Research

One of the primary foundations for evidence-based nursing practice is

Medical knowledge.
Research results.
Everyday health care.
Textbook information.

Research results

Within the process of providing evidence-based nursing care, which types of research results are incorporated to ascertain the plan of treatment?

Personal experiences and medical knowledge
Client values and medical knowledge
Personal experiences and client values
Medical knowledge and identified challenges

Personal experiences and client values

As a novice nurse on a medical-surgical hospital unit, you want to get involved in a research study that is being proposed for your unit. Because your hospital is involved with evidence-based nursing practice, which aspects of EBP are essential for you to have?

Sound bedside nursing skills
Basic knowledge of your unit
Method for accessing published information
Fundamental safety knowledge

Method for accessing published information

Which of the EBP components carries the greatest weight in determining the management of the clinical situation?

Thought process
Client preferences
Research
The situation

The situation

Evidence comes in many forms. Examples of the data that could best be utilized for EBP are

Quality improvement data and integrated reviews.
Integrated reviews and non-peer-reviewed journal
articles.
Collegial relationships and lay journals.
Verbal data and practice guidelines.

Quality improvement data and integrated reviews

When developing a question to drive the compilation of evidence for a specific practice situation, the five components that can be used to focus the investigation are

Patient, situation, intervention, comparison, and practice.
Situation, intervention, comparison, outcome, and time.
Patient, intervention, comparison, outcome, and time.
Patient, situation, intervention, outcome, and data.

Patient, intervention, comparison, outcome and time

A nurse working in a cancer follow-up setting has been asked to consider the development of a transition program to help young people adjust to the adult program. The initial question suggested for use in focusing the identification of evidence is “What is it like to have care transferred from a pediatric center to an adult clinic?” Which aspects of this question need to be strengthened to make it more searchable?

Population and outcome
Population and intervention
Intervention and outcome
Comparison and outcome

Population and intervention

Research utilization has often been

Neglected in the literature.
Denied by publishers.
Reported in the literature.
Spurned by EBP.

Reported in the literature

Obstacles to using nursing research in practice include lack of

Education, beliefs/attitudes, and support/resources.
Faculty, knowledge, and cost.
Time, beliefs/attitudes, and consumers.
Outcomes, values, and motivation.

Education, beliefs/attitudes, and support/resources.

As a nurse on a medical-surgical hospital unit, you begin to question the amount of time your hospital policy requires for taking a patient’s oral temperature. Your hospital uses an EBP approach to nursing care. Which hospital resources would you expect to be able to connect with to assist with the accessing of a computer?

Ward clerk or CNA
Doctor or lawyer
Charge nurse or supervisor
Librarian or library

Librarian or library

You are a BSN-prepared nurse who wants to initiate a research project on your unit. To get the other nurses to participate, you would

Ask the doctors what they think.
Check the educational level of other nurses on the unit.
Ignore your desire to learn more at this time.
Give a presentation to your peers on the benefits of research.

Check the educational level of other nurses on the unit.

In the past, nurses were often taught that while research might be a good thing to do, only faculty could do research because

Faculty members are the only ones prepared to do research.
Most nurses have not been taught research.
Most nurses don’t need to use research.
Faculty members know what’s best for nursing.

Most nurses have not been taught research

Many nurses don’t understand research because

Research isn’t necessary for their practice.
Most nurses are too old.
Research is like a foreign language.
Patients don’t expect them to use research.

Research is like a foreign language

Research is often not valued because

It costs too much.
Administration wants it.
Search engines are easy to access.
Staffing is not an obstacle.

It costs too much.

Nurses have a responsibility to use research because

Doctors order it done.
Administrators don’t have time for research.
Research is nice to know.
Research is the “hallmark of a profession.”

Research is the “hallmark of a profession.”

The ACA, IOM/RWJF and Carnegie Foundation reports are national movements to

Reaffirm current nursing practice.
Ignore current nursing practice.
Transform current nursing practice.
Eliminate current nursing practice.

Transform current nursing practice

What type of evidence is paramount to use when providing health care?

Outcomes based on the unique situation
Opinions held by multiple individuals
Research is the only form of evidence
The weight of the evidence is not as important as the amount

Research is the only form of evidence

Four aspects which are included in evidence-based practice are

Research, decision-making processes, time, and patient preferences.
Evidence, decision-making processes, clinical setting, and patient mix.
Evidence, decision-making processes, nursing experiences, and holistic patient care.
Research, nursing process, nursing experiences, and nursing care.

Evidence, decision-making processes, nursing experiences, and holistic patient care.

What aspect within the process of evidence-based practice controls the path of the literature review?

Determination of the question
Use of MeSH terms
Location of adequate research articles
Determination of a rating system to be used

Determination of the question

Quality improvement activities result in what type of changes?

Generalizable
Global
Broad, dynamic
Local, regional

Local, regional

Whether the evidence is gained by research or other sources, the information must be scrutinized for

Uniqueness.
Individuality.
Validity.
Reliability.

Validity

The type of knowing which considers the emotions and awareness of beauty and art is called

Empirics.
Aesthetics.
Ethical.
Personal.

Aesthetics

When the information is presented as a close examination of individuals, transactions, solutions, events, and projects, the type of evidence is listed as

Case studies.
Opinions.
Editorials.
Observations.

Case studies

Information provided as feelings, convictions, and/or values are designated as which form of evidence?

Editorials
Observations
Ideas
Opinions

opinions

When the evidence is understood to represent the outcome resulting from the discussion by a majority of the participants, it is what type of evidence?

Editorials
Observations
Expert opinions
Consensus

Consensus

What reason is key for using a level of evidence hierarchy to rate evidence considered for EBP reviews?

Understanding what is in the evidence
Clarifying that only research evidence is used
Determining the risk and benefit of the research
Categorizing the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence

Categorizing the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence

The AHRQ tool for evaluating the strength of the evidence is used to determine

The anticipated benefit and/or harm to the patient.
Only the benefit for the nurse.
Gaps and consistencies in the research.
The harm for the nurse.

