Anatomy 2050

Another name for the skin is the __________ membrane.
a. serous
b. parietal
c. mucous
d. cutaneous
e. visceral
d. cutaneous
Which is not a function of the integument?
a. Protection
b. Water loss prevention
c. Temperature regulation
d. Synthesis of cholecalciferol ( vitamin D precursor)
e. No exceptions; all are functions of the integument
e. No exceptions; all are functions of the integument
What type of epithelium is found in the epidermis?
a. Keratinized stratified squamous
b. Nonkeratinized stratified squamous
c. Keratinized stratified cuboidal
d. Nonkeratinized stratified cuboidal
e. Transitional
a. Keratinized stratified squamous
From deep to superficial, the order of the strata of epidermis is….
Basale – spinosum – granulosum – lucidum – corneum
Keratinocytes are:
a. the most abundant cell type in the epidermis.
b. found throughout all epidermal strata.
c. sometimes alive and sometimes dead, depending on where they are found.
d. able to synthesize the protein keratin.
e. All of the choice are correct.
e. All of the choice are correct.
Merkel cells are sensitive to:
a. sound
b. light
c. touch
d. heat
e. cold
c. touch
Langerhans cells function as part _______ of the response.
a. immune
b. sensory
c. tanning
d. heating
e. sweating
a. immune
Which are applicable to the stratum corneum?
1: Most superficial stratum
2: Consists of about 3-4 cell layers
3: Cells are dead
4: Interlocking keratinized cells
5: Cells are anucleatea. 1,3,4
b. 1,3,5
c. 1,2,4
d. 1,3,4,5
e. 1,2,3,4,5

d. 1,3,4,5
Normally, skin color results from a combination of:
1: melanin
2: hemoglobin
3: bilirubina. 1,2
b. 1,3
c. 3 only
d. 1,2,3
e. 2,3

a. 1,2
Generally, people have ______ number of melanocytes ________.
a. about the same, no matter where they live
b. a highly variable, irrespective of where they live
c. a lower, if they line in colder climates of the northern hemisphere
d. a higher, if the live in the warmer climates near the equator.
e. a higher, if they live in the southern hemispere
a. about the same, no matter where they live
The function of melanin is the skin is to:
a. reduce water loss.
b. prevent infections.
c. help regulate body temperature
d. protect against UV light
e. keep the epidermis sot and pliable
d. protect against UV light
Freckles are the result of:
a. melanocyte number and genetic inheritance
b. melanocyte number and sun exposure
c. melanocyte activity, genetic inheritance, and sun exposure
d. melanocyte number, genetic inheritance, and diet
e. melanocyte activity and diet.
c. melanocyte activity, genetic inheritance, and sun exposure
Among the components of the dermis are:
1: sweat gland
2: hair follicle
3: collagen fibers
4: sensory nerve endings
5: arrector pili musclesa. 1,2,4
b.1,3,4
c. 1,2,4,5
d. 1,2,3,5
e. 1,2,3,4,5

