**** this ****ing anatomy final of ****in 600ish ****in flashcards i mean like really **** this **** im out shoutout to my homie luke cage you da realist

glial cells
Supporting cells in the nervous system. Works to allow neurons to operate
Non-excitable support cells in the nervous system. Size: generally smaller than nerve cells. ~1.5×10^11 cells. ratio to to neurons is between 1:1 and 5:1. Half volume of brain
Form framework to support neurons. Allow neurons to migrate during development. Keep neurons physically separate from one another. Take up excess K+. Stores glucose to distribute to neurons as needed. Connect neurons capillaries to channel oxygen and glucose. Fill in spaces left by dead neurons. Help form the BBB.
neuronal synapses
Astrocytes can envelop ________ _______. Restrict the movement of NT released by the pre-synaptic neurons. Help remove NT that does not reach the post-synaptic cell from the synaptic cleft
Develop myelin sheath around neurons in CNS. Responsible for high conduction velocity of messages in CNS. Each oligodendrocyte myelinated multiple neuronal axons.
Line the cavities of the brain and spinal cord. Help circulate CSF and secrete/absorb nutrients to/from CSF. Help direct neuronal migration during development.
Smallest glial cells. Usually dormant. Provide immune response to pathogen invasion into CNS tissue. Also phagocytic- engulf and remove dead cells or debris from dead cells.
begins with reception of a physical stimulus (ex hearing a sound). Message is propagated from the sensory cells to the brain. (afferent)
begins with a command generated in the CNS. Message is propagated from the brain to the muscle cells that execute the command (Efferent)
transduce stimulus from the environment into neural signal. can be located in blood vessels (baroreceptors)
gustatory cells
Taste receptor cells. Have individual receptors that molecules connect to. Respond to chemical properties of substances. Perceived as flavors
skeletal muscle
Segmented muscle tissue designed for fast movements. Combination of afferent sensory info and efferent motor units. Combine to give feedback to CNS and muscle contraction states and allow CNS to execute changes.
Made up of two proteins: myosin (forms thick muscle fibers) and actin (forms thin muscle fibers).
Makes connections to actin fibers. Energy is expended as _____ pulls back actin fibers to contract muscle toward origin point.
smooth muscle
Used for slower movements over larger segments of the body. Controlled largely by parasympathetic fibers. One neuron controls many muscle fibers.
motor unit
Comprised of motor neurons, peripheral axons, and motor-end plates. Motor neurons arise form the spinal cord to connect CNS to PNS.
motor end-plate
AKA neuromuscular junction. Point at which motor neuron innervates muscle cell
neuromuscular spindle
Provides afferent info from muscle about muscle length and changes in length
Driven largely by ganglia in the spinal cord. Clusters of sensory and motor cell bodies. Reduce transmission time to/from the CNS. Control tonic muscle tone and responses to sudden environmental changes.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome
Hereditary peripheral neuropathy. Can also cause de-myelination. Symptoms: usually begin in the feet or legs. Can spread to other regions of the body including the cranial nerves. Can affect speech, swallowing, posture, and hearing
drop foot
Peroneal nerve controls muscle contraction and tone of the muscles in the front of the ankle and top of the foot. Neuropathy causes toes to point down. Must lift feet higher off the ground when walking
fallopian tubes
in which the egg is released in
when an egg is fertilized
500 cells grow to become a hollow sphere
when the blastocyst attaches to the uterus wall
After blastocyst attaches to the uterus wall it’s called…
The attachment that holds the embryo to the uterus wall
Umbilical cord
After about 25 days a cord develops between the embryo and placenta
Amniotic sac
The embryo becomes enclosed in a sack of thin tissue
By the end of the second month it is about 3cm long and has recognizable features
Each 3 month period
Week 2-3
Appears as a flat disc with connecting stalk, yolk sac forms, gastrulation occurs; bilaminar disc becomes trilaminar (endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm), disc becomes oval.
Week 3-4
Organogenesis (most crucial phase) occurs, precursor for spinal cord develops (Notochord), neural tubes develop, body cavities or coelum begin to develop.
Week 5
More human like, brain and head growth is rapid, heart chambers and eyes are forming, forelimbs develop with digital ridges.
Week 6
Facial features are distinct, good circulation, heart almost complete, liver is prominent, short webbed fingers.
Week 7-8
Head is more erect and round, mouth, tongue and palate are complete, muscular system develops and movements begin, all organ systems are in place.
Week 9-12
Bone marrow commences blood formation, 5-8cm, external genitalia differentiate, teeth begin to form under gums, swallowing of amniotic fluid commences.
Week 13-16
Rapid growth, face is distinctly human, increased muscle and bone development, meconium formation begins.
Week 17-20
Foetal movements are felt, hair, eyebrows and eyelashes appear, skin is covered by vernix, lanugo appears, fetal heart sounds can be auscultated, 19cm, lungs develop further.
Week 21-25
Skin lacks subcutaneous fat, foetus has periods of sleep and week, surfactant production begins.
Week 26-29
Subcutaneous fat begins to form, head hair and lanugo are well developed, eyes unfuse and open, gas exchange of lungs improve.
Week 30-34
Lanugo disappears, foetus starts to store iron, skin thickness increases.
Week 35-38
Lots of subcutaneous fat, testes descend into scrotum, vernix and lanugo start to disappear, sleep wake cycles are well established, 3-3.8kg
Lateral Spinothalamic
Ascending Pathway
Modality: pain and temperature
Crossover: level at which primary neuron enters cord
Anterior Spinothalamic
Ascending Pathway
Modality: light touch, pressure, tickle and itch
Crossover: 8-10 segments from where primary neuron entered cord
Medial lemniscal system
Ascending Pathway
Modality: Propprioception, two point discrimination, pressure and vibration
Crossover: Medulla Oblangata
Posterior Spinocerebellar
Ascending Pathway
Modality: proprioception to cerebellum
Crossover: uncrossed
Anterior Spinocerebellar
Ascending Pathway
Modality: proprioception to cerebellum
Crossover: some uncrossed; some at point of origin and re-cross in cerebellum
Descending Pathway
Function: Muscle tone and conscious skilled movement, especially of the hands
Crossover: Depends on which pyramidal tract
Lateral Corticospinal
Descending Pathway (pyramidal)
Function: Movement, especially of the hands
Crossover: Inferior end of medulla oblangata
Anterior Corticospinal
Descending Pathway (pyramidal)
Function: Movement, especially of the hands
Crossover: at level of lower motor neuron
Descending Pathway (pyramidal)
Function: Facial and head movements
Crossover: Varies for the various cranial nerves
Descending Pathway
Function: Unconscious movements
Crossover: Depends on which extra pyramidal tract
Descending Pathway (extrapyramidal)
Function: posture and balance
Crossover: Uncrossed
Descending Pathway (extrapyramidal)
Function: Control of vital functions; respiration, heartbeat
Crossover: some uncrossed, some cross at level of termination
___ respond to angular acceleration
Semicircular canals
___ respond to linear acceleration and gravitational pull
Otolith organs
What are the two otolith organs?
Utricle and saccule
___ detects linear movement in a horizontal plane in two directions, such as head tilts to the right/left or rapid lateral displacements
___ detects head movements in a vertical plane, such as up/down movements or forward/backward tilts (EX: sitting and standing)
___ adjusts eye movements to head movements and stabilizes images on the retina
Vestibuloocular reflex
___ is postural adjustments of the head in response to rotational movements
Vestibulocervical reflex
___ is postural adjustments of the body in response to linear and rotational acceleration
Vestibulospinal reflex
___ is repetitive eye movements where a slow eye rotation is followed by a fast eye repositioning
___ is a postrotary nystagmus that is named for the fast eye repositioning (direction opposite the rotation)
Excitatory. When AChE blocked by nerve gas ; organophospate insecticides it leads to Tetnic muscle spasms. Receptors inhibited by curare (a muscle paralytic ajent). Levels decrease in certain brain areas in Alzheimer’s. Receptors are destryed in Myasthenia gravis
Excitatory or Inhibitory. Feeling good. Release enhanced by amphetamines. Removal from synapse blocked by tricyclic antidepressants and cocaine.
Excitatory or inhibitory. Feeling good. Release enhanced by amphetamines. Deficient in Parkinson’s dz.
Mainly inhibitory. May play a role in sleep, appetite, nausea, migraine headaches, and regulation or mood. Activity blocked by LSD.
Excitatory or Inhibitory. Involved in wakefulness, appetite control, ; learning ; memory.
GABA (y-aminobutyric acid)
Inhibitory. Effects augmented (greater in size) by alcohol, anti anxiety drugs of the benzodiazepine class (eg Valium)
Inhibitory. Natural opiates. Inhibit pain.
Generally inhibitory. Inhibits growth hormone.
Excitatory. Involved in anxiety, pain, memory. Inhibits appetite.
Hyposecretion of FSH
lack of sexual development and sterility
Hyposecretion of LH
Lack of sexual development and sterility
Growth Hormone
Hypersecretion: Giantism (pre-adult); Acromegaly (mature adult)
Hyposecretion: Dwarfism
Hypersecretion: Inappropriate lactation in men or non-nursing women
Hyposecretion: Insufficient lactation in nuring women
Hypersecretion: Abnormal water retention
Hyposecretion: Diabetes insipidus
Hypersecretion: Inappropriate ejection of milk in lactating women
Hyposecretion: Prolonged or difficult labor and delivery (uncertain)
T4 and T3
Hypersecretion: hyperthyroidism, Graves disease
Hyposecretion: hypothyroidism, cretinism (pre-adult); myxedema (adult); goiter
Hypersecretion: possible hypocalcemia
Hyposecretion: possible hypercalcemia
Parathyroid Hormone
Hypersecretion: possible hypercalcemia
Hyposecretion: possible hypocalcemia
Hypersecretion: Increased water retension
Hyposecretion: Abnormal water loss (dehydration)
Hypersecretion: Cushing syndrome
Hyposecretion: Addison disease
Sex Hormones
Hypersecrection: Premature sexual (androgens) development; masculinization of female
Hyposecretion: no significant effect
Epi and NR
Hypersecretion: stress effects (adrenaline)
Hyposecretion: no significant effects
Hypersecretion: premature sexual development and infertility
Hyposecretion: lack of sexual development, infertility, and osteoporosis
Hyposecretion: sterility
Hypersecretion: premature sexual development, muscle hypertrophy
Hyposecretion: lack of sexual development
Hyposecretion: depression of immune system
Chorionic gonadotropin
Hyposecretion: spontaneous abortion (miscarriage)
Hypersecretion: SADD, sleep disorders
Fluid or electrolyte imbalances; possible blood pressure problems
Possible obesity; increase in hunger and suppression of fat utilization
Possible obesity, other metabolic disorders
Growth Hormone
Ant. Pit.
Target – growth of bones, muscles, organs
Hyperpituitarism – growth Homrone
Medical management
– resect tumor
– Suppress GH with somatostatin
– External Radiation
– Caution when progressing
– Energy conservation
– Joint protection
– Fall prevention
HypOpituitarism – Growth Hormone
– Regression of sex characteristics
– Short stature/dwarfism
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Ant. Pit
Target – adrenal Cortex
Action: Stim. secretion of cortex hormones (glucocorticoids/cortisol, Aldosterone, sex hormones)
Target – widespread
Action: Promotes glucogenesis, suppresses inflammation
Hyperpituitarism – ACTH
Cushing’s disease
– emotional stuff
– moon face
– buffalo hump
– adrenal issues
Glucocorticoid deficiency
– Hypoglycemia
– Nausea
– abdominal pain
– Orthostatic hypOtension
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH
Origin: Anterior pituitary
Target: Ovaries and testes
Actinon: Stimulate follicle to produce estrogen, or promotes maturation of sperm
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Target: Testes and ovaries
ACtion: stim ovulation, stim testes to secrete testosterone
Hypopituitarism – LH and FSH
Decreased production of sex hormones
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Origin: posterior pituitary (hypothalamus)
Target: distal tubules of kidney
Action: re-absorption of water
Hyperpituitarism – ADH
SIADH (syndrome inapropriate antidiaretic hormone secretion)
– Excessive water retention
– Hyponatremia
Low Na levels ****
– ha
Confusion/altered mental state
Decreased consciousness
HypOpituitarism – ADH
Diabetes Insipidus
– polyuria
– Thirst
– Dehydration
– Weight loss
– Dry skin
– Ataxia
– ComaIf conscious – treat with lots of water
if not, may treat with exogenous ADH

