Anatomy and Physiology 2 Final Exam

Brain Stem
connection to spinal cord, filters information flow between peripheral nervous system and the rest of the brain
Medulla Oblongata
part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion
Cardiovascular center
area in the lower pons and medulla of the brain that contains the cardiac and vasomotor control centers, the cardiac center transmits parasympathetic impulses to the heart through the vagus nerve (slows HR) and transmits sympathetic impulses to the heart (increasing HR and contractility) and blood vessels (vasoconstriction) through the spinal cord and peripheral sympathetic nerves
Rhythmicity area
area in the medulla oblongata sets the basic rhythm of inspiration and expiration
Pons
a hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum, helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body
Midbrain
a small structure between the hindbrain and forebrain that relays information from the eyes, ears, and skin and that controls certain types of automatic behaviors
Reticular formation
a network of nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla that helps regulate attention, arousal, and sleep; also called the reticular activating system
Cerebellum
balance, physical, emotional, cognitive, social, the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
Arbor vitae
the inner area of white matter in the Cerebellum that is organized into narrow branches that resemble those of a tree “tree of life”
Diencephalon
almost all gray matter , located between the midbrain and the cerebrum and consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, optic chiasma, and pineal body
Thalmus
part of the diencephalon of the brain, it conveys sensory information excluding smell to the cerebral cortex
Hypothalmus
found inferior to the thalmus – controls many body activities, one of the major regulators of homeostasis, controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system, which regulates contraction of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and secretion of many glands, intermediary between nervous system and endocrine system, releases regulating hormones, also regulates food intake through feeding center and satiety center + thirst center, finally, maintains waking state and sleep patterns
infindibulum links to pituitary
Mamillary body
the medial mammillary nucleus and the lateral mammillary nucleus, found on the underside of the brain and considered parts of the limbic system, both are linked to the hypothalamus via a nerve path called the fornix and feature a series of neural projections that connect to other parts of the brain, also a relay for signals that travel from the hippocampus and amygdale to the thalamus, a system called the Papez circuit, they are important to memory processing, so damage caused by either physical destruction or nutritional deficiencies can lead to amnesia
Infundibulum
a stalk of hypothalamic tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the base of the hypothalamus, a funnel shaped region of the uterine tube that bears fingerlike projections called fimbriae, pulsating cilia on the fimbriae draw the secondary oocyte into the uterine tube
Pineal gland
the gland that plays a major role in sexual development, sleep, and metabolism, roof of 3rd ventricle brain, melatonin secreted by night, less in sunlight, biological clock, Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that tends to occur (and recur) as the days grow shorter in the fall and winter. It is believed that affected people react adversely to the decreasing amounts of sunlight and the colder temperatures as the fall and winter progress.
Circumventricular organs
Several small structures located around the edges of the third and fourth ventricles, lacking the regular blood-brain barrier and thus serving as significant sites for neural-endocrine interaction. [They include the area postrema, the median eminence, the subcommissural organ, the subfornical organ, and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Sometimes also included are the funiculus separans, the neurohypophysis, and the pineal body.]
Cerebrum
largest part of brain, associated with higher order functioning including control of voluntary behavior, thinking, planning, perceiving, understanding language
Cortex
6 outer layers of the brain in humans, where most thinking, feeling and sensing occurs
Hemispheres
Brain is divided into two, contralaterally controlled, left side of brain controls right side of body and right side of brain controls left side of body
Gray matter
contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals, interneurons, motor neurons and neuroglia, has little to no myelin
White matter
composed primarilly of myelinated axons, abundant in axons, divided into three portions, 1) anterior (ventral) white columns 2) posterior (dorsal) white column 3) lateral white column, tracts are bundles of axons in the CNS, nerves are bundles of axons in the PNS
Gyri
elevated ridges on cortical surface of the cerebral hemisphere, which increase the surface area and provide space for additional cortical neurons
Fissures
deep grooves between the hemispheres of the cerebrum and between the cerebrum and cerebellum
Sulci
grooves on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres
Corpus callosum
a thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them
Lobes
divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones, frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
Insula
insular cortex is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes)
Association tracts
connects diffrent regions of the same hemisphere; long association fibers connect different lobes to each other; short association fibers connect different gyri within a single lobe, type of tract
Commissural tracts
axon tracts in the internal white matter of the cerebrum that conduct nerve impulses between corresponding gyri in opposite hemispheres, bundles of these in the corpus callosum, anterior and posterior commissures.
