Anatomy & Physiology – Chapter 8: Special Senses

Olfactory receptors
Roof of nasal passages / neurons with long cilia / chemical must be dissolved in mucus for detection / impulses are transmitted via the olfactory nerve / smell

Cortex
Interpretation of smells is made in the…

Olfaction
Sense of smell

Gustatory cells
Have gustatory hairs (long microvilli) / hairs are stimulated by chemicals dissolved in saliva / in taste buds

Photoreceptors
Rods and cones / vision / located in retina (sensory tunic) / signals pass from photoreceptors via a two-neuron chain

Extrinsic
Attached to the eyes are the ____ muscles that allow us to direct our eyes toward a moving object.

Eyelids
The anterior aspect of each eye is protected by the ____.

Meibomian
Closely associated with the lashes are oil-secreting glands called ____ that help lubricate the eyes.

Conjunctivitis
Inflammation of the mucosa lining the eyelids and covering the anterior part of the eyeball is called ____.

Blind spot
Optic disk = …

Ciliary zonule
Attaches the lens to the ciliary body

Aqueous humor
Fluid that provides nutrients to the lens and cornea / anterior-most part of the sclera – your “window on the world”

Sclera
The “white” of they eye

Optic disk
Area of retina that lacks photoreceptors

Ciliary body
Contains muscles that control the shape of the lens / smooth muscle

Choriod coat
Nutritive (vascular) tunic of the eye / heavily pigmented tunic that prevents light scattering within the eye

Canal of Schlemm
Drains the aqueous humor of the eye

Retina
Tunic / containing rods and cones

Vitreous humor
Gel-like substance that helps to reinforce the eyeball

Iris
Area of acute discriminatory vision

Lens
Pigmented “diaphragm” of the eye

Eyelids
Anterior aspect of each eye that protects that eye from outside materials

Meibomian glands
Modified sebaceous glands associated with the eyelid edges / produce an oily secretion that lubricates the eye

Ciliary glands
Modified sweat glands / lie between the eyelashes (cilium = eyelash)

Conjunctiva
Delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers part of the outer surface of the eyeball / secretes mucus, which helps to lubricate the eyeball and keep it moist

Lacrimal apparatus
Consists of lacrimal gland and a number of cust that drain the lacrimal secretions into the nasal cavity

Lacrimal glands
Located above the lateral end of each eye / continually release a dilute salt solution (tears) onto the anterior surface of the eyeball through several small ducts

Lacrimal canals, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct
Tears flush across the eyeball into the ____ medially, then into the ____, and finally into the ____, which empties into the nasal cavity.

Myopia
Nearsightedness / occurs when the parallel light rays from distant objects fail to reach the retina and instead are focused in front of it / distant objects appear blurry to myopic people / eyeball is too long, a lens is too strong, or a cornea is too curved / correction requires a concave lens that diverges the light rays before they enter the eye, so that they converge farther back

Concave
What type of corrective lens would correct the vision disorder of myopia?

Presbyopia
“Old vision” / results from decreasing lens elasticity that accompanies aging / this condition makes it difficult to focus for close vision (basically farsightedness) / begins around age 40

Hyperopia
Farsightedness / occurs when the parallel light rays from distant objects are focused behind the retina – at least in the resting eye in which the lens is flat and the ciliary muscle is relaxed / usually results from an eyeball that is too short or a “lazy” lens / people with this condition can see distant objects clearly / correction requires convex corrective lens that converge that light rays before they enter the eye

Emmetropia
Eye that focuses images correctly on the retna / “harmonious vision”

Glaucoma
Condition of increasing pressure inside the eye, resulting from blocked drainage of aqueous humor

Astigmatism
Blurred vision, resulting from unequal curvatures of the lens or cornea

Pink eye
Infectious form of conjunctivitis caused by bacteria or viruses / highly contagious

Motion sickness
Conflict of information with vision and balance

Watery eyes
The nasal cavity mucosa is continuous with that of the lacrimal duct system, a cold or nasal inflammation often causes the lacrimal mucosa to become inflamed and swell. This impairs the drainage of tears from the eye surface and causes this condition

Night blindness
Inability to see well in the dark; often a result of vitamin A deficiency

Color Blindness
Either a lack of all three cone types or a lack of one cone type leads to partial ____.