e. 1,2,3,4,5
Blood capillaries that supple nourishment for the epidermis are located in the:
a. dermal papillae
b. epidermal ridges
c. reticular connective tissue
d. epidermis proper
e. subcutaneous layer
a. dermal papillae
The reticular layer of the dermis consists primarily of:
a. adipose tissue
b. reticular connective tissue
c. dense irregular connective tissue
d. nervous tissue
e. elastic connective tissue
c. dense irregular connective tissue
Why might someone pale when they exposed to a cold temperature?
a. vasodilation has occurred
b. vasoconstriction has occurred
c. purely psychological
d. dehydration of the stratum corneum
e. constriction of the dermal collagen and elastic fibers
b. vasoconstriction has occurred
The deeper the sub-layer of the dermis is the ______ layer, and it is the _______ of the two.
a. reticular, thicker
b. reticular, thinner
c. papillary, thicker
d. papillary, thinner
a. reticular, thicker
To speed healing from surgery, incisions should be placed _______ to lines of cleavage .
a. parallel
b. perpendicular
a. parallel
Lines of cleavages are a result of :
a. the alignment of dermal papillae
b. the orientation of collagen fibers in the dermis
c. the alignment of epidermal ridges
d. wounds to the epidermis
b. the orientation of collagen fibers in the dermis
What is the primary composition of the subcutaneous layer?
a. adipose connective tissue
b. areolar connective tissue
c. dense irregular connective tissue
d. reticular tissue
e. dense regular connective tissue
a. adipose connective tissue
Nails are hard derivatives formed from the stratum _____ of the epidermis.
a. granulosum
b. basale
c. lucidum
d. corneum
e. spinosum
d. corneum
Which is the actively growing part of the nail?
a. Free edge
b. Nail root
c. Nail groove
d. Nail fold
e. Nail matrix
e. Nail Matrix
Another name for the cuticle is the:
a. eponychium
b. hyponychium
c. nail bed
d. nail matrix
e. nail root
a. eponychium
The part of the hair that extends beyond the skin surface is called the :
a. shaft
b. root
c. bulb
d. papilla
e. matrix
a. shaft
While most of the cell in a hair are dead, the living epithelial cells are found in:
a. the cuticle of the hair shaft
b. the cortex of the hair shaft
c. the hair bulb
d. the hyponychium
c. the hair bulb
The structure responsible for pulling on the follicle and causing “goose bumps” is the :
a. external root sheath
b. internal root sheath
c. epithelial root sheath
d. arrector pili muscle
e. papilla
d. arrector pili muscle
The epithelial tissue root sheath is the ______ layer of the concentric layers making up the hair follicle wall; it derives from the _______.
a. inner, epidermis
b. inner, dermis
c. outer, epidermis
d. outer, dermis
a. inner, epidermis
The type of glands that secretes sweat into a hair follicle that is found in the axillary, anal, and genital region is the ______ sweat gland.
a. apocrine
b. merocrine
c. ceruminous
d. sebaceous
a. apocrine
Sebum is a secretion that:
a. cools the skin and eliminates certain drugs.
b. lubricates skin and helps defends against bacteria
c. maintains water balance through water proofing the skin
d. acts as a pheromone ounce reproductive maturity is reached
b. lubricates skin and helps defends against bacteria
Cernumen is a secretion that:
a. lubricates vellus hairs and waterproofs the skin of the limps.
b. lubricates the ear canal and traps debris before it reaches the eardrum
c. cools the body through water evaporation
d. tends to cause acne on the skin of the face
e. acts as a pheromone
b. lubricates the ear canal and traps debris before it reaches the eardrum
What is the greatest risk factor for skin cancer?
a. Exposure to UV light rays
b. Advanced age
c. Being a female
d. Low skin hydration levels
e. Using excessive sun block
a. Exposure to UV light rays
Production of this vitamin requires skin exposure to the sun. This vitamin is crucial for regulation of calcium and phosphate.
a. vitamin a
b. vitamin b12
c. vitamin c
d. vitamin d
e. vitamin e
d. vitamin d
When exposed to ultraviolet light, keratinocytes convert a 7- dehydrocholesterol directly into _______, a molecule that is crucial for regulation of calcium levels.
a. calcitriol
c. calcitonin
d. creatine
e. phosphorus
b. cholecalciferol
One of the components of sweat is the nitrogenous waste urea.
a. true
b. false
a. true