Projection tracts
connect cerebral cortex to the diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord (white matter in the cerebrum)
Basal ganglia
large clusters of neurons, located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex, that work with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements
Limbic system
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex, includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
Sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Somatosensory area
area of the parietal lobe of the cerebrum that analyzes sensory information from receptors in the skin, joints and muscles
Motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobe that controls voluntary movements
Sleep
Altered state of consciousness; melatonin might be a significant neurochemical in this process
Sensation
awareness of stimulli
Adaptation
frequency of impulse decreases as stimulus continues
Transduction
converts energy to a graded potential
Perception
conscious interpretation and awareness of meaning of sensation
Somatic sensations
Arise from stimulation of sensory receptors embedded in the skin or subcutaneous layer, in mucous membranes of the mouth, vagina and anus; in muscles, tendons and joints, and the inner ear
Tactile sensations
Humans perceive a different range of these, including light touch, pressure, vibration, itch, and tickle. This is due to activation of a number of different types of receptors, which respond to different aspects of a tactile stimulus, sensations include touch, pressure, thermal, pain, proprioceptors
Touch
crude-contact, fine-exact, fast adapting-meissners corpuscles-in dermal papillae, hair root plexus-distrub hairs, slow adapting-merkels discs- deeper in dermis, mechanoreceptors-hand, feet ligaments stretch receptors
Pressure
deformation of deeper tissues, pacinian corpuscles- fast adapting, vibration-itch, chemical, tickle, phantom limb sensation-cerebral cortex interpretation of excited nerve endings
Thermal
thermoreceptors, cold receptors-in stratum basale (epidermis), warm receptors-in dermis rapid adapting
Pain
nociceptors-every tissue except brain, intense stimuli, tissue irritation, injury, muscle spasm, lack of blood flow, acute-sharp fast pain, chronic-slow, burning, superficial- skin, visceral-internal, also referred pain-same segment of spinal cord (heart-left arm), analgesia-blocks chemical that stimulates nocioceptors
Proprioceptors
in muscles and inner ear, movement of one part of the body in relation to another, kinesthesia-estimate weight of object- excert right amount of effort to lift it (without vision), muscle spindles-stretch reflexes for muscle tone, tendon organs- junction of tendon and muscle- protects from excessive tension, joint kinesthetic receptors- around capsule of synovial joint
Olfaction
-Sense of Smell whereby volatile molecules (Oderants) must be dissolved in the mucus in our nasal cavity to be detecte
Olfactory epithelium
10-100 million receptors, superior nasal cavity, cribiform plate-ethmoid bone, olfactory nerve-olfactory bulb
Olfactory hair
cilia that extend from dendrite, respond to chemical stimulation
Olfactory adaptation
decreasing sensitivity, 50% after the first second
Olfactory bulbs
Stalk-like structures located at the base of the brain that contain neural circuits that perform the first analysis of olfactory information
Gustation
chemical must be dissolved to taste them, 5 primary tastes
-sour, salt, sweet, bitter, umani
Taste buds
sensory taste receptors found on the tongue, throat, and palate that help form the perception of taste
Gustatory receptor cells
gustatory hair extend through taste pore in taste bud
Vision
1/2 sense receptor in the body- eyes, visual information
Accessory structures
eyelids palpebrae, shade sleep protection, lubrication
Fibrous tunic
first layer, cornea transparent, curve focus light, made of non kertinizing squamous epithelium
a) sclera- white of eye, dense connective tissue, collagen, gives eye shape, protection
b) cornea- avascular, focus light
Sclera
white of eye, dense connective tissue, collagen, gives eye shape, protection
Cornea
avascular, focus light
Vascular tunic
uvea, second layer
a) choroid- lines internal sclera
b) cilliary body- cilliary muscle alters shape of lens- near/far vision, blood capillaries, aqueous humor
c) iris- color smooth muscle fibers regulate mount of light, pupil- (hole) constriction- smaller, dialation- larger
Choroid
lines internal sclera
Cilliary body
cilliary muscle alters shape of lens- near/far vision, blood capillaries, aqueous humor
Iris
color smooth muscle fibers regulate mount of light, pupil- (hole) constriction- smaller, dialation- larger
Retina tunic
posterior tissue, third layer, 2/3, optic disc – optic nerve exits, renal artery and vein
a) pigmented layer- melanin- epithelial cells- sharp image, albino- no melanin – vision problems
b) neural layer – out growth of brain
Photoreceptors
Rods-120 million- low light threshold shades of gray
Cones- 6 million high light color
Macula lutea
at visual axis of eye
Central foven
depression, only cones highest visual acuity
Optic disc
Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light.