Origin: Post. Pit
Target: Uterus and Mammary glands
Action: stimulate uterine contractions and milk production
Thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Target: Thyroid
Action: Stimulate secretion of thyroid hormones
Thyroxine(T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
Target: Widespread
Action: regulate metabolism (they increase it)- levels regulated by the hypothalamus by TRH

Grave’s disease
– nervousness
– fatigue, weakness
– Tachycardia
– perspiration
– heat intolerance
– Diarrhea
– goiter
– tremor
– exophthalmos**Can result in exercise intolerance

Hypothyroidism – Cretinism
– Congenital hypothyroidism
– Stunted growth
– Decreased intelligence
Hypothyroidism – Adult
– Hashimoto’s – autoimmune – attacks thyroid
– Hypopituitarism
– Severe iodine deficiency
– Thyroid surgery
– Radioiodine therapy
– Drug toxicity
– Lethargy
– Constipation
– Weight Gain
– Rough, dry skin
– Cold intolerance
– Goiter
– Weakness
– Parestheisa
– non-pitting edema
– Bradycardia with HTNAlso, Can result in exercise intolerance!

Untreated hypothyroidism
Swelling – hands feet face tongue
hypothyroid treatment

– replacement hormones

– can mimic hypERthyroidism

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Target: bone, kidney, intestinal tract
Action: regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism and caclification of bone
= Low blood Ca2+
– Parestheisas
– muscle ahces cramps
twitching muscle spasms – tap mandible and have masseter muscle spasm
pathy hair loss
dry, course skin
brittle nails
HA, depression, memory problems
= High blood Ca2+
– SEVERE osteoporosis and osteopenia
– bone fractures
– Kidney stones
– Peptic ulcers
– Pancreatitis
– Nervous system complaints
Cortex Hormone Hypersecretion
– if at level of adrenal cortex – called syndrom
very similaralso looks like someone who is on high levels of steroids for a long time

Cortex Hormone HypOsecretion
Addison’s Disease
– Changes in BP or HR
– Chronic diarrhea
– Increased skin pigmentation
– paleness
– extreme weakness
– Fatigue
– Loss of appetite
– Nausea and vomiting
– Salt craving
– slow, sluggish movment
– Unintentional weight loss
Origin: pancreas
Target: Widespread
Action: increase utilization of carbs, decrease lipolysis; decrease blood glucose
Diabetes Mellitus I
– Most commonly appears in childhood
– beta cells of the islets are destroyed
– unkenown eiology
Diabetes Mellitus II
– Usually adult onset
– No drop in insulin levels at least at first
– failure to express enough glucose transporters that respond to insulin
– oral drugs help initially
– beta cells eventually become exhausted
Diabetes staging
>126 – diabetes
100-126 – prediabetes
<100 – normal 2-hr oral glucose tolerance Test >200 diabetes
140-200 pre-diabetes
S/s type 1 diabetes (hyperglycemia
Unusual weight loss
Extreme fatigue and irritability
S/s type 2 diabetes
Any type 1 symptom plus…
Frequent infections
Blurred vision
Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal
Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
S/s if <70 mg/dl
extreme hunger
feeling nervous or jittery
cold, clammy, wet skin
S/s if <55 mg/dl
Anxiety, restless, or anger
Blurred vision, dizziness, or ha
poor coordination
slurred speech
S/s if <35 mg/dl
LOC (loss of consciousness)
15:15 rule
Half cup of fruit joice or regular soda
6 or 7 hard candies
1 tablespoon of sugar15g carbs, wait 15 min, recheck blood glucose


Glycosilated hemoglobin

8 or below – good
>8 – poor blood glucose control

PT implications
Monitor glucose levels before and after
– exercise could cause hypoglycemia
Be aware of pump/catheterNORMAL 70-110
no exercise <70mg/dl hypoglycemia – Sweating hunger, trembling, anxiety, blurred vision, confusion no exercise >300mg/dl hyperglycemic
– increased thirst, fatigue, blurred

Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone (TRH)
Target: Ant pit
Action: Stimulates release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)TRH-TSH

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Origin: Hypothalamus
Target: Ant pit
Action: Stimulate rlease of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH)
Target: ant pit
Action: stim release of growth hormone
Corticotropin-releasing Horomone (CRH)
Target: Ant Pit
Action: stim release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Somatostatin (from hypothalamus)
Origin: hypothalamus
Target: Ant pit
Action: INHIBITS release of GH and TSH
Origin: Ant pit
Target: Mammary glands
Action: Stimulates secretory activity
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Growth hormone (GH)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocoricotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Posterior Pituitary hormones
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Origin: thyroid gland
Target: skeleton
Action: regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism
Thyroid negative feedback loop
Thyrotropin Releasing hormone from Hypothalamus stimulates ant pit to make…
Thyroid stimulating hormone which targets thyroid to produce..
T3/T4, which go back and inhibit release of TRHWithout iodine, TRH and TSH produced unchecked and thyroid growns