Sever injuries and burns to the skin result in scars that are:
a. produced by stratum basale keratinocytes, which is effectively bind damaged skin parts together.
b. produced by chondrocytes and made mainly of desomosomes.
c. produced by fibroblasts and made mainly of collagen
d. made by macrophages, which produces a dense granulation tissue
e. fully functional regeneration
c. produced by fibroblasts and made mainly of collagen
Granulation tissue is:
a. vascular connective tissue
b. avascular connective tissue
c. vascular epithelial tissue
d. avascular epithelial tissue
a. vascular connective tissue
Melanocyte cytoplasmic processes transfer pigment granules into stratum basale keratinocytes: these pigment granules shield the nuclear DNA from UV radiation.
a. true
b. false
b. false
The thin epidermis, lacking the stratum lucidum contains only four strata and covers most of the body.
a. true
b. false
a. true
The reason for the reddish tint seen in lightly pigment skin is the molecule formed by the combination of oxygen and melanin.
a. true
b. false
b. false
The subcutaneous layer, or hypodermis, is one of the two parts of the integument.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Nails and hair are all derived from the epidermis .
a. true
b. false
a. true
Most of the nail body appears pink because of the blood in the underlying capillaries.
a. true
b. false
a. true
What is the function of cartilage located in the epiphyseal plate?
a. site of bone elongated and growth
b. provide passageway for blood vessels
c. forms articular surface
d. supports soft tissues
e. provides flexibility for bending
a. site of bone elongated and growth
Which type of cartilage is found in the intervertebral disc?
a. hyaline cartilage
b. fibrocartilage
c. reticular cartilage
d. articular cartilage
e. elastic cartilage
b. fibrocartilage
Which is not a function of bone?
a. protection
b. mineral storage
c. body movement
d. hormone synthesis
e. homatoopiesis
d. hormone synthesis
Bone is considered an important storage reservoir for:
a. calcium, phosphate, and lipids
b. steroid, proteins, and complex carbohydrates
c. glycogen, nitrogenous bases, and calcium
d. phosphate, glycogen, and nonpolar amino acids
e. calcium, complex carbohydrates, and polar amino acids
c. glycogen, nitrogenous bases, and calcium
Where does hematopoiesis occur?
a. Epiphyseal line
b. Endosteum
c. Red Bone Marrow
d. Yellow Bone Marrow
e. Nutrient Foramen
c. Red Bone Marrow
The bones of the fingers nd toes (phalanges) are categorized as ______ bones.
a. long
b. irregular
c. short
d. flat
a. long
An example of a flat bone would be the:
a. femur ( of thigh)
b. radius ( of forearm)
c. trapezium ( of wrist)
d. sternum (breast bone)
e. calcaneus (heel)
d. sternum
The knobby region of a long bone at the end at the end that is farthest from the truck is the:
a. distal diaphysis
b. proximal epiphysis
c. distal epiphysis
d. superior diaphysis
c. distal epiphysis
What is the this layer of connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity of a long bone?
a. diaphysis
b. epiphysis
c. endosteum
d. periosteum
e. trabeculae
c. endosteum
Which is not true about periosteum ?
a. It includes two layers: outer fibrous and inner cellular
b. It is composed of dense regular connective tissue.
c. It provides stem cells for bone growth and repair.
d. it is anchored to the bone by collagen fibers.
e. It covers the entire bone surface, with the exception of articular areas.
b. It is composed of dense regular connective tissue
Neither short nor flat bone contain a medullary cavity.
a. True
b. False
a. true
Which type of cell produces new bone tissue
by secreting matrix?
a. Osteocytes
b. Osteoclasts
c. Osteoblasts
d. Ostoprogenitor Cells
e. Bone-lining cells
c. Osteoblasts
Bone cells called __________ break down bone by secreting hydrochloric acid and enzymes that dissolve the matrix.
a. Ostoprogenitor cells
b. Osteoid cells
c. Osteocytes
d. Osteoclasts
e. Osteoblasts
d. Osteoclasts
An osteoclast has a ruffled border and multiple nucleic.
a. true
b. false
a. true
Which affects osteoblast and osteoclast activity?
a. gravity
b. mechanical stress
c. Calcitonin and parathyroid
d. blood calcium level
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
As the bone matrix calcifies and the secreting cells become walled in:
a. oste

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