Optic nerve
The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Lens
crystalline protein, transparent, avascular- focus light
Aqueous humor
found in the anterior chamber, is replaced every 90 minutes, watery fluid, interocular pressure
Vitreous body
found in the vitreous chamber, jellylike, holds retina flush, even surface, forms in embryo, not replaced, phaocytic cells remove debris, vitreal floaters
Refraction
bending of light through transparent cornea and lens, image inverted right to left reversal corrected by brain, 75% at cornea 25% at lens, 20ft (6m) light is parallel, less than 20ft means more of this because light diverges
Acommodation
-convex refracts light in when focus on a close object, light bends more
-near point of vision, the minimum distance from the eye an object can be clearly focused with maximum accomodation
-ciliary muscle- focus on far object it flattens, near object it contracts
-effects lens shape
-presbyopia (old eye) an increase in the near point of vision, lens loses elasticity
Near point
the minimum distance from the eye an object can be clearly focused with maximum accomodation
Presbyopia
(old eye) an increase in the near point of vision, lens loses elasticity
Myopia
A condition in which the visual images come to a focus in front of the retina of the eye because of defects in the refractive media of the eye or of abnormal length of the eyeball resulting especially in defective vision of distant objects — called also nearsightedness.
Hyperopia
A condition in which visual images come to a focus behind the retina of the eye and vision is better for distant than for near objects — called also farsightedness.
Visual physiology
light enters eye and is focused on retina. photoreceptors transduce light energy into electrical signals. electrical signals transmitted to brain to allow for perception
Photo pigment
-rods- rhodospin (absorbs blue to green)
-cones- 3 photo pigments (aborbs blue, green, yellow-orange)
-photo pigment chemical glycoprotein, opsin,
Rhodospin
visual pigment found in rods that will change shape based on the amount of light
Color blindness
refers to a person who cannot perceive colors at all. They either lack cones or have cones that do not function normally, may be genetic or acquired
Visual pathway

The route that is taken by light-generated nerve impulses after they leave the eye; also called the Retrobulbar visual pathway

Cornea,Pupil,Lens,Vitreous Humor,Retina,Rods and cones,Optic nerve,Thalamus,Occipital lobe

Optic chiasma
the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
Pinna
The auricle is the visible part of the ear that resides outside of the head, functions to collect sound and transform it to directional and other information, collects sound and acting as a funnel amplifies this and directs it to the auditory canal
External auditory canal
Leads from pinna to eardrum. L shape in most animals, vertical canal goes to the horizontal canal. The horizontal canal passes into the temporal bone. Ceruminous glands and hairs protect ear from foreign material.
Tympanic membrane
The eardrum. A structure that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound waves.
Ceruminous gland
found only in the external ear canal, where their secretion combines with sebum and dead epidermal cells to form earwax, or cerumen.
Middle ear
air filled cavity- temporal lobe, auditory ossicles- mallius, incus, stapes, oval window to round window, second tympanic membrane- protected by dampering vibrations, auditory tube-eustation tube- middle ear to nasopharynx, allows air to leave middle ear- balance with atmospheric pressure
The intermediate portion of the ear containing a chain of three ossicles that extends from the tympanic membrane to the oval window and transmits vibrations to the inner ear
Auditory ossicles
3 smallest bones in the body, Malleus, Incus, Stapes. transmit the sound vibrations from the eardrum to the oval window and the round window which connect to the middle and inner ear
Oval window
Is at the boundary between the middle ear and inner ear., causing vibrations to pass into a coiled, fluid filled tube, known as the Cochlea.
Eustachian tube
narrow tube between the middle ear and the throat that serves to equalize pressure on both sides of the eardrum
Internal ear
Fluid-filled compartments within the temporal bone of the skull that are involved with hearing and balance; made up of the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals.