The anticipated benefit and/or harm to the patient.

Which of the different rating scales serves to address the clinical routine aspect of EBP?

Turning Research into Practice (TRIP)
Joanna Briggs Institute’s FAME
AHRQ strength of the evidence tool
SUNY Downstate Medical Center’s pyramid

AHRQ strength of the evidence tool

The four types of knowing are designated as

Deontology, empiric, clinical, and aesthetics.
Empirics, aesthetics, ethical, and personal.
Facts, opinions, case studies, and consensus.
Decision making, clinical, ethical, and client.

Empirics, aesthetics, ethical, and personal.

The AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation) Collaboration tool is used to

Grade the evidence used within the guideline.
Score the research articles to be used for a guideline.
Establish the anticipated benefit and/or harm of the guideline.
Provide an additional tool to be used at the bedside.

Grade the evidence used within the guideline

The ONS method, the Putting Evidence into Practice (PEP) schema is used to

Identify the research that was used in the process.
Rate the collective evidence that supports a recommendation.
Establish the risk and/or benefit of an activity.
Rank the research articles for use with a guideline.

Rate the collective evidence that supports a recommendation.

The research role of the baccalaureate degree nurse includes

Identifying clinical problems that require investigation, assisting experienced investigators to gain access to clinical sites, and collecting data.
Creating a climate in the practice setting that promotes scholarly inquiry, scientific integrity, and scientific investigation of clinical nursing problems.
Collaborating with experienced investigators in proposal development, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation of results.
Providing leadership in integrating research into practice.

Identifying clinical problems that require investigation, assisting experienced investigators to gain access to clinical sites, and collecting data.

Potential areas of nursing research identified by the National Institute for Nursing Research include

Stem cell research.
Application of pharmaceuticals in clinical practice.
Chronic illness, health promotion, disease prevention, and end-of-life care.
Healthcare literacy.

Chronic illness, health promotion, disease prevention, and end-of-life care.

The first issue of Nursing Research was published in

1858
1952
1985
1992

1952

The Nursing Studies Index, the first annotated index of nursing research, was the work of

Florence Nightingale.
Virginia Henderson.
Marita Titler.
Dorothea Orem.

Virginia Henderson

The American Nurses Association position statement acknowledges that

Researchers identify clinical problems and study them.
Faculty members identify clinical problems and study them.
Clinicians identify clinical problems and researchers design them.
Faculty members and researchers identify clinical problems and study them.

Clinicians identify clinical problems and researchers design them.

Clinical pathways are developed by

Nursing teams.
Physician teams.
Educator teams.
Multidisciplinary teams.

Multidisciplinary teams

A bundle is a group of interventions related to a disease or care process that

Results in better outcomes than when the interventions are implemented together.
Results in diverse outcomes when the interventions are implemented individually.
Results in confusing information about a single disease or care process.
Provides insufficient evidence to alter clinical practice related to individualized interventions.

Results in better outcomes than when the interventions are implemented together.

Professional care models give nurses

Accountability.
Authority.
Responsibility.
All of the above.

All of the above

Best practice is an excellent example of which kind of testing?

Cognitive
Reality
Didactic
Evaluation

Reality

Basic research is also known as bench research and is defined as research to gain knowledge for

Use in academia.
Use in clinical practice.
Knowledge’s sake.
Use in biochemistry.

Knowledge’s sake

Applied research builds a body of knowledge for nursing practice because it is the basis of

Evidence-based practice.
Clinical pathways.
Nursing process.
Nursing diagnosis.

Evidence-based practice

Sources for nursing research come primarily from two sources:

Business and occupational settings.
Academic and healthcare settings.
Both urban and rural settings.
Pharmaceutical and business settings.

Academic and healthcare settings

Best practices in nursing can be defined as

A well-written plan of nursing care.
A systems approach to nursing care.
Nursing actions that produce desirable patient outcomes.
A way for nurses to justify their care.

Nursing actions that produce desirable patient outcomes.

The Institute of Medicine’s publication Keeping Patients Safe focuses on

Building a safer health system.
Processes to report medication errors.
Transforming the work environment for nurses.
Healthcare reform.

Transforming the work environment for nurses.

Theories are

A guide for research and practice.
Considered to be a specific explanation of an idea.
Not essential to research or EBP.
Static and do not change over time.

A guide for research and practice

QA/QI data are now considered

Valid research to guide practice.
Valid evidence to guide practice.
Generalizable to all practice.
Unlimited to any practice.

Valid research to guide practice

The research process allows for

The best method to address the problems.
Little comparison of outcomes.
Limited measures of evaluation.
Extra time for the nurse at the bedside.

The best method to address the problems.

When developing a nursing research project, why is it important to remember the ethical constraints?

The study will not be approved by the institutional review board without these constraints.
The protection of human subjects underlies all human research projects.
The results will not be trustworthy and replicable.
The nurse researcher will not be able to get funding for the project and, therefore, will not be able to complete the project.

The protection of human subjects underlies all human research projects

The atrocities performed on prisoners in Nazi Germany violated which ethical principles?

Value of life, justice, and respect
Beneficence, nonmaleficence, and value of life
Autonomy, nonmaleficence, and respect
Justice, autonomy, and nonmaleficence

Value of life, justice and respect

Protection of vulnerable individuals is a critical ethical component in human research studies. How did Edward Jenner fail to meet this standard when he tested swinepox on his 1-year-old son?

He thought the new knowledge overrode any concern he should have for the rights of his son.
He did not know any better.
He ignored the point that he could not get informed consent from his son, who was particularly vulnerable.
Given that smallpox was such a lethal disease at that time, it was better for Jenner to ignore his son’s vulnerability so to gain new knowledge.

He ignored the point that the could not get informed consent from his son, who was particularly vulnerable.

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study lasted many years, and none of the human subjects were properly informed about the study’s conduct. Which ethical principle was egregiously ignored in this study?

Autonomy
Respect
Nonmaleficence
Justice

Nonmaleficence

Why does an ethical research environment assist with ensuring scientific integrity?

Within this environment, expectations for scientific integrity are laid out.
Federal regulations related to ethical standards are adhered to, increasing the likelihood of integrity.
The researcher always works within an ethical environment, which encourages the practice of ethical research behaviors.
Scientific integrity ensures funding, which means that the study will be completed.

Federal regulations related to ethical standards are adhered to, increasing the likelihood of integrity.

Why do federal regulations specify that the makeup of the institutional review board should reflect cultural and gender diversity and an awareness of local mores?

This practice ensures that all research projects presented to the IRB will receive fair examination and not be denied without discussion.
Gender studies have not been common until recently, and females react differently to different treatments.
Awareness of local customs and culture means that both IRB members and researchers understand issues of concern in a non-American population.
There is now great interest in researching healthcare issues in persons of different cultures.

This practice ensures that all research projects presented to the IRB will receive fair examination and not be denied without discussion.

Why is it important that the researcher be competent to conduct research?

It is not ethically appropriate for an incompetent person to conduct research.
An incompetent researcher will not be able to get informed consent from the vulnerable subject, which is unethical.
An incompetent researcher should always work with someone who is competent, so that he or she can learn the process.
Research is a complicated process that has to be learned.

It is not ethically appropriate for an incompetent person to conduct research.

What is the issue of greatest concern when developing a research project?

The competence of the researcher to do the research
The availability of funding
The protection of the vulnerable subject
Informed consent

The protection of the vulnerable subject.

A Certificate of Confidentiality may be required to protect both the researched and the researcher. Why?

The nurse researcher will not lose his or her license to practice and do research because of the sensitive topic being researched.
If the research topic is particularly sensitive, this certificate protects patients from divulging issues uncomfortable to them.
The certificate protects the researcher and the researched from being coerced by governmental authorities to reveal sensitive information.
The certificate means that no information is shared with those who should not be informed.

The certificate protects the researcher and the researched from being coerced by governmental authorities to reveal sensitive information.

Why do research questions have to be developed carefully?

The wrong question for the study means the wrong answer.
Carefully developed and refined questions focus the research project.
Without careful development of the questions, the research results will be meaningless.
It is unethical not to develop questions carefully.

Carefully developed and refined questions focus the research project.

Informed consent is a crucial issue in research projects because

Research results will be more meaningful.
The researcher will be adhering to international codes of ethics from which federal regulations are drawn.
The project will be rejected by the IRB, because the subject is not informed about the study.
The consenting subject will understand what the research is about and will have the choice to participate (or not).

The consenting subject will understand what the research is about and will have the choice to participate or not.

Scientific misconduct on the part of the researcher is very serious. What constitutes scientific misconduct?

Lying about the project to subjects when seeking informed consent
Fabrication, falsification of data, and plagiarism
Attributing only partial authorship to other contributors when they have done most of the work
Making false claims about a project being funded when the researcher is talking about his or her work

Fabrication, falsification of data, and plagarism.

HIPAA, which was designed to protect all humans and their medical records in this era of electronic paperless records, has imposed another restraint on conducting research. Why?

It is more difficult to obtain IRB permission to conduct a research project.
With paperless medical records, there are no data to analyze, even when interview data and surveys are involved.
The regulations protect against unauthorized disclosure; although IRB permission includes this protection, additional care is taken under HIPAA.
HIPAA ensures that highly sensitive data (e.g., HIV/AIDS status) is not disclosed.

The regulations protect against unauthorized disclosure; although IRB permission includes this protection, additional care is taken under HIPAA.

Privacy and confidentiality are always issues in human subject research. What are the important steps to ensure that they are protected?

The researcher does not talk about what the subject shares until the project’s results are published in a peer-reviewed journal.
All data are kept securely locked in a safe place and destroyed when the study is completed.
Care with replication studies must be taken so that original data are not shared in the second study.
All data are kept securely locked in a safe place and may be destroyed only according to IRB instructions.

All data are kept securely locked in a safe place and may be destroyed according to IRB instructions.

Both the International Council of Nurses and the American Nurses Association make it clear that the ethical standards of the profession require the same obligations from the nurse researcher. Why?

For the protection of vulnerable clients and patients
For the protection of the nurse researcher
Because of an obligation inherent within the nursing profession
Because practice on which these ethical standards are built focuses nursing research

For the protection of vulnerable clients and patients.

In developing a question for an EBP project involving the fall rate of patients 65 years of age and older, the initial ethical consideration should be

The age of the researcher.
The number of falls.
The age of the population.
The sample size of the population.

The age of the population.

EBP projects in your institution are not required to obtain IRB approval. However, as the nurse in charge of an EBP project, you must still

Maintain anonymity and confidentiality of patient information.
Maintain professionalism in gathering patient information.
Provide all staff access to the patient information.
Provide patient information obtained to the hospital board of directors.

Maintain anonymity and confidentiality of patient information.

Developing a research study to investigate the availability of health care for minority children whose families are on welfare is an example of a research problem generated primarily from

Practice.
Social issues.
Healthcare trends in society.
Theory.

Social issues

Problems involving moral or ethical issues are not researchable because

They are too costly to perform.
Most researchers are not interested in these studies.
They are based on individual values.
Data collection is problematic.

They are based on individual values.

Determining if studying the problem will lead to results that are applicable to nursing practice is essential when analyzing the _________ of the problem.

Feasibility
Profitability
Cost
Significance

Significance

Which of the following topics would be inappropriate for a researchable problem?

The morality of abortion as a form of birth control
The relationship between cigarette smoking and weight loss
The effect of severe dietary restrictions on well-being
The relationship between religious beliefs and pain perception

The morality of abortion as a form of birth control.