Origin: Adrenal Medulla
Target: widespread
– Cardiac – tachycardia, dysrrhythmea, vasoconstriction with increased BP
– Increased Blood glucose via glycogenolysis
– Stimulates ACTH production
Origin: Adrenal Medulla
Target: widespread
Action: vasoconstriction
Aldosterone (mineralocortcoid)
Origin: Adrenal CORTEX
Target: Primarily Kidney
Action: influences fluid retentiona nd electrolytes (K+)
Sex Hormones (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)
Origin: Adrenal Cortex
Target: gonads
Action: influence secondary sex characteristics
Origin: pancreas
Target: widespread
Action: Hyperglcemic factor; increase blood glucose via glycogenolys
Somatostatin (from Pancreas)
Target: widespread
action: regulate the release of insulin and glucagon
Estrogen and progesterone
Origin: Ovaries
Target: uterus, breast
action: secondary sex characteristics; maturation and sexual function; pregnancy
Spinal Meninges
provide cover, protection, physical stability, and shock absorption for the spinal cord and the spinal nerve roots
pertaining to skeletal muscles
pertaining to organs
Dorsal Horn
contains somatic and visceral sensory control
Lateral Horn
only visceral motor control; only found in vertebrae T1-L2
Ventral Horn
only somatic motor control
Cervical Spinal Nerves
Thoracic Spinal Nerves
Lumbar Spinal Nerves
Sacral Spinal Nerves
Coccygeal Spinal Nerve
Cervical Plexus
Brachial Plexus
C5-T1; found in cervical enlargement, innervate pectoral girdle and upper limbs
Lumbar Plexus
Sacral Plexus
Dorsal Root Ganglion
a mass of sensory neuron cell bodies found just posterior to the spinal cord on either side. A pair of dorsal root ganglia exist for each spinal nerve that expands from the spinal cord.
Dorsal Ramus
ramus responsible for sensory and motor innervation of skin and muscles of the neck and back
Ventral Ramus
ramus responsible for sensory and motor control of the ventrolateral body, body wall, and limbs; larger in mass than the dorsal ramus
Axillary Nerve
brachial plexus; roots of C5,C6; superior trunk, posterior cord; motor control over the deltoid and teres minor muscles; sensory innervation over skin of the shoulder
Radial Nerve
brachial plexus; roots of C5-T1; superior, middle, and inferior trunks; posterior cord; motor control muscles of posterior upper limb; sensory innervation over skin of posterior upper limb
Musculocutaneous Nerve
brachial plexus; roots of C5-C7; superior and middle trunks; lateral cord; motor control over muscles on anterior compartment of arm; sensory innervation over skin of lateral forearm
Median Nerve
brachial plexus; roots of C6-T1; superior and inferior trunks; medial and lateral cords; muscle control over anterior compartment of forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris; sensory innervation over skin on portion of palmar surface of hand
Ulnar Nerve
brachial plexus; roots of C8-T1; inferior trunk; medial cord; muscle control over flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus; sensory innervation over skin on portion of palmer and dorsal hand
3 divisions of the brain that make up the brain stem…
1. medulla oblongata
2. the pons
3. the mesencephalon
-consious thought processes, intellectual functions
– memory storage and processing
– conscious and subconscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions
Diencephalon > Thalmus
relay and processing centers for sensory information
Diencephalon > Hypothalmus
Centers controlling emotions, autonomic functions, and hormone production
-Processing of visual and auditory data
-generation of reflexive somatic motor responses
– maintenance of consciousness
– relays sensory information to cerebellum and thalmus
– subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers
Medulla Oblongata
– relays sensory information to thalmus and to other portions of the brain stem
– autonomic centers for regulation of visceral function (cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive system activities.)
– coordinates complex somatic motor patterns
– adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord
Diencephalon > epithalamus
contains the hormone secreting pineal glands an endocrine secretion
Right and left thalamus
sensory information relay and processing centers
furrows in the brain
Elevated portions of the cerebral cortex
neural cortex
superficial layer of gray matter
fluid filled cavities within the brain. Filled with cerebrospinal sluid and lined by epideymal cells
cranial meninges
surrounds the brain, providing protection, acting as shock absorbers that prevents contact with surrounding bones
dura mater
outermost layer of the meninges. 2 fibrous layers, endosteal layer (fused to the periosteum lining the cranial bones) and meningeal layer (inner most layer.
dural sinuses
large veins of the brain open into these sinuses, which in turn deliver that blood to the internal jugular vein of the neck
falx cerebri
a fold of dura matter that projects between the cerebral hemispheres in the longitudinal fissure
tentorium cerebelli
supports and protects the two occipital lobes of the cerebrum
falx cerebelli
extends in the midsagittal line inferior to the tentorium cerebelli dividing the two cerebellar hemispheres
diaphrama sellae
continuation of the dural sheet that lines the sella turcia of the sphenoid
arachnoid mater
delicate membrane covering the brain and lying between the superficial dura mater and the deeper pia mater that is in contact with the neural tissue of the brain
subdural space
separates the opposing epithelia of the dura mater and the cranial arachnoid mater
subarachnoid space
contains a delicate weblike meshwork or collegen and elastic fibers that link the arachnoid mater to the underlying pia mater
arachnoid granulations
Little tufted bumps across surface of brain where CSF is is filtered from subarachnoid space into venous blood.
pia mater
highly vascular membrane that acts as a floor to support the large cerebral blood vessels as they branch over the surface of the brain, invading the neural contours to supply superficial areas of the neural cortex
brain blood barrier
provides a means to maintain a constant environment which is necessary for both control and proper functioning of CNS neurons
The blood brain barrier remains iintacts throughout the CNS, with these 3 excerptions
1. hypothalmus, permeable, permits difussions
2. pineal gland, permeable, also secretions into circulation
3.membranous roof of both the third and fourth ventricles
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
1. Preventing contact between delicate neural structures and the surrounding bonoes
2. Supporting the brain: brain is suspended inside the cranium floating in CSF.
3. Transporting nutrients, chemical messengers, and waste products:
choroid plexus
consists of a combination of specialized ependymal cells and highly permeable capillaries
responsible for production of CSF (550ml/day)
The spinal cord connects to the brain stem at the ______________.
medulla oblongata
The diencephalon consists of the ________, __________, and ______________.
epithalamus, left and right thalamus, hypothalamus
pineal gland
secretes melanin
roof of the third ventricle
structure that relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex.
interthalamic adhesion
extends into the ventricle from the thalamus on either side, interconnects the two thalami
controls autonomic functions; sets appeitite drives (thurst, hunger, sex) and behaviors; sets emotional states; integrates with endocrine system
optic chiasm
where the optic tracts from the eyes arrive at the brain, to the posterior margins of the mamillary bodies
extends inferiorly, connecting the hypothalamus to the pituitary glands
mamillary bodies
control feeding reflexes (licking, swallowing, etc.)
folds of the cerebellum
along the midline of the cerebellum, narrow band of cortex, separates the cerebellar hemispheres
arbor vitae
the white matter of the cerebellum, forms a branching array
cerebellar peduncle
Three large pairs of tracts (inferior, middle, and superior) that connect the cerebellum to the rest of the brain stem. (white mater)
The cerebellum is an automatic processing center that has two primary functions…
1. Adjusting the postural muscles of the body
2. Programming and fine – tuning voluntary and involuntary movements (stores memories of learned movement patterns)
The _______ is the largest region of the brain.
central sulcus
deep groove, extends laterally from the longitudinal fissure
Frontal lobe
primary motor complex, conscious control of skeletal muscles
parietal lobe
primary sensory cortex, conscious perception of touch, pressure, vibration, pain, temperature and taste
occipital lobe
visual cortex, conscious perception of visual stimuli
temporal lobe
auditory cortex and olfactory cortex, conscious perception of auditory and olfactory stimuli
all lobes
association areas, integration and processing of sensory data; processing and initiation of motor activities
“island” of cortex that is otherwise hidden unless reflecting the temporal lobe
prefrontal cortex
integrates information from sensory association areas and performs abstract intellectual functions, such as predicting the consequences of possible responses
categorical hemisphere
logic, language, reasoning almost always left hemisphere.
representational hemisphere
right hemisphere. spacial, art, holistic.
central white mater
covered by gray matter, contains myelinated fibers that form bundles that extend from one cortical area to another
association fibers
interconnect cortical areas within the same hemisphere
commissural fibers
interconnect corresponding lobes of different hemispheres
projection fibers
connect cerebral cortex to diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord
internal capsule
entire collection of fibers of white matter
basal nuclei
paired masses of gray matter within the cerebral hemispheres.
caudate nucleus
subconscious adjustment and modification of voluntary motor commands
amygdaloid body
component of limbic system
plays a role in subconscious processing of visual information
globus pallidus
controls and adjusts muscle tone, particularly in the appendicular muscles, to set body possition in preparation for voluntary movement.
limbic system
1. establishment of emotional states and related behavioral drives
2. linking the conscious, intellectual function of the cerebral cortex with the unconscious and autonomic functions of other portions of the brain
3. memory storage and retrieval
plays an essential role in learning and the storage of long term memory
Olfactory Nerve (I)
special sensory
only cranial nerve attached to the cerebrum
olfactory bulbs