Decibels
-units for measuring the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from 0 to 130
Cochlea
organ of corti,
A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
Equilibrium
two types, static and dynamic, vestibular apparatus is a receptor organ for this
Static equilibrium
position of the body (head) relative to the force of gravity, the macula- is considered this, hair cells, stereocillia, glycoprotein layer- otolothic membrane, calcium carbonate stones- otoliths. Tilting the head causes the membrane to be pulled by gravity it slides over the hair cells in the direction of the tilt, this pulls the transduction channels open and the action potential begins to send it ot the vestibular branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve
Dynamic equilibrium
semicircular ducts and saccule, three planes detection of rotation, acceleration, decleration, gelatinous material moves over hair cells, this sends the message to the vestibular nerve
Endocrine glands
ductless glands, secrete to interstitial fluid capillaries- blod
Exocrine glands
have ducts, sweat, oil, mucous, digestive
Hormones
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
Target cells
receptors- fast or slow effect, effects can last seconds, hours, days- long duration
Cells with appropriate receptors that are able to receive particular hormonal or nervous messages
Responsivness of these depends on hormone concentration, number of target cell receptors, and influence of other hormones
Receptors
on target cells- new ones can be synthesised by the cell, old ones broke down, there are 200-100,000 of these on a cell, synthetic hormones can block these
Hormone types
two types, local and circulating
Local hormones
include-
paracrines- neighboring cells
autocrine- same cell
interleukin 2- Tcells
These are inactivated quickly
Circulating hormones
pass from the secretory cells to the interstitial fluid, then into the blood
Lipid soluble
one of two chemical classes,
steroid-made of cholesterol, ring core
thyroid-uses iodine, lipid soluble
nitric oxide-also neurotransmitter
Steroid
made from cholesterol, ring core
A type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four few strings, three six sided rings, and one five sided ring. Examples include cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.
Thyroid
uses iodine, lipid soluble
-Hormones released here control the release of energy from food molecules during respiration in body cells
Nitric oxide
A gas produced by many types of cells that functions as a local regulator and as a neurotransmitter.
Water soluble
second of two chemical classes,
amine- made from amino acid histamine from histamine
peptide protein- amino acid polymers
eicosanoids- fatty acids
Amine
water soluble, made from amino acid histamine from histamine
Peptide protein
Growth Hormone, ADH; water soluble; comprise the largest number of hormones; DOES NOT diffuse into cells; must bind to plasma membrane receptors
Mechanism of hormone action
1. lipid soluble-in cell on genes, enters blood stream to cell through cell membrane, lipid bi-layer, if target cell- hormone binds to and activates receptors in cystol, gene expression is altered- a new protein product is made, cell activity is altered
2. water soluble- 1st messenger, enters blood stream- to cell, reaches plasma membrane, membrane protein (G protein) is activated, G protein adenylate cyclase an enzyme that converts ATP to Cyclic AMP in the cystol, cAMp is the secondary messenger which adds phosphate to proteins in the cell, there is a physiological response, then cAMP is deactivated
2nd messenger
Small ions or water-soluble molecules which rapidly relay the signal from the membrane-receptor bound “first-messenger” into a cell’s interior.
Permissive effect
epinephrine is more powerful if thyroid hormone is present
Synergistic effect
together better than alone, FSH and estrogen
Antagonistic effect
opposing action, insulin/glycogen
Pituitary
hypophysis, sella turcica in skull
Hypophysis
Another name for the pituitary gland, a hypothalamic structure referred to as the master gland of body. Located ventral to corpus callosum and attached to the tubercinerum
Negative feedback system
amount hormone increases then when effect is reached the amount decreases
Positive feedback system
amount increases then increases again
Anterior pituitary
adenohypohysis, endocrine gland
a) Human growth hormone, HGH, somaotrophin, target throughout body, liver, skeletal muscle, cartilage, bone, accelerate protein synthesis, hormone release every few hours especially during sleep, child-growth, adult-maintain, hypo secretion- not enough pituitary dwarfism, hypo secretion- too much, giantism, adult acromegaly
b) Thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH target thyroid gland to release thyroxin, thyrotrophin- to thyroid gland to inhibit TSH and thyroxin
c) FSH, follicle stimulating hormone, target organ ovaries- secretory cells around oocyte to secrete estrogen, testes sperm production
d) LH, lutinizing hormone, female-ovulation corpus luetium makes progesterone, male- testosterone (interstitial cells)
e) prolactin-milk secretion by mammary glands primed by other hormones (oxytocin) hyoersecretion- impotence males, lack of menstruation females
f) ACTH, adrenocortictrophic hormone, target is adrenal cortex which in turn produces its hormone amount increases with stress
g) melanocyte stimulating hormone MSH, receptors in the brain, deals with dopamine release
Human growth hormone (HGH)
somaotrophin, target throughout body, liver, skeletal muscle, cartilage, bone, accelerate protein synthesis, hormone release every few hours especially during sleep, child-growth, adult-maintain, hypo secretion- not enough pituitary dwarfism, hyper secretion- too much, giantism, adult acromegaly
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
target thyroid gland to release thyroxin, thyrotrophin- to thyroid gland to inhibit TSH and thyroxin
(FSH) follicle stimulating hormone
target organ ovaries- secretory cells around oocyte to secrete estrogen, testes sperm production
(LH) lutinizing hormone
female-ovulation corpus luetium makes progesterone, male- testosterone (interstitial cells)
Pituitary dwarfism
condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone slowing growth and causing short yet proportionate stature (not affecting intelligence), often treated during childhood with growth hormone; other forms of dwarfism are most often caused by gene defects
Adenohypohysis
known as the anterior pituitary, which constitutes ¾ of the pituitary gland. Two parts- anterior lobe and pars tuberalis. Secretes 6 hormones and is regulated by the hypothalamus.