Which of the following is the best example of a problem statement containing all parts of the PICOT format?

Children whose parents stay with them experience less pain.
Hospitalized patients who have a relative with them experience less pain than those who do not.
Hospitalized children ages 3-5 years whose parents stay with them during painful procedures experience less pain than those who do not.
Patients who have a relative with them during a transfusion will experience less anxiety than those who do not.

Hospitalized children ages 3-5 years whose parents stay with them during painful procedures experience less pain than those who do not.

Which of the following best represents a well-constructed problem statement?

What affects pain perception?
Obesity negatively impacts self-image in first graders.
This study will compare the effectiveness of antacids.
Does time of day affect appetite?

Obesity negatively impacts self-image in first graders.

The two essential parts of the research problem statement are the population and the

Setting.
Theory.
Concepts.
Variables.

Variables

The research question is “Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in teenage boys.” Which of the following is/are the independent variable(s)?

Teenage boys with type 2 diabetes
Gender and obesity
Obesity
Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and gender

Obesity

The research question is “Does massage therapy increase satisfaction during cesarean delivery?” Which of the following is/are the dependent variable(s)?

Massage therapy
Satisfaction
Music therapy and satisfaction
Satisfaction and type of delivery

Satisfaction

Which statement by a fellow student best describes a confounding variable?

“It can take on a wide range of values.”
“A variable that is restricted to whole numbers.”
“It describes the characteristics of the study subjects.”
“A variable that can’t be controlled.”

A variable that can’t be controlled.

Which of the following best represents a dichotomous variable?

Blood pressure
Age at death
Gender
Weight

Gender

Which of the following represents a simple hypothesis?

Exposure to pet therapy increases appetite in elderly patients.
Family support and positive attitude decrease symptoms of dysreflexia in spinal cord injured patients.
Social support, balanced diet, and regular exercise decrease the incidence of postpartum depression.
Daily exercise and eliminating carbohydrates from the diet will result in a significant weight reduction in obese diabetic patients.

Exposure to pet therapy increases appetite in elderly patients.

What is the difference between a null hypothesis and a directional hypothesis?

One is a declarative sentence; the other is a question.
One assumes a relationship; the other denies that one exists.
One is researchable; the other is statistical.
One includes at least two variables; the other does not.

One assumes a relationship; the other denies that one exists.

Which statement best represents the relationship between a causal and an associative hypothesis?

They are the opposite of each other.
One is written in as a question, the other as a declarative sentence.
One assumes a relationship, the other denies that one exists.
They are similar to each other.

They are the opposite of each other.

An operational definition of a variable is one that is:

Broad and abstract.
Narrow and abstract.
Concrete and continuous.
Narrow and concrete.

Narrow and concrete.

A literature review is

Everything that is known about a subject.
An analytical summary of research findings.
All approved data on a research topic.
A compilation of all positive results of research.

An analytical summary of research findings.

The purpose of the literature review is to

Identify a problem that has not been resolved.
Clarify the importance of a research problem.
Identify gaps in the literature.
All of the above.

All of the above

The literature review should occur

Near the end of the research process.
Shortly before the analysis of the problem.
Early in the research process.
None of the above.

Early in the research process.

When conducting a literature review, it is advisable to

Seek most information from the Internet.
Gather all data from books.
Gather all data from journals.
Seek assistance from a librarian.

Seek assistance from a librarian.

Evidence-based nursing literature provides the nurse with the ability to

Choose only those practice activities based on evidence.
Describe and analyze published research results.
Use textbook information.
Problem-solve all nursing issues.

Describe and analyze published research results.

A database differs from a search engine in the following manner:

A database stores the information.
A search engine takes you to the information.
Databases are specialized by area of knowledge.
All of the above.

All of the above

The database that is considered the premier bibliographic database for providing access in the North Americas for biomedical literature is

Google.
MEDLINE.
CINAHL.
Yahoo!

MEDLINE

It is appropriate to use key word searches in which of the following contexts?

Evidence-based medicine
Ovid
MEDLINE
Evidence-based nursing

Ovid

The purpose section of a research study usually

Tells the geographic location of the study.
Tells why the study was done.
Is the methodology of the study.
Tells what the study is about.

Tell why the study was done.

The gaps in the literature are

Missing pieces in the knowledge of the research area.
Questions about the research that have not been explained.
Suggestions for future research made by the author.
All of the above.

All of the above

The main difference between a research article and a non-research article is

A research article reports statistics on surveys and a non-research article does not.
A research article describes research by the original author.
A non-research article describes the methods of how the study was conducted.
A non-research article conducts analysis and statistical testing on the data presented in the article.

A reserach article describes research by the original author.

A researcher who wishes to study the impact of having a child with cystic fibrosis on family functioning contacts the local chapter of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation for assistance in finding parents to interview. Parents of children with cystic fibrosis in the local chapter are the:

Target population.
Accessible population.
Sample.
Participants.

Accessible population

In a study of the use of simulation in nursing education, the researcher specifies that participants must be nursing students 18 years of age or older who are in their first clinical nursing course. These specifications are an example of

Demographic variables.
Exclusion criteria.
Extraneous variables.
Inclusion criteria.

inclusion criteria

A sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population is known as a

Random sample.
Purposive sample.
Representative sample.
Probability sample.

Representative sample

Which of the following types of studies would require the largest sample size?

Experimental study
Descriptive survey
Grounded theory
Ethnographic study

Experimental study

A researcher has decided to conduct a satisfaction survey among all of the patients who presented to the emergency department over a two-month period of time. This is an example of

Stratified random sampling.
Cluster sampling.
Convenience sampling.
Purposive sampling.

Convenience sampling

In a study of nursing students’ attitudes toward caring for patients with hypertension who are noncompliant with their medications, the researcher randomly selected a sample of nursing students from a list of all students enrolled in each of five nursing programs that had been randomly selected from one state. Because the sample was randomly selected, to which population can the findings be generalized?