Hemianopia
Loss of the same side of the visual field of both eyes, which results from damage to the visual cortex on one side only / the person would not be able to see things past the middle of his or her visual field on either the right or left side

Otitis Media
Inflammation of the middle ear and can also cause a sore throat

Myringotomy
Lancing of the eardrum / tiny tube is implanted in the eardrum that allows pus formed in the middle ear to continue to drain into the external ear canal

Deafness
Hearing loss of any degree

Conduction deafness
Temporary or permanent / results when something interferes with the condition of sound vibrations to the fluids of the inner ear (as simple as a buildup of earwax)

Sensorineural deafness
When there is degeneration or damage to the receptor cells in the organ of Corti, to the cochlear nerve, or to neurons of the auditory cortex / often results from extended listening to excessively loud sounds

Conduction and sensorineural
What are the two types of deafness?

Anosmias
Olfactory disorders / most result from head injuries, the aftereffects of nasal cavity inflammation, or aging / those diagnosed with this condition have the chemical sense loss of zinc deficiency / cure is a prescribed supplement of zinc

Strabismus
“Crossed eyes” / results form unequal pulls by the external eye muscles that prevent the baby from coordinating movement of the two eyes

External acoustic meatus
Allows pressure in the middle ear to be equalized with the atmospheric pressure

Tympanic membrane
Vibrates as sound waves hit it; transmits the vibrations to the ossicles

Cochlea
Contains the organ of Corti

Auditory tube (Eustachian tube)
Connects the nasopharynx and the middle ear

Oval window
Transmits the vibrations from the stirrup to the fluid in the inner ear

Endolymph
Fluid that bathes the sensory receptors of the inner ear

Perilymph
Fluid contained within the osseous labyrinth, which bathes the membranous labyrinth

Pinna
Shell-shaped structure surrounding the auditory canal opening

Ceruminous glands
Secrete earwax

Hammer, anvil, stirrup
Name the middle ear parts that are ossicles.

Ossicles
Transmit the vibratory motion of the eardrum to the fluids of the inner ear.

Cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
What are the three subdivisions of the bony labyrinth?

Membranous labyrinth
System of membrane sacs that more or less follows the shape of the bony labyrinth.

Hair cells
Hearing receptors

Cochlear nerve
Division of the eighth cranial nerve – the vestibulocochlear

Olfactory hairs
Long cilia that protrude from the nasal epithelium and are continually bathed by a layer of mucus secreted by underlying glands

Olfactory nerve
Transports impulses sent by receptors to the olfactory cortex of the brain

Taste buds
Specific receptors for the sense of taste and are widely scattered in the oral cavity

Papillae
Small peg-like projections that cover the dorsal tongue surface

Gustatory hairs
Long microvilli / protrude through the taste pore, and when they are stimulated, they depolarize and impluses are transmitted to the brain

Facial nerve
Serves the anterior part of the tongue

Adaption
Decline in the transmission of a sensory nerve when a receptor is stimulated continuously and without change in stimulus

Sight
Which senses are affected by adaption?

The mind
What exactly does an optical illusion fool?

Temperature, pressure, pain
What are the general senses of touch?

Smell, taste, sight, hearing, equilibrium
Name the five special senses.

Dilute salt solution, antibodies, lysozyme (digestive enzyme)
Name 3 properties of lacrimal fluid.

Cornea
“Window” = …

Cornea
Transparent, central anterior portion / allows for light to pass through / repairs itself easily / the only human tissue that can be transplanted without fear of rejection / NO blood vessels

Choriod Layer
Blood-rich nutritive tunic / pigment (black) prevents light from scattering / modified interiorly into two structures – ciliary body and iris

Lacrimal canals, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity
Trace the pathway that the secretion of the lacrimal glands takes from the surface of the eye.

