Anatomy, Joints

Synarthrosis
No movement
Fibrous joint-tied together with collagenous fibers

ex: Skull sutures
peridontal joints (teeth)

Amphiarthrosis
Slightly moveable joint
Cartilagenous joints-bones connected by cartilage

Ex: Ribs attached to sternum by cartilage
between tibia & fibula
joint between the vertebral bodies
joint between the sacrum and L5

Diarthrosis (synovial joint)
freely moveable joint
Surrounded by joint capsule filled with synovial fluid

Ex:
(shoulder, elbow, hip, knee)

Fibrous joint (synarthrosis)
Fibrous joint
Ligamentous connection between two bones
(joint between tibia and fibula, skull sutures)

Cartilaginous joint (amphiarthrosis)
Amphiarthrotic joint
Pad of cartilage between the bones
(pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs)

Synovial joint (diarthrotic)
Cavity within the joint is filled with fluid (synovial fluid)
(Shoulder, elbow, hip, knee)

Coracoclavicular ligament
Coracoclavicular ligament
(2)
Ligament extending from the clavicle (3) to the coracoid process (19) of the scapula

Acromioclavicular ligament
Acromioclavicular ligament
(4)
attaches clavicle (3) to the acromion process (5) of the scapula

Coracoacromial ligament
Coracoacromial ligament
(1)
Ligament extending from the acromion process (5) to the coracoid process (19)

Glenohumeral ligament
Glenohumeral ligament
Ligament circling the glenoid cavity and extending from the head of the humerus to the glenoid fossa (cavity)

Radial Collateral ligament
Radial Collateral ligament
(7)
ligament extending from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the lateral side of the radius

Ulnar collateral ligament
Ulnar collateral ligament
(8-anterior, 9-oblique, not numbered to right of 9-posterior)
ligament extending from the medial epicondyle of the humerus to the medial side of the ulna

Annular ligament
Annular ligament
(6)
ligament extending from the proximal portion of the ulna to (and around) the head of the radius

Iliofemoral ligament
Iliofemoral ligament
(3)
Extends between the greater and lesser trochanter on the femur to the superior ridge of the acetabulum in the ilium region.

pubofemoral ligament
pubofemoral ligament
(8)
Extends from the pubic side of the acetabulum to the neck of the femur

Ischiofemoral ligament
Ischiofemoral ligament
(3)
Wraps around the neck of the femur and attaches to the inferior side of the acetabulum in the ischial region.

Ligamentum Capirua Dwmoeia
(ligamentum teres)
(Ligament of the femoral head)
Ligamentum Capirua Dwmoeia
(ligamentum teres)
(Ligament of the femoral head)
ligament extending from the inside of the acetabular fossa to the fovea capitis of the femur

Fibular collateral ligament 
(lateral collateral)
Fibular collateral ligament
(lateral collateral)
(6) Anterior view
ligament extending from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula

Fibular collateral ligament 
(lateral collateral)
Fibular collateral ligament
(lateral collateral)
(10) posterior
ligament extending from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula

Tibial Collateral ligament 
(medial collateral)
Tibial Collateral ligament
(medial collateral)
(18) anterior
ligament extending from the medial epicondyle (19) of the femur to the medial, proximal portion of the tibia

Tibial Collateral ligament 
(medial collateral)
Tibial Collateral ligament
(medial collateral)
(2) posterior
ligament extending from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial, proximal portion of the tibia

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
(3) Posterior view
Extends from the intercondylar eminence of the tibia to the medial side of the intercondylar fossa (10) of the femur.

Anterior Cruciate ligament (ACL)
Anterior Cruciate ligament (ACL)
(1) anterior view
Extends from the intercondylar eminence of the tibia to the lateral side of the intercondylar fossa of the femur.

Patellar ligament
Patellar ligament
(7)
ligament extending from the patella (3) to the tibial tuberosity(14)

Patellar Retinaculae
Patellar Retinaculae
(4-lateral, 13-medial)
Extending from the lateral and medial edge of the patella to the superior portion of the tibia

medial and lateral menisci
medial and lateral menisci
(2-medial, 7-lateral) posterior view
Not a ligament.
A pair of cartilage pads sandwiched between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur and the superior (proximal) surface of the tibia
Functions:
Cushions
Conform to shape of articulating surfaces.
Increase surface area of joint.
Provide lateral stability to joint.

medial and lateral menisci
medial and lateral menisci
(not a ligament)
A pair of cartilage pads sandwiched between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur and the superior surface of the tibia

Ligaments
Connect bone to bone.
Belong in the dense tissue group within the connective tissue category because matrix is present.
Have poor circulation so heal very slow.
Have densely packed cells so provide large amount of strength.

Glenohumeral joint
Glenohumeral joint
Ball and Socket joint.
Articulation between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula

subdeltoid bursa
subdeltoid bursa
(7)
sac that helps to reduce friction between the greater tubercle and the acromion (5) when the arm is raised in the abducted position.