Nursing students in the programs that were randomly selected
Nursing students in the state from which the programs were randomly selected
Nursing students in the United States
All nursing students

Nursing students in the state from which the programs were randomly selected

Power analysis is conducted to

Determine a large effect size.
Estimate sample size.
Test for internal validity.
Set the level of significance.

Estimate sample size

Determination of the appropriate sample size in qualitative research is based on the principle(s) of

Power analysis.
The “rule of 30.”
Saturation and redundancy.
Convenience.

Saturation and redundancy

Which of the following would be the strongest method for assigning 50 subjects to treatment and control groups in an experimental study?

Group subjects according to attending physician.
List subjects alphabetically, divide the list in half, place the first 25 names in the treatment group and the last 25 in the control group.
Assign each participant a number, place even numbered participants in the treatment group and the odd numbered in the control group.
Assign each participant a number, place the numbers in a box, draw numbers from the box, alternating placement in either the treatment group or the control group.

Assign each participant a number, place the numbers in a box, draw numbers from the box, alternating placement in either the treatment group or the control group.

In interpreting quantitative research results, the representativeness of the sample is most closely tied to

Internal validity.
External validity.
Sample validity.
Research validity.

External validity

Which of the following characteristics is not part of a quantitative research design?

Randomization
Manipulation
Saturation
Control

Saturation

Which of the following is not an independent variable?

Outcome
Treatment
Intervention
Experiment

Outcome

Quantitative research is often identified with which method of gathering data?

Triangulation
Saturation
Ethnography
Scientific

Scientific

Nonexperimental designs generate _____ for _____ designs.

Answers; quasi-experimental
Questions; experimental
Solutions; quantitative
Problems; experimental

Questions; experimental

One of the most common and important characteristics of a quantitative design is

The dependent variable.
The independent variable.
Control.
The relationship.

Control

Manipulation of which variable is connected to control?

Independent
Dependent
Extraneous
Attribute

Independent

Randomization helps to eliminate

Confounding data.
Ethics.
Subjects.
Bias.

Bias

Generalization can _____ a study.

Weaken
Strengthen
Shorten
Lengthen

Strengthen

A comparative design has

No manipulation and control of the dependent variable.
Only measurement of the dependent variable.
No manipulation and control of the independent variable.
Both B and C.

Both B and C

A correlational study looks at the

Cause of two or more variables.
Relationship of two or more variables.
Effect of two or more variables.
Both A and C.

Relationship of two or more variables

Issues related to experimental design include

Manipulation of all variables, ethics, and feasibility.
The Hawthorne effect, ethics, and sample size.
Treatments, interventions, and no manipulation of variables.
Feasibility, the Hawthorne effect, and research questions.

Manipulation of all variables, ethics, and feasibility.

An example of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design is as follows (where R = randomization, O = measurement, and X = treatment):

R O X O
O X O
O O X O O
O O O X O O O

R O X O

Meta-analysis is the examination of multiple studies through statistical analysis to establish

The nonexistence of bias.
New data sets for analysis.
The nonexistence of confounding variables.
Correlation of the variables.

New data sets for analysis

A quasi-experimental design is one in which

The dependent variable is manipulated with randomization and a control group.
The independent variable is manipulated with randomization and a control group.
The independent variable is manipulated with no randomization and no control group.
The dependent variable is manipulated with no randomization and no control group.

The independent variable is manipulated with no randomization and no control group.

The initial baseline measurement in a nonequivalent control group is used to determine if the subjects assigned to the group are

Different.
Equal.
Bonded.
Similar.

Similar

The research design that collects data at various intervals is called a(n)

Long study.
Time-series study.
Experimental study.
Nonexperimental study.

time-series study

An area of concern in a time-series design is

Randomization.
Control.
Manipulation.
Maturation.

Maturation

Some ways of controlling variables for nonexperimental or quasi-experimental designs are

Timing of test intervals and the setting.
Randomization of subjects and control groups.
Flexible inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Control of history and maturation.

Timing of test intervals and the setting.

In evidence-based practice, a nurse using quantitative research for clinical decision making must be most knowledgeable about how

To calculate statistics.
To write research reports.
The study design applies to practice.
To design a research study.

The study design applies to practice

Using research in practice requires the nurse to be most aware of

Limited funding.
Generalizability of the results to current practice.
Exclusion of subjects.
The credentials of the researcher.

Generalizability of the results to current practice.

Quality improvement (QI) projects are considered

The same as scientific inquiry.
Different from scientific inquiry.
To focus on only patient satisfaction.
A rigorous approach for research.

To focus on only patient satisfaction.

Root cause analysis (RCA) had its origin in

Dental industry.
Mechanical engineering.
Military industry.
Business industry.

Military industry

The Joint Commission mandated RCAs in

1967
1977
1987
1997

1997

Qualitative research examines which of the following characteristics of a phenomenon?

Frequency
Quantity
Quality
Intensity

Quality

Which of the following best illustrates the emic perspective in research?

Finding a quality of a phenomenon and looking for examples of the quality
Taking an outsider’s view of a phenomenon
Exploring the way members of a group view themselves
Validating perspectives about a group through interviews

Exploring the way members of a group view themselves.

Which of the following types of studies is considered qualitative research?

Delphi technique
Cross-sectional design
Ethnography
Survey

Ethnography

Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study is known as

Systematic analysis.
Transferability.
Prospective design.
Triangulation.

Triangulation

A researcher explores the phenomenon of how nurses make decisions about when to discuss end-of-life issues with clients. From this research, a model is developed to explain the decision-making process. Which type of research does this represent?

Grounded theory
Ethnography
Phenomenology
Case study

Grounded theory

A researcher examines the norms, rules, and values of the staff of a large long-term care facility. Which type of research does this represent?

Grounded theory
Ethnography
Phenomenology
Case study

Ethnography

A researcher conducts a study in which participants are asked to describe the lived experience of being a caregiver of a parent with Alzheimer’s disease. Which type of qualitative study does this represent?