Refraction
Light bending

Accommodation
Ability to focus for close vision (under 20 feet)

Accommodation pupillary reflex
Reflex constriction of the pupils when viewing close objects

Photopupillary reflex (bright lights)
Reflex-constriction of pupils when they are exposed to bright light

Autonomic nervous system
The intrinsic eye muscles are under the control of which division of the nervous system?

Convex
A ____ lens, like that of the eye, produces an image that is upside down and reversed form left to right.

Behind
In farsightedness, the light is focused ____ the retina.

Convex
The lens used to treat farsightedness is a ____ lens.

In front, concave
In nearsightedness, the light is focused ____ the retina; it is corrected with a ____ lens.

Relaxed, decreased, decreased
Using vision to see DISTANT objects, the ciliary muscle is ____, the lens convexity is ____, and the degree of light refractions is ____.

Contracted, increased, increased
Using vision to see CLOSE objects, the ciliary muscle is ____, the lens convexity is ____, and the degree of light refractions is ____.

Light ray, cornea, aqueous humor, pupil, lens, vitreous humor, retina, optic nerve, optic chaism, optic tract, synapse in thalamus, optic radiation, optic cortex.
Name, in sequence, the neural elements of the visual pathway. (Beginning with the light ray and ending with the optic cortex.

Blue, green, red
What are the 3 types of cones?

Rods
Black and white, or dim light, vision is a function of the ____.

Pinna, external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane
What structures compose the outer ear?

Cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
What structures compose the bony or osseous labyrinth?

3
How many semicircular canals are there?

Pressure
The Eustachian tube (auditory tube) equalizes…

Sound waves, pinnia, auditory canal, eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, oval window, parilymph, vestibular membrane, endolymph, hair cells, cochlea nerve, thalamus, auditory cortex
Trace the pathway through which vibrations and fluid currents travel to finally stimulate the hair cells in the organ of Corti. (Start with sound waves and end with the auditory cortex)

Parilymph
Fills bony labyrinth in ear

Endolymph
Thick fluid the in membranous labyrinth of the ear

Hair cells
What triggers action potential in the ear to hear?

Nystagmus
Involuntary movement of the eyes

Canoreceptors
The ears contain what kind of receptors to hear?

Circumvallate and fungifiorm
What are the two sides of the papillae?

Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami
Name the five basic taste sensations.

Rubella, blindness
Maternal infections, particularly ____, may cause both deafness and ____.

Vision
Of the special senses, the sense of ____ requires the most learning or takes longest to mature.

Presbycusis
In old age, a gradual hearing loss, called ____ occurs.

Fungifiorm
What side of papillae is rounded with taste buds?

Circumvallate
What side of papillae is large with taste buds?

Optic disk
Blind spots are when light from an object is focused on the ____, it disappears from our view and we cannot see it.

When light from an object is focused on the optic disk it disappears from our view
Describe a blind spot.

Personality is defined as an individual’s characteristic pattern of ____, ____, and ____. thinking feeling acting The psychoanalytic perspective on personality was proposed by ____. A second, historically significant perspective was the ____ approach, which focused on people’s capacities for …

Psychologists ____ agree on a definition of intelligence. do not To regard an abstract concept as a concrete entity is to commit the error known as ____. By doing this, we are viewing intelligence as something a person has, rather …

With regard to pharyngitis caused by group C streptococci, the NP considers that: A. potential complications include glomerulonephritis B. appropriate antimicrobial therapy helps to facilitate more rapid resolution of symptoms C. infection with these organisms carries a significant risk of …

The eyeball is wrapped in adipose tissue within the bony orbit. What is the function of the adipose tissue? To package, protect, and cushion the eyeball in the bony orbit. Why does one often have to blow one’s nose after …

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