ear anatomy and physiology

otosclerosis
conduction deafness caused by the fusion of the ossicles

tympanic
the thin membrane that serves as the entrance into the middle ear

tinnitus
ringing of the ears

cerumen
the technical term for ear wax; helpful to protect the ear

pinna
the external sound wave collecting funnel primarily made of cartilage

sound waves
these are created when any object vibrates

stapedial
type of reflex where small muscles pull the stapes away from the oval window during very loud sounds

anvil
the common name for the incus bone

endolymph
the name of the fluid within the cochlea

cochlea
the snail-like structure in the inner ear that contains the sound sensitive hair cells

amplitude
the volume or loudness of sounds

cochlear
the nerve that sends electrical impulses for sound to the auditory cortex

otitis media
common middle ear infection in children

stapes
the smallest ossicle; it causes the oval window to vibrate

hair
specialized sensory neural cells in the organ of corti

eustachian
tube for equalizing air pressure in the middle ear; it commonly becomes infected in children

vestibule
this is the entrance room of the inner ear

malleous
the largest ossicle; it picks up vibrations by the ear drum

decibel
the smallest change in sound the human ear can detect

hertz
the unit of measurement of frequency of sound waves

structures in the external ear
pinna, auditory canal(external auditory meatous), ceruminous glands

structures in the middle ear
tympanic membrane (ear drum), ear bones(ossicles)

structures in the inner ear
endolymph, oval window, vestibule, cochlea

route of impulse
cochlear nerve -> auditory nerve -> auditory cortex (temporal)

types of deafness
conduction, sensorineural

conduction
block.slow sound waves in the middle/external ear
-compacted ear wax

sensorineural
damaged sensory hair cells
-generally from too loud of sound or noise

common names for:
malleous
incus
stapes
hammer
anvil
stirrup

Olfaction • Volatile molecules are odorants that must be dissolved in mucus of nasal cavity to be detected. • Olfactory epithelium lines superior nasal cavity, including superior nasal conchae and inferior surface of cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Olfaction (unlabeled) …

1-1In regard to lipids, the term unsaturated refers to A) the ring structure of steroids. B) the lack of double bonds between adjacent carbon atoms in a fatty acid. C) glycerol, which acts as an anchor for joined fatty acids. …

conjunctiva – Thin Membrane that lines the eyelids – Also folded over the white of the eye-merging with cornea – Secretes mucus to lubricate the eye medial canthus inner corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet …

What are the 3 subdivisions of the ear? – External/outer ear – Middle ear – Internal/inner ear Which part of the ear are infections most serious? Otitis interna An animal can develop otitis external, otitis media and otitis interna. Otitis …

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