Grounded theory
Ethnography
Phenomenology
Case study

Phenomenology

Which of the following statements is true with regard to comparing qualitative and quantitative research methods?

Qualitative studies often require a larger sample size than quantitative studies.
Qualitative studies don’t require evidence of reliability and validity.
Qualitative studies don’t allow for the use of computerized data analysis.
Qualitative research is often inductive in nature, whereas quantitative research is deductive in nature.

Qualitative research is often inductive in nature, whereas quantitative research is deductive in nature.

When writing up a research project, the researcher describes in detail the audit trail used as conclusions about data were drawn. Which criterion for reliability and validity was met?

Credibility
Transferability
Dependability
Confirmability

Dependability

When writing up a research project, the researcher describes in detail the sample, setting, and data. Which criterion for reliability and validity was met?

Credibility
Transferability
Dependability
Confirmability

Transferability

When writing up a research project, the researcher describes in detail how biases, assumptions, and personal perspectives were identified and set aside, or bracketed. Which criterion for reliability and validity was met?

Credibility
Transferability
Dependability
Confirmability

Confirmability

The researcher collecting data notices that she is beginning to hear the same things repeatedly and that no new themes are emerging. The researcher recognizes that what has occurred?

Triangulation
Saturation
Quantizing
Redundancy

Saturation

Another term used within the literature for mixed method design is

Quantitative design.
Qualitative design.
Multimethod design.
Experimental design.

Multimethod design

When a researcher endeavors to use mixed method design to answer an identified research problem, the blending of the methods is based on

Combining the methods to capitalize on their strong points while negating their flaws.
Combining the methods to blend both their strengths and their weaknesses.
Separating the strengths from the weaknesses within the different designs.
Separating the weaker method from the stronger method.

Combining the methods to capitalize on their strong points while negating their flaws.

The research designs are merged within which sections of the report on the research project?

Introduction, sampling, and problem identification
Problem identification, data collection, and analysis
Sampling, data collection, and analysis
Introduction, data collection, and analysis

Sampling. data collection, and analysis

The primary restrictions related to the researcher that prevent the use of mixed method research are

Lack of understanding about the methods and the research community.
Lack of willingness to engage in the use of, and lack of confidence in, one research method.
Lack of vision and risk taking.
Lack of willingness and overconfidence.

Lack of vision and risk taking.

A nurse identifies individuals who seem to comply better with a treatment plan when several different teaching methods are used within the discharge planning process. In developing a mixed method design for researching which educational methods work best, a question concerning the type of data to be collected is confronted. Which of the following groups of data collection methods represents a mixed method format?

Likert scale tool with a demographic component
Observation of teaching sessions with videotaping
Focus group discussion with audiotaping
Likert scale tool with focus group discussion

Likert scale tool with focus group discussion

The determination of the mixed method design approach must address the meshing of the qualitative and quantitative methodologies through the use of which of the following criteria?

Implementation, prioritization, and integration
Implementation, analysis, and investigation
Analysis, prioritization, and integration
Collection, prioritization, and analysis

Implementation, prioritization, and integration

A researcher has elected to conduct a mixed method research project. Within this project, the decision has been made to conduct the two types of data collection concurrently, with each type of data having equal weight within the analysis process. Based on these decisions, what must the researcher make sure is done for the reporting of the process?

Establish a team to aid in the management of the study.
Reevaluate the decision, because quantitative research is the stronger method.
Ensure that confidentiality is maintained within the process.
Document the rationale for the decisions made within the process.

Document the rationale for the decisions made within the process.

Triangulation in mixed method research is utilized for the purposes of supporting _____ validity.

Criterion
Convergent
Construct
Variable

Convergent

The data collected in mixed method research and the emphasis given to each type of data should be determined by the _____ and goals of the study.

Source of funding
Preference of the research team
Research problem
Literature

Research problem

Qualitative data analysis seeks _____ in understanding a phenomenon.

Rigor
Depth
Numbers
Statistics

Depth

A primary reason for using mixed research methodologies is the opportunity to _____ that might otherwise be overlooked.

Catch complexities
Define concepts
Describe problems
Uncover opportunities

Catch complexities

In mixed method research, the collection of quantitative and qualitative data is often treated

Synchronously.
Stringently.
Independently.
Statistically.

Independently

An advantage of using a mixed method design for a research study is to

Increase the biases associated with the use of two designs.
Provide insight into the complexity of the problem under study.
Impart rigor to the examination of the intricacies of the problem under study.
Decrease the impartiality associated with the use of one design.

Provide insight into the complexity of the problem under study.

Limitations related to the use of mixed method strategies include the

Cost and additional time required.
Extensive and comprehensive research questions involved.
Vivacity of the evidence provided.
Complementary insights and perceptions provided.

Cost and additional time required.

Which of the following examples is not a data collection source used as a mechanism for amassing the information?

Focus group discussions
Observations
Work excitement instrument
Project progress reports

Work excitement instrument

Which of the following processes is not a major method of data collection?

Observations
Open-ended questions
Secondary (existing) data
Tests

Open-ended questions

When considering the different data collection schemes, researchers must be careful to contemplate the presence of the Hawthorne effect. The Hawthorne effect is defined as a process in which the:

Participant does not modify his or her behavior to meet the expectations of the study.
Researcher modifies his or her behavior because of conducting the study.
Researcher modifies the participants’ behavior based on the data collected.
Participant modifies his or her behavior as a result of engagement in the study.

Participant modifies his or her behavior as a result of engagement in the study.

As a researcher, you are attempting to gather data about the effects of a drug on individuals between the ages of 20 and 40 years. On the developed tool, the age ranges are provided as follows: 20-25; 25-30; 30-35; 35-40. Which problem is evident in this set of responses related to the question seeking to know a person’s current age?

The categories are not mutually exclusive.
The categories are not exhaustive.
The categories are written in a closed-ended format.
There is no problem with this set of response categories.

The categories are not mutually exclusive.

Which of the following are tenets for use when designing a questionnaire?

Use a variety of items and approaches to appraise conceptual ideas.
Ensure that each question addresses the entire scope of the topic.
Use simple but appropriate jargon for the designated topics.
Both A and B.

Both A and B

Which of the following is a method of data collection?

Experimental
Grounded theory
Observation
Cross-sectional

Observation

When developing questions for an instrument, a researcher should be careful in the wording to

Provide hints toward the response.
Use jargon as needed.
Use single-topic questions.
Use cultural aspects to provide context.

Provide hints toward the response.

Both open-ended and closed-ended questions are used to collect data for research endeavors. Which of the following statements is true?

Open-ended questions are used to collect primarily quantitative data.
Closed-ended questions are used to collect quantitative data information, because the researcher provides the answers for selection.
Open-ended questions provide confirmatory information, because the data are focused by the question.
Closed-ended questions are used to collect exploratory data, because the information is left up to the individual.

Closed-ended questions are used to collect quantitative data information, because the researcher provides the answers for selection.

Open-ended questions provide primarily _____ data.

Confirmatory
Exhaustive
Qualitative
Quantitative

Qualiltative

Which of the following statements is true concerning observation?

Clear directions related to the operational definitions of the selected behavior must be determined.
Ethical considerations are a minor concern within this method of data collection.
Observation data collection strategies result in manageable amounts of field notes to analyze.
Within observational sessions, the observer is always known to the participant.

Clear directions related to the operational definitions of the selected behavior must be determined.

When creating a questionnaire, it is essential to do each of the following except

Be concise and reasonably brief.
Code and weight the responses prior to the administration of the tool.
Conduct a pilot testing of the tool with a select group of the target population.
Use double-negative questions regularly within the tool.

Use double-negative questions regularly within the tool.

A researcher decides to use observation as the data collection method for a study. To effectively collect the needed data from college-age students, the researcher enrolls in a selected college course to be able to observe and collect data about the behaviors of the students. The researcher is using which observation role?

Complete participant
Participant-as-observer
Observer-as-participant
Complete observer

Complete participant

A class of preschool children is observed via a one-way mirror for a research project designed to determine the aggressive behaviors of boys and girls. The parents of the students are not informed about the research project, as no intervention is planned. Which type of data is being collected?

Quantitative
Covert
Overt
Time sequence

Covert

Which of the following terms best describes data compiled for another reason and applied in a different manner?

Primary data
Secondary data
Novice data
Experimental data

Secondary data

Which of the following biophysiological tests is an example of in vivo data?

Complete blood count
Urinalysis
Respiratory rate
Bacterial count

Respiratory rate

A systematic review considers

Reports about clinical standards.
Research and other documents which address the topic being reviewed.
Only opinion documents that address a topic of interest.
Only quantitative research reports.

Research and other documents which address the topic reviewed.

When making good decisions in evidence-based practice, _____ of the data is necessary.

Confirmability
Trustworthiness
Independence
Timing

Trustworthiness

Reliability is defined as the case in which an instrument

Consistently measures the same thing.
Measures what it is supposed to measure.
Measures demographic data.
Consistently measures the same sample.

Consistently measures the same thing.

Reliability and relevance may exist

With dependence on validity.
With only independence of validity.
Independently of validity.
None of the above.

Independently of validity

A valid test will _____ have some degree of reliability and relevance.

Never
Sometimes
Frequently
Always

Always

When measuring blood pressure, the actual score is the

Observed score on the instrument.
Estimated score determined by the nurse.
Perfect score without error.
First sound heard by the nurse.

Observed score on the instrument.

Reliability coefficients greater than _____ are considered to be high.

0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8

0.8

As an example of consistency and stability in EBP, when a urinalysis is done four times in a 24-hour period, the urine sample needs to be the _____ amount.

Correct
Same
Smallest
Largest

Same

Dividing scores on a pain questionnaire (with 0-5 items) into odd-numbered and even-numbered scores is a mechanism that can be used to determine

External consistency.
Relevance.
Internal consistency.
Validity.

Internal consistency

A research study was developed to consider the assessment of skin color. Nurses on a medical-surgical unit were asked to record their judgments of the skin color from four pictures of individuals with differing skin tones. This process is an example of which area of reliability measurement?

Accuracy
Objectivity
Feasibility
Equivalency

Objectivity

Which test is used to establish the measurement of the accuracy related to reliability?

ANOVA
Standard error of measure (SEM)
Pearson Product Moment (PPM) correlation
Reliability coefficient

Standard error of measure (SEM)

To establish a test as an accurate measurement of reliability, the test scores need a relatively _____ standard deviation and a _____ reliability coefficient.

High; high
Low; low
Low; high
High; low

low; high

Factors that can affect the reliability, objectivity, and accuracy of a tool or test include

Practice, timing, and environment.
Fatigue, subjects, and environment.
Precision, homogeneity of the test conditions, and the researcher.
Sequencing, practice, and level of ease.

Practice, timing and environment

Validity can be classified as

Universal.
Concise.
General.
Logical.

Logical

A criterion for content-related validity determination is

The inclusion of extraneous variables.
Establishment of brief guidelines for using the tool.
A well-defined protocol for data collection.
The clarification of nuances that might add errors.

A well-defined protocol for data collection.

A researcher was comparing alternative methods for establishing a child’s core body temperature for a study. The testing included the measurement of anal, oral, and aural temperatures. This example reflects which type of validity determination?

Construct-related validity
Criterion-related validity
Content-related validity
Predictive validity

Criterion-related validity

A study presented the results from the development of a new tool. This tool was established to measure the level of anxiety perceived by children. Which type of validity would this study need to document for the tool?

