Anatomy Cell and Tissue Test

Smooth Muscle
No Striation, Single Nucleus, Spindle shaped, Involuntary movement, located in hollow organs.

Cardiac Muscle
Striated, Single Nucleus, Cylinder shaped with Intercalated Disks, Involuntary movement, located in the heart.

Skeletal Muscle
Striated, Multiple Nucleus, Cylindrical Shape, Voluntary movement, Located in skeletal system.

Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium)
Located: body coverings, body linings, Glandular tissue.
Functions: Protection, Absorption, Filtration, Secretion.
Characteristics: Avascular, rests on basement membrane, regenerates easily

Simple Squamous
Single layer of flat cells, form membranes, lines body cavities and lines lungs and capillaries.

Simple Columnar
Sing layer of tall cells, includes mucus producing goblet cells, lines digestive tract

Pseudostratified columnar
Single Layer, sometimes ciliated such as in the respiratory tract, functions in absorption and secretion.

Stratified squamous
Found as a protective covering where friction is common, such as skin, mouth, esophogus.

Stratified Cuboidal and Columnar
Rare in human body, found mainly in ducts of large glands.

Transitional Epithelium
Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching, Lines organs of the urinary system

Endocrine Gland
Ductless since secretions diffuse into blood vessels, All secretions are hormones.

Exocrine
Secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface, Include sweat and oil glands.

Connective Tissue
Found everywhere in the body, Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues
Functions: Binds body tissues together, Supports the body, Provides protection
Characteristics: Variations in blood supply (vascular vs. avascular), cells surrounded by non-living material know as Extracellular Matrx.

Extracellular Matrix
Two main elements: Ground substance—mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules; Fibers
Fiber types: Collagen (white) fibers, Elastic (yellow) fibers, Reticular fibers

Bone (osseous tissue)
Composed of: Bone cells in lacunae (cavities), Hard matrix of calcium salts, Large numbers of collagen fibers
Used to protect and support the body

Hyaline cartilage
Most common type of cartilage
Composed of: Abundant collagen fibers, Rubbery matrix
Locations: Larynx, Entire fetal skeleton prior to birth

Elastic cartilage
Provides elasticity, Supports the external ear

Fibrocartilage
Highly compressible, Forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae

Dense connective tissue (dense fibrous tissue)
Main matrix element is collagen fiber, Fibroblasts are cells that make fibers
Located:
Tendons—attach skeletal muscle to bone Ligaments—attach bone to bone at joints Dermis—lower layers of the skin

Areolar tissue
Most widely distributed connective tissue
Soft, pliable tissue like “cobwebs”
Functions as a packing tissue
Contains all fiber types
Can soak up excess fluid (causes edema)

Adipose tissue
Functions: Insulates the body, Protects some organs, Serves as a site of fuel storage

Reticular connective tissue
Delicate network of interwoven fibers
Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid organs such as Lymph nodes, the Spleen, and Bone Marrow.

Blood (vascular tissue)
Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix called blood plasma, Fibers are visible during clotting, Functions as the transport vehicle for materials

Nervous Tissue
Composed of neurons and nerve support cells, Function is to send impulses to other areas of the body such as Irritability and Conductivity. Can be up to three feet long.

Mitosis
division of the nucleus, Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei

Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm, Begins during late anaphase and completes during telophase, A cleavage furrow forms to pinch the cells into two daughter cells.

Prophase
First part of cell division, Centrioles migrate to the poles to direct assembly of mitotic spindle fibers, DNA appears as double-stranded chromosomes, Nuclear envelope breaks down and disappears

Metaphase
Chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell on the metaphase plate

Anaphase
Chromosomes are pulled apart and toward the opposite ends of the cell, Cell begins to elongate

Telophase
Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin, Nuclear envelope reforms around chromatin, Spindles break down and disappear

Tissue Repair
Regeneration: Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells.
Fibrosis: Repair by dense (fibrous) connective tissue (scar tissue).
Determination of method: Type of tissue damaged, Severity of the injury

1. Capillaries become very permeable
2. Formation of granulation tissue
3. Regeneration of surface epithelium
Events in Tissue Repair

Cardiac muscle and Nervous tissue (within the brain and spinal cord)
Tissues that are replaced largely with scar tissue

Skeletal muscle
Tissues that regenerate poorly

Epithelial tissue (skin and mucous membranes), Fibrous connective tissues and bone
Tissues that regenerate easily

Diffusion
Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within a solution, Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a concentration gradient

Simple Diffusion
Breathing

Osmosis
Simple diffusion of water

Facilitated diffusion
substances require a protein carrier for passive transport. Transports lipid-insoluble and large substances
Ex: Glucose

Filtration
Water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic pressure.
Ex: Kidneys

Active transport
Solute pumping

Exocytosis
Moves materials out of the cell
Material is carried in a membranous vesicle
Vesicle migrates to plasma membrane
Vesicle combines with plasma membrane
Material is emptied to the outside
Ex: neutrophils

Endocytosis
Extracellular substances are engulfed by being enclosed in a membranous vescicle
Types:
Phagocytosis—”cell eating”
Pinocytosis—”cell drinking”

Epithelial Cells
Cells that line organs

Skeletal muscle cells
Cells that form voluntary muscle

Smooth muscle cells
Cells that move things and form involuntary muscle

Fat cells
Cell that stores nutrients

Macrophage
Cell that fights disease

Nerve Cell
Cell that gathers information and controls body functions

Sperm
Cell of reproduction

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