neural masses on either side of the crista galli
Optic Nerve (II)
Special sensory
carry visual information from special sensory ganglia in the eyes
optic chiasm – crossing
Oculomotor Nerve (III)
eye movement
visceral motor – intrinsic eye movement
Troclear Nerve (IV)
eye movement
smallest of cranial nerves
Trigeminal Nerve (V)
Mixed (sensory and motor)
largest cranial nerve
provided sensory information from the head and face and motor control to the muscles of mastication
N V – opthalmic branch
purely sensory nerve of N V
NV – maxillary branch
purely sensory . Supplies lower eye lid, upper lip, cheek and nose
NV – mandibular branch
carries all of the motor fibers
Abducens Nerve (VI)
eye movement (lateral movements of the eye)
Facial Nerve (VII)
mixed (sensory and motor)
somatic motor: muscles of facial expression
visceral motor: lacrimal gland and nasal mucous
Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII)
special sensory: balance and equilibrium (vestibular branch) and hearing (cochlear branch)
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)
mixed (sensory and motor)
somatic motor: pharyngeal muscles involved in swallowing
visceral motor: parotid salivary gland, after synapsing in the otic ganglion
taste sensations
Vagus Nerve (X)
mixed (sensory and motor)
somatic motor: to muscles of the palate and pharynx
visceral motor: respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Accessory Nerve (XI)
internal branch – voluntary swallowing muscles, intrinsic muscle of the vocal cords
external branch – controls the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles of the neck and back
Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)
tongue movements
General sensory information on its way to the cerebrum gets processed and relayed from which of the following areas of the brain?
Where are the autonomic reflex centers for heart rate and breathing?
Medulla Oblongata
Which of the following areas of the brain adjust the output of other somatic motor centers in the central nervous system?
Which of the following areas of the brain provide a link between the nervous system and the endocrine system?
The area of the brain where memory is processed and stored is the?
The ventricles of the brain are filled with __________.
cerebralspinal fluid
Parkinson’s disease results from __________.
a decreased level of dopamine in the basal ganglia, which affects the substantia nigra
The thalamus __________.
serves as a final relay point for sending sensory information to the cerebral cortex
The arbor vitae __________.
-contains axons of the Purkinje cells
-transmits messages from the cerebellum to other parts of the brain, and vice versa
-may synapse with neurons in the cerebellar nuclei
Damage to the posterior portion of the cerebral cortex could result in
a lose in the movement of your leg
Which area of the cerebrum processes our gustatory sensations?
the insula
Jan is a librarian with a passion for reading Emerson. After a car accident, she finds that when she looks at books, she sees symbols (letters) but cannot recognize them or understand what they mean. What part of her brain has been damaged?
her visual association area
Cranial nerves (CN) III, IV, and VI innervate the six skeletal muscles that move the eye. These nerves are the
abducens (VI), trochlear (IV), and oculomotor (III).
Which cranial nerve forms a midline connection, allowing fibers to cross to the opposite side of the brain?
Optic (II)
Which cranial nerve lies medial to the vagus nerve?
Hypoglossal (XII)
The pons modifies the respiratory movements that are first controlled by which part of the brain?
Medulla oblongata
Choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles produces CSF.
Choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles produces CSF.
What happens at stage 1?
CSF flows through interventricular foramina into third ventricle.
CSF flows through interventricular foramina into third ventricle.
What happens at stage 2?
Choroid plexus in the third ventricle adds more CSF.
Choroid plexus in the third ventricle adds more CSF.
What happens at stage 3?
CSF flows down cerebral aqueduct to fourth ventricle.
CSF flows down cerebral aqueduct to fourth ventricle.
What happens at stage 4?
Choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle adds more CSF.
Choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle adds more CSF.
What happens at stage 5?
CSF flows out two lateral apertures and one medial aperture.
CSF flows out two lateral apertures and one medial aperture.
What happens at stage 6?
CSF fills subarachnoid space and bathes external surfaces of brain and spinal cord.
CSF fills subarachnoid space and bathes external surfaces of brain and spinal cord.
What happens at stage 7?
At arachnoid villi, CSF if reabsorbed into venous blood of dural venous sinuses.
At arachnoid villi, CSF if reabsorbed into venous blood of dural venous sinuses.
What happens at stage 8?
sensory receptor
specialized cell or cell process that monitors conditions in the body external environment
sensory information arriving at the CNS
conscious awareness of the sensation
general senses
sensations of temperature, pain, touch, pressure, vibration, and proproception (body position)
special senses
smell (olfaction), taste (gustation), balance (equilibrium), hearing and vision
sense organ
eye or ear for example
receptor specificity
each receptor has a characteristic sensitivity. For example, a touch receptor is very sensitive to pressure but insensitive to chemical stimuli
free nerve endings
simplest receptors are the dendrites of sensory neurons
receptive field
area monitored by a single receptor cell
labeled line
connection between receptor and cortical neuron
tonic receptors
sensory neuron, always active
ex: receptors that monitor body position
phasic receptors
normally inactive, but become active for a short time whenever there is a change in the conditions it is monitoring. provide information on the intensity and rate of change of stimulus
reduction in sensitivity in the presence of a constant stimulus
peripheral (sensory) adaptation
occurs when the receptors or sensory neurons alter their levels of activities
fast adapting receptors
reponds with bursts of action potentials, 1st when the stimulus is applied and then again when it is removed
central adaptation
The factor that ensures that you quickly lose awareness of a new smell but retain sensitivity to others is called:
provide information about the external environment
monitor body position
monitor conditions inside the body
respond to a variety of stimuli usually associated with tissue danage. receptor activation causes the sensation of pain
respond to changes in temperature
stimulated or inhibited by physical distortion, contact, or pressure on their plasmalemmae
monitor the chemical composition of body fluid and respond to the presence of specific molecules
fast pain
prickling pain, produced by deep cuts or similar injuries
slow pain
burning and aching pain, begin later and presist longer
___________ are proprioceptors that monitor the length of skeletal muscle.
muscle spindles
golgi tendon organs
monitor the tension in tendons during muscle contraction
sense of smell
olfactory organs
located in the nasal cavities on either side of the nasal septum
olfactory epithelium
specialized neuroepithelium
olfactory receptors
nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell
basal cells
Replace receptor cells when they die
olfactory glands (Bowman’s glands)
produce thick pigmented mucus
Lamina propria
underlying loose connective tissue which contains olfactory glands, blood vessels, and nerves
Olfactory Nerve Fibers
cranial nerve I, olfactory (smell)
taste, provides information about the foods and liquids that we consumer
gustatory receptors
taste receptors, are distributed over the dorsal surface of the tongue
epithelial projections, taste buds lie along the sides of papilla
Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves ___________, ____________, and ____________.
VII (facial), IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus)
pleasant taste that is characteristic of beef broth and chicken broth > amino acids
external ear
visible portion of the ear, collects and directs sounds waves to the eardrum
middle ear
chamber located within the petrous portion of the temporal bones, amplify sound waves and transmit them to an appropriate portion of the inner ear
inner ear
contains the sensory organs for equilibrium and hearing
auricle/pinna of the external ear
flexible, supported by elastic cartilage
external acoustic meatus
surrounded by the auricle,
tympanic membrane
eardrum, thin, semitransparent connective tissue sheer that separates the external ear from the middle ear
ceruminous glands
distributed along the external acoustic meatus, secrete a waxy material (cerumen)
waxy secretion of the ceruminous glands, slows the growth of microorganisms in the external acoustic meatus and reduces the chances of infection
tympanic cavity
air – filled space, contains auditory ossicles, seperated from the external acoustic meatus by the tympanic membrane
auditory tube
4cm, penetrates the petrous part of the temporal bone
auditory ossicles
smallest bones in the body, 1. malleus 2 incus 3. stapes
attaches to the interior surface of the tympanum
connects the medial surface of the malleus to the stapes
tensor tympani muscle
short ribbon of muscle whose origin is the petrous part of the temporal bone, within the musculotubal canal and whose insertion is on the “hanndle” of the malleus. reduces the amount of possible movement, innervated by motor fibers of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (V)
stapedius muscle
innervated by the facial nerve (N VII), reduces movement of the stapes at the oval window
membranous labyrinth
receptors housed within a collection of fluid filled tubes and chambers
bony labyrinth
shell of dense bone that surround and protects the membranous labyrinth
cochlear branch
The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) sensory axons that end in nuclei in the medulla oblongata
vestibular branch
part of the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII); carries nerve nerve impulses generated by equilibrium receptors
palpebral fissure
The almond shaped opening between the upper and lower eyelids
medial canthus
inner corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet
lateral canthus
outer corner where the upper and lower eyelids meet
tarsal glands
along the inner margin of the lid secrete a lipid rich product that helps keep the eye lids from sticking together
lacrimal caruncle