Hypophyseal portal system
The means through which hypothalamic hormones reach the anterior pituitary. Blood flows from capillaries in the hypothalamus into portal veins that carry blood to capillaries of the anterior pituitary.
Neurosecretory cells
A specialized nerve cell that releases a hormone into the bloodstream in response to signals from other nerve cells; located in the hypothalamus and adrenal medulla.
Somatrophin
growth-stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, hormone on bones and muscles that helps produce growth spurt that comes with puberty
Hyposecretion
Deficient hormone production by an endocrine gland.
Can lead to Pituitary Dwarfis
Hypersecretion
excessive hormone production by an endocrine gland
In children results in gigantism, In adults results in acromegaly
Acromegaly
A chronic syndrome of growth hormone excess, most often caused by a pituitary macroadenoma. Characterized by gradual coarsening and enlargement of bones of the face, jaw, and extremities
Giantism
An abnormal condition characterized by excessive growth of the body from hypersecretion of the pituitary gland GH. as a baby. Promotes diabetes.
(ACTH) adrenocortictrophic hormone
target is adrenal cortex which in turn produces its hormone amount increases with stress
Posterior pituitary
neurohypophysis, axons of the hypothalmus
a) oxytocin, target- uterus- contractions in childbirth, breast milk let down ejection
b) antidiuretic hormone- ADH, target kidneys, decrease urine production, retain water, hypo section diabetes insipidis
Neurohypophysis
Constitutes posterior 1/4 of pituitary. It has 3 parts: median eminence, infundibulum, and posterior lobe (pars nervosa). It is nervous tissue, not a true gland. Nerve fibers arise in hypothalamus, pass down stalk as bundle called hypothalamo-hypophyseal track and into the posterior lobe. Hormones move via axoplasmic flow . Stored in nerve endings until signal triggers release.
Oxytocin
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Hormone produced by the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus that stimulates water reabsorption from kidney tubule cells into the blood and vasoconstriction of arterioles.
Osmoreceptors
Deal with thirst, maintains fluid balance in body
Group of nuerons that monitor osmolarity. Monitor solute concentration verses amount of fluid. Takes about 30 minutes after you drink or eat to take effect.,
Diabetes insipidus
Condition caused by deficiency in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by posterior pituitary gland; result is large amounts of urine and sodium being secreted from body
Thyroid gland
butterfly shape, found under voice box, vascular
Large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism
Thyroid follicles
spherical sacs, follicular cells
Follicle walls composed of simple cuboidal epithelium-follicle cells, that surround a central lumen filled with a viscous protein rich fluid called colloid. Follicles cells produce TH’s that are stored in colloid-only hormone that is made “in advance” and stored extracellularly
Thyroxin
used in iodide, targets most body cells, increases oxygen use and basal metabolic rate, effects growth and development, produces and secreted by follicle cells
Basal metabolic rate
-Minimum amount of energy required for life (without doing anything) – what you need to maintain body in resting state without exercis
Calorgenic effect
more ATP, increase temperature, used fatty acids for fuel, decreases choledterol in blood, effects heart rate
Increased metabolic rate and heat production. Maintains blood pressure, regulates tissue growth, develops the skeletal and nervous system and reproductive capabilities.
Hypothyroidism
Not enough thyroid hormone produced, slow metabolic rate, Wt gain, hypothermia, bradycardia, sensitivity to cold, fatigue. Puffiness of hands and face.
Cretinism
Also called congenital hypothyroidism. Reduced stature and intellectual disability caused by thyroid deficiency during early development.