Content-related validity
Criterion-related validity
Construct-related validity
Concurrent validity

Construct-related validity

Which statistic is often used for nominally scaled variables?

t-test
ANOVA
Chi-square
Pearson product moment

Chi-square

What level of measurement is most often associated with categorical data such as gender?

Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio

Nominal

Which inferential procedure is appropriate when there is one nominal-scale dependent variable and one nominal-scale independent variable?

Chi-square
t-test
One-way ANOVA
Factor analysis

Chi-Square

Inferential statistics are used to decide if differences among treatment groups are due to the

Significance.
Dependent variable.
Confounding variable.
Independent variable.

Independent variable

Selection of the appropriate statistical technique is based on

The research question.
The level of measurement of the independent variable or variables.
The level of measurement of the dependent variable or variables.
All of the above.

All of the above

What do statistically significant findings imply?

The results are very important.
The results are not very important.
The results are likely due to chance differences among groups.
The results are likely due to real differences among groups.

The results arelikely due to real differences among groups.

A researcher investigated the relationship between vitamin C (none, 500 mg, 1,000 mg) and workers (office, outdoors) in terms of the frequency of colds. Which of the following is (are) the dependent variable(s)?

Colds
Vitamin C
Colds and workers
Vitamin C and workers

Colds

Which of the following is an inferential statistic?

Mode
t-test
Standard deviation
Range

t-test

Which statistical test has a dependent variable that is nominal in nature?

Chi-square
t-test
ANOVA
Two-way ANOVA

Chi-square

The standard deviation is

The square of the mean deviation.
The square of the variance.
The square root of the variance.
The square root of the sum of squares.

The square root of the variance.

The t-test is used to

Adjust for initial differences within the groups.
Estimate the error of prediction.
Test whether two groups differ significantly.
Test whether more than two groups differ significantly.

Test whether two groups differ significantly.

Use of a one-tailed versus a two-tailed test of significance of the difference between two samples is determined by

Whether there is expected overlap between the error curves of the two sample distributions.
Whether the difference is expected to be in one direction only.
The size of the samples relative to population size.
Whether the subjects were matched or chosen randomly.

Whether the difference is expected to be in one direction only.

Nurses must critically assess research studies to

Understand that all research is scientifically sound.
Determine the applicability of their findings to practice.
Know that all studies are perfect.
Identify a negative approach to research utilization.

Determine the applicability of their findings to practice.

Of the nine types of critiques, which of the following are considered essential to EBP?

Student, practicing nurse, and peer review critiques
Abstracts, presentations, and email critiques
Program of research, letters to the editors, and lay-journal critiques
National Institute of Nursing Research, educator groups, and newspaper critiques

Student, practicing nurse, and peer review critiques.

The purpose of a study applies to EBP when it

Adds to the body of nursing knowledge.
Is complete and requires multiple readings.
Is relevant to the authors.
Is hard to find in the literature.

Adds to the body of nursing knowledge.

A hypothesis may be described by which of the following terms?

Results, introduces, criticizes, reviews
Findings, improvements, collections, sets
Studies, plans, appreciates, concerns
Proposes, predicts, supposes, tests

Proposes, predicts, supposes, tests

An essential component of a critique is a description of how the data were collected. Which of the following statements provides the best data collection description?

Data collection was timely and used a tool developed by the researcher.
Multiple tools were used to collect the data.
The data was collected at 2-week intervals using a pre-test/post-test procedure.
The score for the tool is easily understood and needs little description.

The data was collected at 2-week intervals using a pre-test/post-test procedure.

Results of the study should include

Unexpected findings.
Unanswered questions.
Pictures of subjects.
Endorsements of peers.

Unexpected findings

A research study recommendation should include

No further need for research.
No benefits for use in practice.
Ways to change practice based on results.
Ways to avoid using the results in other studies.

Ways to change practice based on results.

The definition of a research critique is understood to imply

Analytical examination or commentary of a research report.
A negative assessment related to the weaknesses of a research report.
An analytical evaluation of the literature review.
A positive assessment of the research design.

Analytical examination or commentary of a research report.

Although many aspects are discussed within a research critique, the basic aspects that the critique is attempting to identify are

Hypothesis(es) and literature review.
Strengths and limitations.
Research design and sampling methodology.
Shortcomings and critical problems.

Strengths and limitations.

Evidence-based nursing practice requires that nurses initiate a pattern to facilitate effective utilization of research results. The best method for improving a nurse’s ability to incorporate research results into practice is

Planning a monthly session to complete a literature review.
Completing a critique of a single research project.
Assessing at least one research report on a weekly basis.
Reviewing abstracts from selected research projects.

Assessing at least one research report on a weekly basis.

Several basic guidelines can be used to make the research critiquing procedure less threatening. Which of the following reflects the utilization of these guidelines?

The nurse reads the entire discussion section carefully to gain an overview of the research report.
The nurse identifies shortcomings that are unfamiliar, to clarify the limitations within the study.
The nurse reads the entire study meticulously to acquire a general understanding of the research report.
The nurse identifies modifications for the selected research report.

The nurse reads the entire study meticulously to acquire a general underestanding of the research report.

Quantitative research design tends to be easier to critique due to the

Length of the research reports.
Incorporation of triangulation into the process.
Use of convenient sampling methodology.
Concreteness of the research design.

Concreteness of the research design.

When attempting to critique a qualitative research endeavor, individuals must be able to

Easily identify the hypothesis(es).
Carefully assess the data collection and management processes.
Quickly determine the conceptual framework utilized.
Effectively understand the statistical results.

Carefully assess the data collection and managment processes.

One unique aspect present in reports of mixed method research projects is a(an)

Rationale for the utilization of the method.
Clear delineation of the sampling method.
In-depth discussion of the methodology.
Listing of the strengths and limitations.

Rationale for the utilization of the method.

Sentinel events require

The nurse to be fired.
The hospital to ignore it.
A root cause analysis.
The doctor to be present.

A root cause analysis.

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