produce the thick secretion that contribute to the gritty deposits occasionally found after a good nights sleep
tarsal plate
supports and strengthens the eylids by broad sheets of connective tissue
epithelium covering the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. mucus membrane, stratified squamous epithelium
palpebral conjunctiva
covers the inner surface of the eyelids
ocular conjunctiva
covers the anterior surface of the eye
lacrimal apparatus
produces. distributes, and removes tears
lacrimal glands
tear gland
superior and inferior puncta
drain the lacrimal lake, emptyng into the lacrimal canaliculi
fibrous tunic
outermost layer of the eye, consists of the sclera and cornea. provides mechanical support and some degree of physical protection. serves as an attachment site for the extra ocular muscles and contains structures that assist in focusing
sclera of the fibrous tunic layer of the eye
white of the eye
iris of the vascular tunic layer of the eye
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
pupil of the vascular tunic layer of the eye
Opening in the center of the iris
pupillary sphincter muscles of the vascular tunic layer of the eye
pupillary dilator muscles of the vascular tunic layer of the eye
ciliary body of the vascular tunic layer of the eye
Contracts or relaxes to make the suspensory ligaments either taut or slack and the lens either thinner or fatter.
ora serrataof the vascular tunic layer of the eye
the serrated boundary between the ciliary muscle and the retina
ciliary muscle of the vascular tunic layer of the eye
Smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near-vision capability
ciliary process of the vascular tunic layer of the eye
epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor
vascular tunic
middle layer of the eye, contains numerous blood vessels, lymphatics, and the intrinsic eye muscles
sensory ligaments of the vascular tunic layer of the eye
holds lens in place and pulls lens into focus
choroid of the vascular tunic layer of the eye
A highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina. Provides nourishment to the retina
Neural tunic
or retina, consists of two distinct layers. pigmented layer and an inner neural layers. contains visual receptors and associated neurons
rods (distributed across the retina)
do not discriminate between different colors of light. light sensitive. enable us to see in dimly lit rooms
cones (distributed across the retina)
provide us with color vision
Upon which structures do substances bind in order to stimulate olfactory sensations?
olfactory cilium
What would be the effect if the cribriform plate of the ethmoid were damaged?
The sense of smell would be diminished because of an inability to send a neural, olfactory impulse to the brain.
The auditory ossicles
are located in the middle ear
The auditory tube
forms a passageway to the nasopharynx.
Which of the following cranial nerves travels through the region of the inner ear with the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)?
facial (VII)
Movement of the _______________ gives the sensations that we use to determine our equilibrium and balance.
kinocilium of the hair cells
The ciliary body
is attached to the lens via suspensory ligaments.
The muscular structure that surrounds the pupil is the
The area of eye with the greatest concentration of cones is the
Acrosome reaction
release of acrosomal hydrolytic enzymes that lyse the membranes around the egg
Egg cell engulfs entire sperm
Removal of the glycoprotein coat covering the acrosome
Pronucleus fusion
Fusion of the sperm and egg pronucleus forming the zygote nucleus
Zona reaction
Electrical and chemical changes in the zona pellucida prevent entry of other sperm
acrosome reaction
zona reaction
pronucleus fusion
1st Trimester
all vital organs, about size of thumb, 1oz weight, limbs hands feet
2nd trimester
facial expressions, developed reflexes, lots of growth, finger prints
3rd trimester
15-22in long 3-4 lbs and grows. Increase in fat and muscle development, baby has hiccups
series of cell divisions that subdivide into the cytoplasm of the zygote, producing smaller and smaller cells
Embedding of the blastocyst into the uterine endometrium
Formation of the placenta
formation of a viable embryo
Identical cells formed during the first cleavage divisions
Stage of embryonic development characterized by a solid ball of cells
Stage of embryonic development characterized by a hollow ball of cells
The outer layer of cells in the blastocyst; cells will be responsible for providing food to the developing embryo
The process that forms the mesoderm; involves the migration of the cells from the blastodisc surface to the center of the disc
Inner cell mass
Cells clustered at one end of the blastocyst; will become the embryo
epidermis, hair follicles, and hairs, nails and glands communicating with skin
neural tissues, including the brain and spinal cord
heart, blood vessels, blood, bone marrow
lymphatics, and lymph nodes
pituitary gland and adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex, endocrine tissues of the heart, kidneys and gonads
thymus, thyroid, and pancreas
digestive system (except mouth and anus) exocrine glands liver and pancreas
digestive system of mouth and anus, salivary glands
urinary bladder
respiratory system of the nasal passageways
respiratory system and associated mucous glands
Yolk sac
The first extraembryonic membrane to form; becomes an important site of blood cell formation; blood vessels present become part of the umbilical cord
encloses the fluid that surrounds and cushions the developing embryo and fetus
The base becomes the urinary bladder; accumulates some of the small amount of urine produced by the kidneys during embryonic development
Development of blood vessels provides a rapid-transit system linking the embryo to the trophoblast; system provides nutrients and oxygen needed for the developing embryo; becomes the fetal part of the placenta
Umbilical cord
connection between the fetus and the placenta
Umbilical arteries
Carry blood from the fetus to placenta
Umbilical vein
carries blood from the placenta to the fetus
1-2 months
neural tube formation; eye and ear formation begins
1-2 months
1-2 months
basic heart structure, major blood vessels lymph nodes and ducts form
1-2 months
CNS and PNS, cerebrum grows
2 months
Trachea and lung formation begins
2 months
Intestinal tract, liver and pancreas
2 months
Kidney formation
2 months
Axial and appendicular cartilage formation
4-5 months
epidermal layers of the skin appear
4-5 months
Ossification (bone formation) begins
2 months
formation of gonads
2-3 months
Fetus starts to move
9 month
descent of testes begins
9 month
eyelids open, retina sensitive to light
4-5 months
epiphyseal plate formation
7 months
taste receptors functional
8-9 months
complete pulmonary branching and alveolar formation
secretes estrogen and progesterone
antagonizes maternal insulin
increases smooth muscle action and growth of uterine lining
causes uterine contractions
relaxes cervix and ligaments
expell placenta
How many neurons does the brain have? (estimated)
100 billion neurons
neurons are organized into_
into circuits more complex than the most powerful supercomputers
Where does most neuron organelles are found?
cell body
highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons
-typically a much longer extension that transmits signals to other cells at synapses
-Longest part of nerve cell and neuron
-Does not carry current
Axon hillock
The cone-shaped base of an axon
-are bundles that consist of the axons of multiple nerve cells
-A fiber composed primarily of the bundled axons of PNS neurons
-Very strong made of keratin (cytoskeleton)
What are the types of arrangement of nervous systems?
-nerve net
-Bran and nerve cord
-Brain and nerve cord and ganglia
-Larger and more sophisticated brain and nerve cords and ganglia
Schwan cells
produce myelinated sheats
Synaptic terminals (connection)
-Does not directly connect to other cell body (synaptic cleft)
Dendrites connect to_
Synaptic terminals connect to _
cell body
When the ability to sense and react originated?
Originated billions years ago with prokaryotes that could detect changes in their environment and respond in ways that enhanced their survival and reproductive success
Later in evolution, modification of simple recognition and response processes provided multicellular organisms with a mechanism for_
communication between the cells of the body
Ex. of species that have nerve net systems?
-Hydra (cnidaria)
-Sea star (echinoderm)
Ex. of species that have brain and nerve cords systems? (state how many nerve cords they have)
-Planaria (flatworm) (2 nerve cords)
-Leech (annelid) (1 nerve cord)
Ex. of species that have brain and nerve cord and ganglia systems?
-Insect (arthropoda)
-Chiton (mollusc)
Ex of larger and more sophisticated bran and nerve cords and ganglia?
-Squid (mollusc)
nerve net
-a weblike system of neurons, characteristic of radially symmetrical animals, such as hydra
-Controls the contraction and expansion of the gastrovascular cavity
What does species with nerve net systems lack?
clusters of neurons that perform specialized functions
Nerves channel and organize_
flow along specific routes through the nervous system
-evolutionary trend toward a clustering of sensory neurons and interneurons at the anterior (front) end of the body
-These anterior neurons communicate with cells elsewhere in the body
what phylum has the most simple Central nervous system? What it is consist of?
-Non-segmented worms (planarians)
-Have a small brain and a longitudinal nerve cords
Where is located the nerve cord of species that are not included in the notochords?
ventral side
Where is located the nerve cord of species that are included in the notochords?
dorsal side
Central nervous system
-where integration takes place; this includes the brain and a nerve cord
peripheral nervous system
-which carries information into and out of the CNS
The neurons of the PNS, when bundled together, form _
How many cells is a neuron?
one (single celled)
collection of nerve cells
In vertebrates they have _(high or low) concentration; on the_(ventral or dorsal) side; with _(single or double) nerve cord; and ganglia_
-Ganglia on each of the branches
-bulbous collection of nerve fibers
In vertebrates, CNS is composed of_and PNS is composed of_
-Brain and spinal cord
-nerves and ganglia
In vertebrates CNS, what is the function of the brain?
The brain provides the integrative power that underlies the complex behavior of vertebrates
In vertebrates CNS, Describe the spinal cord and its function
-Runs lengthwise inside the vertebral column (spine)