Myxedema
A specific type of hypothyroidism found in adults that includes puffiness of the extremities, slow muscular response, and excessively dry skin
Goiter
An enlargement / tumor of the thyroid gland caused by hypothyroidism (can be brought on by a lack of iodine in the body)
Iodine
trace mineral that aids in the development and functioning of the thyroid gland.
Hyperthyroidism
causes high blood-pressure, hyperactivity and an inability to put on weight / maintain healthy body fat storage
Graves disease
Autoimmune disorder where the immune system produces antibodies that bind to the receptor for thyroid stimulating hormone and activate sustained thyroid hormone production. The most common hyperthyroidism.
Calcitonin
some thyroid cells secrete this, it regulate calcium homeostasis
A hormone produced by the C-cells of the thyroid gland that decreases serum calcium levels. It targets teh bones (stimulates osteoblasts), the kidneys (reduces calcium reabsorption), and the small intestine (decreases calcium absorption).
Parathyroid
posterior lateral lobes of the thyroid, major regulator of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate in blood, negative feedback loop
Calitriol
a form of Vit D that goes to intestines
Vitamin D
Assists with the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, thereby enhancing formation of bones & teeth; Cell growth & development; Healthy functioning of nervous & immune systems
Hypoparathyroidism
A disorder that results from abnormally low parathyroid hormone levels. The most common cause is damage to or inadvertent removal of all of the parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy. The lack of circulating PTH causes hypocalcemia and an elevated blood phosphate level.
Tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
A swelling; an abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive multiplication of cells, varying in size, shape, and color.
Kidney stones
Calcified crystalline deposits settle in the kidneys causing extreme pain as they move through physical structures especially ureters. Dehydration is a main cause with infections, hereditary components and dietary components also being possible contributors.
Adrenal Glands
also called suprarenal glands, are small, triangular glands located on top of both kidneys, is made of two parts, the outer region is called adrenal cortex and the inner part is called the adrenal medulla, they work interactively with the hypothalmus and pituitary gland, hypothalmus produces corticitropin releasing hormones, which stimulate the pituitary gland, the pituitary gland produces corticotropin hormones which stimulate these glands to produce corticosteroid hormones
Adrenal cortex
the outer portion of the adrenal gland, secretes hormones that have an effect on the body’s metabolism, on chemicals in the blood, and on certain body characteristics, secretes corticosteroids and other hormones directly into the blood stream, the hormones include glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens
Glucocoticoids
corticosteroid hormones, includes hydrocortisone hormone- this hormone, also known as cortisol, controls the body’s use of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, and coricosterone- this hormone, together with hydrocortisone hormones, suppresses inflammatory reactions in the body and also affects the immune system
Mineralocoriticoids
aldosterone hormone- this hormone inhibits the levels of sodium excreted into the urine, maintaining blood volume and blood pressure
Androgens
androgenic steroids (androgen hormones) these hormones have minimal effect on the development of male characteristics
Adrenal medulla
the inner part of the adrenal gland, is not essential to life, but helps a person in coping with physical and emotional stress, secrets epinephrine, and norepinephrine
Epinephrine
also called adrenaline, this hormone increases the heart rate and force of the heart contractions, facilitate blood flow to the muscles and brain, causes relaxation of smooth muscles, help with conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver, and other activities
Norepinephrine
also called noradrenaline, this hormone has little effect on smooth muscle, metabolic processes, and cardiac output, but has a strong vasoconstrictive effects, thus increasing blood pressure
Aldosterone
“salt-retaining hormone” which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
Cortisol
A stress hormone released by the adrenal glands that helps the body prepare for fight or flight by promoting the release of glucose and lipids in the blood for energy metabolism
Dehydroepiandrosterone
An androgen secreted by the zona reticularis that assists in the early growth of axillary and pubic hair in both sexes.