Olecranal joint
Olecranal joint
hinge joint that consists of the articulation between the distal humerus (capitulum and trochlea) and the proximal end of the radius (head) and the proximal end of the ulna (trochlear notch)

Head of the radius (pivots with…)
The capitulum of the humerus (articulates with…)

The trochlear notch of the ulna (pivots with…)
the trochlea of the humerus (articulates with…)

Bursa sac
reduces friction between the overlying skin and the olecranon when the lower arm is flexed.

coxal joint
coxal joint
Ball and socket joint.
consists of the articulation between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip structure.

Tibiofemoral joint
Tibiofemoral joint
consists of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the superior articulating sufaces of the tibia

Prepatellar bursa
Prepatellar bursa
(16)
helps reduce friction between the overlying skin and the patella when the lower leg is in the flexed position.

Suprapatellar bursa
Suprapatellar bursa
(17)
helps to reduce friction between the rectus femoris tendon and the distal end of the femur when the lower leg is in the flexed position.

Bursitis
Inflamed bursa sacs due to increased friction.

Rheumatism
Pain and stiffness in the joint areas. Arthritis is a type. Arthritis is due to the breakdown of the articular cartilage. This breakdown changes the articular surface of the cartilage. This creates friction within the joint area.

Gout
due to an increase in uric acid production. The exces will result in crystal formation residing in the joint area (primarily the ankle region), resulting in inflammation.

Sprain
Stretched ligament

Strain
torn or stretched muscle

Rheumatic fever
an infection elsewhere in the body that results in an inflammation in the joints.

Ulnar collateral ligament
Ulnar collateral ligament
(8)
ligament extending from the medial epicondyle of the humerus to the medial side of the ulna

Radial Collateral ligament
Radial Collateral ligament
(4)
ligament extending from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the lateral side of the radius

Annular ligament
Annular ligament
(5)
ligament extending from the proximal portion of the ulna to (and around) the head of the radius

Iliofemoral ligament
Iliofemoral ligament
(8)
Extends between the greater and lesser trochanter on the femur to the superior ridge of the acetabulum in the ilium region.

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
(6) Anterior view
Extends from the intercondylar eminence of the tibia to the medial side of the intercondylar fossa of the femur.

Anterior Cruciate ligament (ACL)
Anterior Cruciate ligament (ACL)
(9) Posterior view
Extends from the intercondylar eminence of the tibia to the lateral side of the intercondylar fossa of the femur.

medial and lateral menisci
medial and lateral menisci
(3-lateral, 8-medial) anterior viewq
Not a ligament.
A pair of cartilage pads sandwiched between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur and the superior (proximal) surface of the tibia

Synovial fluid
derived from plasma (cerebro spinal fluid, aqueous humor, inner ear fluid)
Lubricates joint
Reduces friction
Provides nutrients
Shock absorber

Bursae
“pillows” of fluid
Protect (cushion) – shock absorber
reduce friction
found in major joints (hip, knee, elbow)
Can become inflammed (Bursitis)

types of Diarthrosis
Planar (gliding) joint
Hinge joint
Condylar (elipsoidal) joint
Pivot joint
Saddle joint
Ball & socket

Planar (gliding) joint
Found on flat surfaces
(carpals, tarsals, between vertebrae)

Hinge joint
Found between:
Phalanges
Humerus (trochlea) & Ulna (trochlear notch)
Femur (condyles) & Tibia (condyles)

Condylar (elipsoidal) joint
Found between metacarpals and phalanges

Pivot joint
Found between:
Atlas & dens of Axis
Head of radius & Capitulum of humerous (pronation & supination action)

Saddle joint
Joint can work up & down and side to side.
Found between:
1st metacarpal & trapezium (opposable thumb joint)

Ball & Socket joint
Most freely moving joint.
Found between:
Head of Femur and Acetabulum
Head of femur and glenoid cavity of scapula

Rotator cuff
tendons of 4 muscles extending to humerus (not ligaments)

Transverse humeral ligament
Transverse humeral ligament
(9)
Extends between the greater and lesser tubercles and holds down the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle (11) in the intertubercular groove.

subacromial bursa
subacromial bursa
(6)

subcoracoid bursa
subcoracoid bursa
(18)

Subscapular bursa
Subscapular bursa
(13)

Sacro-Iliac joint
planar diarthrosis
between sacrum/hip bones

Pubic Symphysis joint
Amphiarthrosis
between hip bones/hip bones

Hip joint
Ball & Socket diarthrosis
between hip bones/femur

Knee joint
Complex, functions as hinge
between fermur/tibia

Tibiofibular joint (proximal)
Planar diarthrosis
between tibia/fibula

Tibiofibular joint (distal)
planar diarthrosis and amphiarthrotic
between tibai/fibula

cervical What type of vertebrae is shown in blue? lumbar (5 largest) What type of vertebrae is shown in blue? WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample sacrum …

Medial Condyle of femur Lateral Condyle of femur WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Medial Epicondyle of femur Lateral Epicondyle of femur stylomastoid foramen hypoglossal foramen Pelvic …

Identify the non-weight bearing bone of the lower limb. Femur Tibia Talus Fibula Fibula ~ The fibula articulates with the tibia on its medial surface. It does not help distribute the weight of the body to the foot. The tibia …

Transverse Foramen Transverse Processes WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Vertebral Foramen Dens Dens Body Spinous Process Spinous Process Transverse Processes Transverse Processes Transverse Foramen Vertebral Foramen …

David from ajethno:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy