score on the instrument.
Estimated score determined by the nurse.
Perfect score without error.
First sound heard by the nurse.
Standard error of measure (SEM)
Pearson Product Moment (PPM) correlation
Practice, timing, and environment.
Fatigue, subjects, and environment.
Precision, homogeneity of the test conditions, and the researcher.
Sequencing, practice, and level of ease.
The inclusion of extraneous variables.
Establishment of brief guidelines for using the tool.
A well-defined protocol for data collection.
The clarification of nuances that might add errors.
Pearson product moment
The research question.
The level of measurement of the independent variable or variables.
The level of measurement of the dependent variable or variables.
All of the above.
The results are very important.
The results are not very important.
The results are likely due to chance differences among groups.
The results are likely due to real differences among groups.
Colds and workers
Vitamin C and workers
The square of the mean deviation.
The square of the variance.
The square root of the variance.
The square root of the sum of squares.
Adjust for initial differences within the groups.
Estimate the error of prediction.
Test whether two groups differ significantly.
Test whether more than two groups differ significantly.
Whether there is expected overlap between the error curves of the two sample distributions.
Whether the difference is expected to be in one direction only.
The size of the samples relative to population size.
Whether the subjects were matched or chosen randomly.
Understand that all research is scientifically sound.
Determine the applicability of their findings to practice.
Know that all studies are perfect.
Identify a negative approach to research utilization.
Student, practicing nurse, and peer review critiques
Abstracts, presentations, and email critiques
Program of research, letters to the editors, and lay-journal critiques
National Institute of Nursing Research, educator groups, and newspaper critiques
Adds to the body of nursing knowledge.
Is complete and requires multiple readings.
Is relevant to the authors.
Is hard to find in the literature.
Results, introduces, criticizes, reviews
Findings, improvements, collections, sets
Studies, plans, appreciates, concerns
Proposes, predicts, supposes, tests
Data collection was timely and used a tool developed by the researcher.
Multiple tools were used to collect the data.
The data was collected at 2-week intervals using a pre-test/post-test procedure.
The score for the tool is easily understood and needs little description.
Pictures of subjects.
Endorsements of peers.
No further need for research.
No benefits for use in practice.
Ways to change practice based on results.
Ways to avoid using the results in other studies.
Analytical examination or commentary of a research report.
A negative assessment related to the weaknesses of a research report.
An analytical evaluation of the literature review.
A positive assessment of the research design.
Hypothesis(es) and literature review.
Strengths and limitations.
Research design and sampling methodology.
Shortcomings and critical problems.
Planning a monthly session to complete a literature review.
Completing a critique of a single research project.
Assessing at least one research report on a weekly basis.
Reviewing abstracts from selected research projects.
The nurse reads the entire discussion section carefully to gain an overview of the research report.
The nurse identifies shortcomings that are unfamiliar, to clarify the limitations within the study.
The nurse reads the entire study meticulously to acquire a general understanding of the research report.
The nurse identifies modifications for the selected research report.
Length of the research reports.
Incorporation of triangulation into the process.
Use of convenient sampling methodology.
Concreteness of the research design.
Easily identify the hypothesis(es).
Carefully assess the data collection and management processes.
Quickly determine the conceptual framework utilized.
Effectively understand the statistical results.
Rationale for the utilization of the method.
Clear delineation of the sampling method.
In-depth discussion of the methodology.
Listing of the strengths and limitations.
The nurse to be fired.
The hospital to ignore it.
A root cause analysis.
The doctor to be present.