Virilism
development of male features in a woman: deepening of voice, frontal balding, increased muscle mass, clitoromegaly
Cushings syndrome
hypersercretion of cortosol by adrenal cortex, pituitary adenoma noncancerous tumor secreting extra ACTH, a tumor elsewhere that secretes ACTH, can occur with glucocorticoid treatment to prevent transplant rejection, symptoms include- breakdown of muscle protein, redistribution of body fat- spindly arms and legs, moon face, moon face, buffalo hump, hanging abdomen, flushed face, stretch marks on abdomen, bruises easily, slow wound healing, excessive bodily and hair growth in women, disturbed menstrual periods, men- erectile disfunction, decreased fertility, slow growth rate in children, hyperglycemia, increased thirst and urination, osteoporosis, weakness, hypertension, increases susceptibility to infection, depression
Addisson’s disease
hyposecretion glucocorticoids and aldosterone, ACTH not produced by pituitary- adrenal can shrink, autoimmune disease block binding sites for ACTH, or destroy adrenal cells, symptoms include- mental lethargy, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, dehydration, in women irregular or absent menstrual periods, low blood pressure, decreased sodium and increases potassium in the blood, decreased cardiac output, “bronzed” skin (JFK)
ACE inhibitors
Lower BP by preventing formation of angiotensin II and there by prevent angiotensin II mediated volume expansion. Adverse effects: persistant cough, firsts dose hypotension, angioedema, and hyperkalemia. Lisinopril (Zestril) Enalapril (Vasotec)
Pancreas
An organs in the abdominal cavity with two roles. The first is an exocrine role: to produce digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, which are delivered to the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. The second is an endocrine role: to secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
Acinar cells
Cells that make up exocrine galnds, adn that secrete their products into ducts, secrete digestive enzyme; in the salivary glands, secrete saliva.
Islets of Langerhans
Also called simply, “islet cells” these are the endocrine cells of the pancreas. Different cell types within the islets secrete insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin
Alpha cells
endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. They synthesize and secrete the peptide GLUCAGON, which increases glucose levels in the blood
Glucagon
A hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells that increases blood glucose concentration, increase blood sugar by acting on liver, change glycogen to glucose
Beta cells
endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. They synthesize and secrete the hormone INSULIN, which lowers glucose levels in the blood
Insulin
decrease blood sugar, move glucose into cells, increases glycogen production, synthesis of fats
Diabetes mellitus
inability to produce or use insulin
Polyuria
excessive urine formation, may occur in conditions such as diabetes mellitus and glomerulonephritis
Polydipsia
Condition of excessive thirst (usually accompanied by polyuria) a sign of Diabetes mellitus
Polyphasia
Excessive eating. Body feels as if starving; hypermetabolic state
Hyperinsulinism
condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
Hypoglycemia
Abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet. Can result in coma.
Type 1 diabetes
autoimmune, insulin dependent, ketoacidosis, pH decreases, weight loss, heart disease, the type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces no or very little insulin; often diagnosed in childhood, although some cases arise in adulthood. formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes
Ketoacidosis
Condition in diabetics where the body does not metabolize carbs and uses fat for energy
Type 2 diabetes
Formerly called Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or Adult-onset Diabetes. Insidious onset can occur at any age, however most common after the age of 35, responds to diet and excercise, 90% of cases
Thymus
An immune organ located near the heart, the site of T cell maturation and is larger in children and adolescents.
Ovaries
– secrete estrogen (produces female characteristics and initiates female bodily functions) and progesterone (affects the endometrial lining of the uterus)
Estrogen
produces female characteristics and initiates female bodily functions
Progesterone
affects the endometrial lining of the uterus
Testes
Male gonads which produce sperm in the tightly coiled seminiferous tubules; sites of production of testosterone
Reproductive system
Male: Scrotum, testes, epididymides, ducts deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate glands, bulbourethral glands, urethra, and penis
Female: consists of ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia, mammary glands
Gonad
Main source of Sex Hormones. In males they are located in the scrotum. in the female (the ovaries) are located in the pelvis.