-Conveys information to and from the brain and generates basic patterns of locomotion
When the spinal cord acts independently of the brain?
when it is a part of of the simple nerve circuits that produce reflexes
An autonomic reaction to a stimulus, meditated by the spinal cord or lower brain
Describe the process of a reflex (when tapping the tendon that connects to the quadriceps)
1. reflex is initiated artificially by tapping the tendon connected to the quadriceps muscle
2. Sensor detects sudden stretch in quadriceps
3. Sensory neurons convey the information to the spinal cord
4. In response to signals from the sensory neurons, motor neurons convey signals to the quadriceps, causing it to contract and jerking the lower leg forward
5. Sensory neurons also communicate with interneurons in the spinal cord
6. The interneuron inhibit motor neurons that lead to the hamstring muscle. This inhibition prevents contraction of the hamstring, which would resists the contraction of the quadriceps
In simple, what would be the neurons involve in the reflex (2 ways)?
1. Sensory neuron->motor neuron
2. Sensory neuron-> Interneuron-> motor neuron
What parts of the brain and spinal cord are hollow? what is inside of them?
The central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain are hollow and filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid is filtered from_and functions to_
-cushion the brain and spinal cord as well as to provide nutrients and remove wastes
What does the spinal cord and brain contain?
-gray matter
-white matter
Gray matter
which consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, and glia
-Region of dendrites and clustered neuron cells bodies within the CNS
White matter
which consists of bundles of myelinated axons
-Tracts of axons within the CNS
-whitish appearance
what are some of the functions of the CNS?
-Conscious or subconscious
-Process info
-Stores info
-Decision making
-cannot cause by itself something to happen
CNS is not connected to_
sensory cells
The PNS involve_
connecting sensory cells or organs and bring info to CNS or away
where is PNS found?
outside the skull
What color is the cerebrospinal fluid?
Is the cerebrospinal fluid the same or different from the plasma?
Cerebrospinal fluid is filtered through_that lets_. This is filtered from_blood
A relfex protects the body by_
triggering a rapid, involuntary response to a particular stimulus
During embryonic development in vertebrates, the CNS develops from the_
hollow dorsal nerve cord (hallmark of chordates)
Where is most of the gray matter located (within the brain)?
it is on the surface of the brain, surrounding the white matter of the brain
Central canal
-Arises from the cavity of the nerve cord
-The narrow cavity in the center of the spinal cord that is continuous with the fluid-filled ventricles of the brain
-Arises from the cavity of the nerve cord
-A space in the vertebrates brain, filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid is a derivate of_
Cerebrospinal fluid protects against_
-Cushion the brain and spinal cord
How is the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid?
-Circulates slowly through the central canal and ventricles and then drains into the veins
The circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid brings_and carries away_
-hormones and nutrients
How the cebrospinal fluid cushions the brain and spinal cord?
bu circulating between layers of connective tissue that surrounds the CNS
Where does white matter is located within the spinal cord? WHY?
lies on the outside, consistent with its function in linking the CNS to sensory and motor neurons of the PNS
Where does the white matters is located within the brain? why?
It is predominantly on the inside, reflecting the role of signaling between neurons of brain in learning, feeling, emotions, processing, sensory information, and generating commands
Sensors detect_and transmit along_
-external stimuli and internal conditions
-sensory neurons
Sensory information is sent to_, where _integrate information
-the brain or ganglia
motor out put leaves the brain or ganglia via_, which_
-motor neurons
-trigger muscle or gland activity
With arrows represent the flow between the stimuli to the action
stimuli->sensor->sensor input-> sensory neuron->Integration (CNS)->Motor output->motor neurons->Effector (action)
Does reflex arc require thinking?
Describe the steps of Reflex arc
1. Senory neuron picks up signal from sensor (e.g., stretch receptor)
2. Relays signal back to CNS (spinal cord)
3. Interneuron relays signal to motor neuron
4. Motor neuron triggers muscle contraction
What does the PNS does?
The PNS transmits information to and from the CNS and regulates movement and the internal environment
What does sensors can detect?
-Touch (pressure)
-Heart rate
-Saturation blood
Interneurons are found_and _(function)
-Decide what to do (integration)
Integration can take place in_
-Spinal cord
What are the effects of motor neurons?
Sensory and motor are found_
Interneurons are found_
CNS entirely
Cell body is found _
outside nervous system
Reflex arc has to happen_
Through which axons the nerve impulse will travel faster? (myalinated or un-myalinated) why?
because nerve impulses jump from gap to gap between myelinated sheats
Unmyelinated axons speed is_
What are the two types of neruons in the PNS?
-Afferent neuron
-Efferent neuron
Afferent neurons
afferent neurons transmit information to the CNS
Efferent neurons
efferent neurons transmit information away from the CNS
What are the two efferent components of the PNS?
-the motor system
-the autonomic nervous system
Motor system
-Composed of motor neurons
-carries signals to skeletal muscles and is voluntary (usually only it is not in a reflex)
-Efferent branch of the peripheral nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
-regulates smooth and cardiac muscles and is generally involuntary
-Efferent branch of the PNS
-Regulates internal environment
-Consists of: symphatetic, parasymphatietic, enteric
Glia Cells
-Present throughout the vertebrate brain and spinal cord
-Carry out functions crucial for the activity of the nervous system
-They nourish, support, and regulate functioning of neurons
-Essential role in development of the nervous system
What are the types of glia?
-Ependymal cells
-Shwan cells
Ependymal cells
-Line the ventricles and have cilia that promote circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CNS)
-Facilitate the information transfer at synapses and in some instances neurotransmitters
-Next to active neurons cause nearby blood vessels to dilate, increasing blood flow and enabling the neurons to obtain oxygen and glucose more quickly
-Regulate extracellular concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters
Immune cells that protect against pathogens (CNS)
Shwan cells
Myelinated axons in the PNS
-Creates myelinated axons in the CNS
-Myelination greately increases the conduction of speed of action potentials
Blood brain barrier
-astrocytes induce cells that line capillaries in the CNS to form tight junctions
-Result of this is the blood brain barrrier
-controls the extracellular environment of the CNS by restricting the entry of most substances from the blood
Radial glia
-In embryos form tracks along the newly formed neurons migrate from the neural tube, the structures give rise to the CNS
PNS transmit information to and from_and plays a role in _
-regulating an animal’s movement and internal environment
Sensory information is carry to the CNS along_
PNS neurons called afferent
The CNS information, already processed and integrates, travels to glands, muscles, and endocrine cells along_
PNS neurons designated as efferent
Most nerves have_(both or only one of the afferent and efferent neurons)
both afferent and efferent neurons
What nerves is the exception that does not have both afferent and efferent neurons? which has?
-Olfactory nerve
-afferent (convey sensory information from the nose to the brain)
What are the parts of the autonomous nervous system?
The parts of the autonomous nervous system control together _
-organs of the digestive system, cardiovascular, excretory, and endocrine system
Which part of the autonomous nervous system have antagonistic functions?
Should you think to control the autonomy nervous system?
What are the type of muscles?
-skeletal (powerful contractions)
-Smooth (peristalsis; no powerful)
-Cardiac (heart)
Enteric goes to_
the gut
-Alert; energy; fight or fly
-regulates arousal and energy generation (“fight-or-flight” response)
-Increase energy expenditure and prepares the body for action
-rest and digest
-bring you back of the sympathetic
-has antagonistic effects on target organs and promotes calming and a return to “rest and digest” functions
-enhances body activities that gain and conserve energy
enteric division
-controls activity of the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder
-Often regulated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system
Homeostasis relies on (autonomic or motor nervous system)
relies on the cooperation between the motor and autonomic nervous system
What are some of the general functions of the brain? (cerebrum and reptilian brain)
-cerebrum: calculations, contemplation, and memory
-Reptilian brain: homeostasis, coordination, information transfer
Which parts of the brain control the autonomic actions?
hind and mid brain
Which part of the brain controls the voluntary actions?
forebrain (cereberum and diencephalon)
What parts of the brain controls the arousal and sleep?
The brainstem and cerebrum
reticular formation
-The core of the brainstem has a diffuse network of neurons
-This regulates the amount and type of information that reaches the cerebral cortex and affects alertness
-Control arousal and sleep
-“sensory filter”
-Determines which incoming information reaches the cerebrum
What hormone is released and plays a role in mammal and bird sleep cycles? which gland produces it?
-Pineal gland
Sleep is essential and may play a role_
in the consolidation of learning and memory
Why dolphins can swim while they are sleep?
Dolphins sleep with one brain hemisphere at a time and are therefore able to swim while “asleep”
While we are sleeping, which hemisphere of the brain activates or increase of functioning?
the right hemisphere
state of awareness of the external world
state in which external stimuli are received but not consciously perceived
Sleep is an active or non-active state?
active state by the brain
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
-By placing electrodes at multiple sites on the scalp, we can record patterns of electrical activity (known as electroencephalogram)
-Reveal brain frequencies change as the brain progresses through distinct stages of sleep
what is one of the hypothesis about dreams?
they are involved in consolidating learning and memory
During human embryonic development, the neural tube forms three anterior bulges_
The forebrain develops into_
The midbrain develops into_
sensory integrating and relay centers that sens sensory information to the cerebrum
The hidbrain develops into_
-medulla oblangata
-Arise from the midbrain and a part of the hidbrain
-Includes: midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
-Functions in homeostasis, coordination of movement, and conduction of information to the higher brain centers
-Stalk that joins the spinal cord with the base of the brain
-Receives and integrates several types of sensory information and send it to specific parts of the forebrain
-Midbrain controls peripheral vision
-part of the vertebrate hidbrain
-dorsally located
-Functions in unconscious coordination of movement and balance
-It helps in remembering and learning motor skills
-Receive information about the position about the joints and the lengths of the muscles, as well from auditory and visual input
-Hand-eye coordination
-control skeletal muscle contractions and it is the center for learning, emotion, memory, and perception.
-It is divided into left and right hemispheres
cerebral cortex
-surface of the cerebrum
-Largest and most complex part of the mammalian brain
-containing nerve cell bodies of the cerebrum
-The part of the vertebrate brain most changed through evolution
-Vital for perception, voluntary movement, and learning
corpus callosum
Thick band of nerve fibers that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres in mammals, enabling the hemispheres to process information together
basal nuclei
-Deep within the white matter
-clusters of neurons
-serves as centers for planning and learning movement sequences
What is a major function of the pons and medulla?
-is to transfer information between PNS and the midbrain and forebrain
-Coordinate large scale body movements
-Gives rise to the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
-Arose from Diencephalon
-Main input center for sensory information going to the cerebrum
-Incoming information from all the senses sorted in the thalamus and sent to the appropriate cerebral centers for further processing
-integrating center of the vertebrate forebrain
-Neurons with cell bodies in the thalamus relay neural inputs to specific areas in the cerebral cortex and regulate what information goes to the cerebral cortex
What are the parts of the thalamus?
-Functions in maintaining homeostasis (coordinating endocrine and nervous systems)
-secretes hormones of the posterior pituitary and releasing factors that regulate the anterior pituitary
-controls hunger and thirst, sexual and mating behaviors, control fight-or-flight response
-Contains the body’s thermostat and central biological clock
-Includes pineal gland (source of melatonin)
-Contains several clusters of capillaries that generate cerebrospinal fluid from blood
What parts of the brain that regulate sleep and wakefulness?
-Cause sleep: pons and medulla
-Causes wakefulness: midbrain
Circadian rhythm
-a daily cycle of biological activity
-Example: cycles of sleep and wakefulness
What is the circadian rhythm in mammals?
biological clock
biological clock
-Internal timekeeper
-Marks time with or without environment cues but often requires signals from the environment to remain tuned to an appropriate period
-Regulates period genes expression and cellular activity
Suprachiasmaic nucleus (SSN)
-A group of neurons in the hypothalamus
-Functions in biological clock
-Act in response to transmission of sensory information by the eyes
-“pacemaker” of the biological clock
What are the emotions that our brain processes?
What is one of the most powerful emotions?
fear or frighten
Describe the steps of emotion processing
1. sensory input from senses (eyes, hears, nose, etc) along with sensory input from other parts of the brain
2. Limbic system (amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus)
3. Sent to cerebellum (brainstem; don’t think) and cerebral cortex to process information (think)
4. Efferent nerves and hormones release
The previous path can be resumed in (emotion recognition)
1. sensory input
2. Limbic system
3. Process
4. Output
parts of the limbic system
Generation and experience of emotions involves many brain structures including the _
amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of the thalamus
The limbic system also functions in _
-motivation, olfaction, behavior, and memory (short term)
Limbic system often referred to as _
reptilian brain
-A structure in the temporal lobe
-major role in processing emotions
-Storage of emotional memory
What is love?
-More than an emotion, more like a basic need like thirst or hunger.
why is love related to a drug?
It has the same steps of addiction, which are:
-Tolerance – more more more
The pet scan measures_
Oxygen concentration levels in the brain
Ventral tegmental area
-Turn on during new relationship
-Reward and drive
-Dopamine release and sprays the rest of the brain.
What is the hormone associated with the reward system?
When a person is in love, describe the different hormones’ levels
-Cortisol: High (better handle of stress, pain, and more alert)
-Dopamine: High (Pleasure and motivation high, low sadness)
-Oxytocin: High (increase trust and attachment, low fear)
-Vasopresin: high (increase sexual arousal, attraction, and low anxiety)
-Serotonin: low (high obsessive thinking and aggression)
What is the stress hormone? what it does?
-Handle higher stress
-reduce pain
What is serotonin?
anti depressive hormone that reduces love feeling
What is present during love?
When it comes to sex, what is different?
When it comes to sex, your brain calls the shots, but maybe not so much the cerebral cortex (thinking and reasoning)
Brains areas that go into high gear during sex
-Ventral Tegmental Area – dopamine release and the reward circuit
-Memory related imagery and vision
-Anterior cerebellum (emotional processing)
Brains areas that shut down during sex
-Lateral orbitalfrontal corext – self control centers (especially at orgasm)
-Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex – moral reasoning and social judgment.
-If they didn’t orgasm might not happen!
-Amygdala goes silent at orgasm
During sex, love, and orgasm, the hormone_surges and floods the brain; Triggers the release of _; Hormone_ (think about sexual gratification); _and_are involved in_ (think about the special attraction between the mother and baby)
-testosterone – both males and females
-prolactin gives sexual gratification and lowers effects of dopamine
-Vasopresin and oxytocin – pair bonding, post-orgasmic loving feeling.
In women estrogen adds to oxytocin
In men testosterone offsets oxytocin
Oxytocin is short or long term?
long term compared with dopamine, which is short term
Describe the steps of the chemistry of sex, love, and orgasm
1. Dopamine surges and floods the brain
2. Triggers the release of testosterone (both males and females)
3. Hormone prolactin gives sexual gratification and lowers effects of dopamine
4. Vasopresin and Oxytocin- Pair bonding, post-orgasmic loving feeling
What is the effect of estrogen of women on oxytocin?
adds to it
What is the effect of testosterone of males on oxytocin?
offsets it
Testosterone is involve in_
When the oxytocin effect goes away?
after 2-3 years
The cerebrum, the largest structure in the human brain, is essential for
What are the names of the four regions or lobes of the brain?
Gael cells
Nutrition to brain cells
What were the differences of Einstein brain to a normal person?
-His brain had high amount of gael cells
-Parietal brain was more folded
Parietal brain is in charge of _
-Special reasoning
What is the largest structure of the brain?
What is the main function of the frontal lobe?
-decision making
-Motor control
What is the main function of the parietal lobe?
-sensory info. integration
-Process somatic info.
What is the main function of the occipital lobe?
What is the main function of the temporal lobe?
Say the parts of the frontal love and their functions
-prefrontal cortex: decision making, planning
-Motor cortex: Control of skeletal muscle
-Broca’s area: Forming speech
Say the parts of the parietal lobe and their functions
-Somatosensory cortex: sense of touch
-Sensory Association cortex: Integration of sensory information
Say the parts of the Occipital lobe and their functions:
-Visual association cortex: Combining images and object recognition
-Visual cortex: Processing visual stimuli and pattern recognition
Say the parts of the temporal lobe and their functions:
-Auditory cortex: hearing
-Wernicke’s area: comprehending language
Broca’s area location and function
in the frontal lobe is active when speech is generated
Wernicke’s area (location and function)
the temporal lobe is active when speech is heard
The differences in hemisphere function
The left hemisphere functions
“seat of intelligence”
-is more adept at language, math, logic, and processing of serial sequences
The right hemisphere functions
“Artistic and emotional site”
-is stronger at pattern recognition, nonverbal thinking, and emotional processing
Lateralization is linked to_
The two hemispheres work together by communicating through the fibers of the ______________??
Corpus callosum
The left side is associated with which sex?
The right side is associated with which sex?
The cerebral cortex receives input from _
sensory organs and somatosensory receptors
Somatosensory receptors provide information about _
touch, pain, pressure, temperature, and the position of muscles and limbs
The thalamus directs _
-different types of input to distinct locations
-Decides where the information will go to be processed
sensory organs perceive_and somatosensory receptors perceive_
-things around you
-Inside perception and where you body is in space
Thalamus is known, by its function as the_
Primary motor cortex is related with_. On the other hand, primary sensory cortex is related with_
Primary somatosensory cortex process features _
in the sensory input and integrates information from different sensory areas
Integrated sensory information passes to the_,which helps_
prefrontal cortex, which helps plan actions and movements
In the somatosensory cortex and motor cortex, neurons are arranged according to _
the part of the body that generates input or receives commands
Flashy is_and is understood by humans as_