Gamete
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm, unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Scrotum
a sac consisting of skin and superficial fascia that hangs from the base of the penis, a vertical septum divides this into left and right compartments, each of which encloses a testis, the external portion positions the testes outside the body in an enviornment about 3 degrees celcius below that of the body cavity, a condition necessary for the development and storage of sperm, requires two muscles to maintain this tempaerature, dartos muscle and cremaster muscle
Dartos muscle
located in the superficial fascia of the scrotum septum, contraction of this smooth muscle creates wrinkles in the scrotum skin, the wrinkling thickens the skin, reducing heat loss when external temperatures are too cold
Cremaster muscle
extend form the internal oblique muscle to the scrotum, contraction of these skeletal muscle lifts the scrotum closer to the body when external temperatures are too cold
Cryptochidism
a developmental defect in which the testes remains in the abdominal cavity; undescended testes
Seminephrous tubules
the sites of the sperm production, tubule is lined with spermatogenic cells that form sperm
Spermatogenisis
process of sperm formation in males, occurs in testes, produces 4 haploid cells which develop tails (spermatozoa), begins at puberty within the semineferous tubules, development of spermatids into mature sperm
Sertoli cells
cells that support the developing sperm
Produce sperm, less sertoli cells, less sperm. Regulates descending of the testes, masculinazation of the reproductive tract, development of the urethra
Blood testes barrier
a fluid produced by the sertoli cells pushes immature sperm to the epididymis and isolates the developing sperm from the blood so that immune cells don’t attack them
Interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
surrounding the seminiferous tubules secret testosterone and other androgen hormones
Sperm
Haploid sex cell formed in the male reproductive organs, contains 23 chromosomes, at the tip of the head is the acrosome, a lysosome containing enzymes which are used to penetrate the egg
Epididymis
comma shaped organ that lies adjacent to each testis, contains a tightly coiled tube, the ductus epididymis, where sperm complete their maturation and are stored until ejaculation. during ejaculation smooth muscles encircling the epididymis contract, forcing mature sperm into the next tube, the ductus deferens
Ductus deferens
(vas deferens) the tube through which sperm travel when they leave the epidiymis, before entering the ejaculatory duct, the ductus deferens enlarges, forming a region a region called the ampulla, sperm is stored in the ductus deferens until peristaltic contractions of the smooth muscle surrounding the ductus force sperm forward during ejaculation
Ampulla (male)
before entering the ejaculatory duct, the ductus deferens enlarges, forming this region
Spermatic cord
contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessles, nerves, the ductus deferens, and the cremaster muscle, it connects each testis to the body cavity, entering the abdominal wall through the inguinal canal
Inguinal canal
Passageways through the abdominal wall in the groin of males through which the ductus deferens and blood vessels pass to the testes
Ejaculatory ducts
tubes that carry semen from ampulla and seminal vesicles to the prostatic urethra
Urethra
passageway for urine and semen, three regions are distinguished prostatic-passes throught the prostate, membranous-oasses through the urogenital diaphragm, and spongy-passes through the penis, ends at the external urethral orifice
Penis
cylindrical organ that passes urine and delivers sperm, consists of a root that attaches it to the perineum, a body (shaft) that makes up the bulk of it, and the glans ___, the enlarged end of the body.
Seminal vesicles
where the majority of semen are produced. As sperm move through the vas deferens they are combined with a fueled produced by the seminal vesicles. To fluid contains nutrients to nourish the sperm and makes them more mobile
Prostate gland
Accessory reproductive gland, produces one-third of semen volume, including fluids that activate sperm
Bulbourethral glands
Produce thick, clear mucus prior to ejaculation that neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra
Semen
A liquid that contains sperm & fluids provided by the seminal vesicles, Cowper’s glands, & prostate gland.
Erection
an enlarged and rigid state of the penis, typically in sexual excitement.
Ejaculation
Ejection of the semen from the male urethra
Ovary
the organ that produces ova or eggs, are held in place by a few ligaments including, mesovarium, suspensory ligament, broad ligament, and ovarian ligament
Oocyte
an immature egg
Ovarian follicles
consists of an immature oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of cells that nourish the oocyte as it matures
Corpus luteum
Endocrine tissue which produces hormones, estrogen, and progesterone which prepares the uterine lining for receiving an embryo
Fallopian tube
transport the secondary oocytes away from the ovary and toward the uterus, characterized by infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus
Ampulla (female)
the widest longest region of the uterine tube, fertilization of the oocyte by sperm occurs here
Ovulation
-occurs during the menstrual cycle where a mature egg is released from an ovarian follicl, usually occurs around day 14 of the menstrual cycle
Menstrual cycle
An approximately 4-week interval in which hormones direct a buildup of blood and nutrient stores within the wall of the uterus and ovum maturation and release. If the ovum is fertilized by a sperm, the stored blood and nutrients are used to support the growth of the fertilized ovum. If fertilization does not occur, they are released from the uterine wall over a period of 3 to 7 days. The period of blood flow is called the menses, or the menstrual period.
Uterus
a hollow organ within which fetal development occurs, characterized by fundus, body, isthmus, cervix, held in place by the following ligaments, broad ligaments, uterosacral ligaments, round ligaments, and cardinal ligaments
Cervix
narrow region at the bottom of the uterus that leads to the vagina
Fertilization
Fusion of a sperm and an egg nucleus, the result being a zygote

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