-rise eyebrows
Smile is understood by humans as_, but by monkeys as_
Touch serves in_
increasing tips
Information received at the primary sensory areas is passed along to nearby _, which_
-association areas
-process particular features in the sensory input
The size of the cortical surface of devoted to each part is related to_
-the extent of neuronal control needed (motor cortex) or with the number of sensory neurons that extend axons to that part (for somatosensory cortex)
Frontal lobe damage may impair _ but leave _ intact
-decision making and emotional responses
-intellect and memory
The frontal lobes have a substantial effect on _ (give examples)
“executive functions”
-Ex: Decision making, planning, typical emotional responses
_ underlie memory and learning.
Synaptic connections
What two processes during embryonic development establish the overall structure of nervous system?
-regulated gene expression
-signal transduction
What two processes dominate embryonic development of the nervous system?
-Neurons compete for growth-supporting factors in order to survive
-Half the neurons die!
-Many synapsis form.
-Only half the synapses that form during embryo development survive into adulthood (synapses elimination)
Neural plasticity
describes the ability of the nervous system to be modified after birth
Neural plasticity changes can_
Changes can strengthen or weaken signaling at a synapse
What are the changes that can happen to synapses (which underlie the concept of neural plasticity)?
1. Synapses are strengthen or weaken in response to activity
2. More or less synapses form
3. If two synapses are active at the same time, The strength of the postsynaptic response may increase in both synapses
What is the part of the brain which the short term memory is stored?
What is the part of the brain which the long term memory is stored?
cerebral cortex
Synaptic gap
space between two synaptic terminals or between the synaptic terminal and a cell body
The junction where a neuron communicates with another cell across a narrow gap via a neurotransmitter of an electrical coupling
The connections between synapses are by_
neurotransmitters like dopamine
What is the flow of afferent, efferent nerves, and CNS?
afferent nerve-;CNS-; efferent nerve
What underlies learning?
-Number of connections of synapses
-Strength of signal between synapses
Inhibition signal
switch off signal or activity of other nerve cell
Stimulation signal
switch on signal or activity of other cell
Temper signal
The inhibition/stimulation of one nerve cell by other
-Spectrum of behaviours: Social interactions, Touch, Response to stimuli.
-Strong genetic component
-Girls less affected, but when they are, much more serious.
-Correlated with the Age of father (older, most probable)
-Disruption in synaptic plasticity – loss of ability to change synapse connections.
-They could be very intelligent
Disruption in synaptic plasticity
-loss of ability to change synapse connections
-Autistic people had this problem
What does autistic people display?
display impaired communication and social interaction, as well as stereotyped and repetitive behaviors
How can you create more synapses and strength signals?
by repetitive pattern or activity
Asperge’s syndrome
-A degree of autism, in which does not have a high level
-These individual have problems with social interactions
What is an example of neural plasticity?
The formation of memories
What happens to the information recently learned? what happens to this information as the time passes?
-Information is held for a time in Short-term memory locations (e.g., hippocampus)
-These are temporary neural pathways.
-The information is released if it becomes irrelevant (unused).
long-term memory, is stored in the _
cerebral cortex.
How the short term memory in the hippocampus becomes long term memory in the cerebral cortex?
The temporary links stored in the hippocampus are replaced by more permanent links in the cerebral cortex.
Some consolidation of memory is thought to occur during _. Why?
-Hippocampus activation for memory consolidation probably impacts our dreams.
Why is organization of short-term into long-term memory different?
-It allows the integration with existing stores of knowledge and experience.
-Transfer from ST to LT is enhanced if the new information is “similar” to existing information.
-Its easier to learn the piano if you play the violin.
-Its easier to learn osmosis if you already understand some chemistry.
*Integration with existing info*
The down syndrome is related to_, and the autism syndrome is related to_
-mother age
-father age
Why do we have levels of autism?
because of the diminish in neural plasticity, which can varied among autistic individuals
Short-term memory
ability to hold information, anticipations, or goals for a time and then release them if they become irrelevant
Long-term memory
The ability to hold, associate, and recall information over one’s lifetime
Hippocampus let us_, but not_.
learn new long-term memory, but not retain it
Long term potentiation
-An enhancing responsiveness to action potential (nerve signals) by receiving a neuron
-A lasting increase in the strength of synaptic transmission
-It requires high-frequency series of action potentials the presynaptic neuron
-These action potentials must arrive at the synaptic terminal at the same time that the postsynaptic cell receives a depolarizing stimulus at another synapse
The adult human brain contains _
neural stem cells
How the function of the stem cells were observed in mice?
In mice, stem cells in the brain can give rise to neurons that mature and become incorporated into the adult nervous system
Stem cells have a role in_
learning and memory
Stem cells, before becoming an specific functional cell, they are_
where are the stem cells found?
among all the body
What is the ability that the stem cells have?
they can develop into other kinds of cells
The stem cell ability is characterized to_, and this is the reason during embryonic development the formation of_is possible
-Twins when a stem cell divides from the blastula, which will become its own organism or specie
Stem cells retain the ability to_
divide indefinitely
What idea the ability of stem cells support?
the idea of neural plasticity, which happens with experience
Unlike PNS, Mammalian CNS lacks the ability to_
fully repair or regenerate itself when damaged or diseased
Disorders of the nervous system include:
-drug addiction
-Alzheimer’s disease
-Parkinson’s disease
Nervous disorders results from_
anatomical or/and chemical changes to the brain
What are the contributions for nervous diseases?
-genetic factors
-environmental factors
What nervous disease has a strong genetic component?
What percentage of the people in the world suffer of Schizophrenia?
Severe mental disturbance characterized by psychotic episodes in which patients have a distorted perception of reality
People with Schizophrenia frequently experience_
Schizophrenia does not result in_
split personalities (bipolarity)
Schizophrenia is described as_
-Unusual behavior
Schizophrenia means_
fragmentation of normally integrated brain functions (no split personality)
The presence of what neurotransmitters and what doses of them are related with Schizophrenia?
-Dopamine: High levels
-Glutamate: Low levels
-stimulates dopamine release and can mimic schizophrenia
Angel-dust (PCP)
blocks glutamate receptors induces schizophrenia
What is the treatment for Schizophrenia and what it does to these people?
-A medicine that decreases the levels of dopamine and increases the levels of glutamate
Depression is characterized by_
-Lack of interest over a prolonged period of time
-Depressed mood
-abnormalities in sleep, appetite, and energy level
What are the two diseases within the depression?
-Major depressive disorder
-Bipolar disorder
Major depressive disorder
-a persistent lack of interest or pleasure in most activities
-characterized by feelings of sadness, lack of self-worth, emptiness, or loss of interest in nearly all things
Bipolar disorder
manic (high-mood) and depressive (low-mood) phases
What is the treatment for depression? what it does?
-Prozac (medicine) (also called fluoxetine)
-Depression is associated with low levels of serotonin. So this medicine does not increase but inhibit the uptake of serotonin. (persists longer)
-Increase biogenic amines in the brain
What percentage of the population is affected by bipolar disorder?
What the brain’s reward system does?
rewards motivation with pleasure
Why some drugs are addictive?
because they increase activity of the brain’s reward system (dopamine), used for pleasure, motivation, and learning
What drugs are included?
Which drug is not plant-based?
Addictive drugs enhance the activity of the _
dopamine pathway
Drug addiction leads _
to long-lasting changes in the reward circuitry that cause craving for the drug
What does opium and heroin does to your nervous system?
decrease the activity of inhibitory neuron
What does nicotine does to your nervous system?
Stimulates dopamine releasing VTA neuron
What does Cocaine and amphetamines does to your nervous system?
block removal of dopamine from synaptic cleft
In the absence of the drug addiction, the reward system functions in_
providing motivation for activities that enhance survival and reproduction
Why does users of cocaine intake the drug through their nose?
becuse it has a faster effect because it goes to your blood quickly
The beer is a natural or artificial product? why?
natural because it is produced by yeast
Why does people ingest larger amounts of drugs as they use it more frequently?
because they become tolerant and try to get greater effects
Alzheimer’s Disease is_
-a mental deterioration characterized by confusion and memory loss
-Destruction of nerve cells, including hippocampus and cerebral cortex
Alzheimer’s disease is caused by _
the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (tau) and amyloid plaques (secreted by secreteases) in the brain
_intake increase the probability to get Alzheimer
Parkinson’s disease
is a motor disorder caused by death of dopamine-secreting neurons in the midbrain
Parkinson’s disease is characterized by_
-muscle tremors, flexed posture, and a shuffling gait
-Difficulty in initiating movements, slowness of movements, and rigidity
chemical messengers
-Information is transmitted from a _ cell (a neuron) to a _ cell (a neuron, muscle, or gland cell)
-Most neurons are nourished or insulated by cells called _
Nerves of the_ transmit_
-sensory and motor signals between the CNS and the rest of the body

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