Openstax Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2 The Chemical Level Of Organisation

ACID
compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution

ACTIVATION ENERGY
amount of energy greater than the energy contained in the reactants, which must be overcome before a reaction to proceede.

ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP)
nucleotide containing ribose and an adernine base that is essential in energy transfer

AMINO ACID
building block of proteins, characterised by an amino acid and carboxyl functional groups and a variable side-chain

ANION
an atom with a negative charge

ATOM
smallest element of an element that retains the properties of that element

ATOMIC NUMBER
number of proteins in the nucleus of an atom

BASE
compound that accepts hydrogen ions (H+) in solution

BOND
electrical force linking atoms

BUFFER
solution containing a weak acid or weak base that opposes wide fluctuation in the pH of body fluids

CARBOHYDRATE
class of organic compunds built from sugars, molecules containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1-2-1 ratio

CATALYST
substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed in the process

CATION
atom with a positive charge

CHEMICAL ENERGY
form of energy that is absorbed as chemical bonds form, stored as they are maintained, and released as they are broken

COLLOID
liquid mixture in which contains the solute particles of clumps of molecules large enough to scatter light

COMPOUND
substance composed of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

CONCENTRATION
number of particles within a given space

COVALENT BOND
chemical bond in which two elements share electrons, thereby combining their valence shells

DECOMPOSITION REACTION
type of catabolic reaction in which one or more bonds within a larger molecule are resulting in the release of smaller molecules or atoms.

DENATURATION
change in the structure of a molecule through chemical or physical means

DEOXYRIBOSENUCLEIC ACID (DNA)
deoxyribose containing nucleotide that stores genetic information

DISACCHARIDE
pair of carbohydrate monomers bonded by dehydration synthesis via a glycosidic bond

DISULPHIDE BOND
covalent bond formed within a polypeptide between sulfide groups of sulfur-containing amino acids,
for example, cysteine

ELECTRON SHELL
subatomic particle having a negative charge and nearly no mass; found orbiting the atom’s nucleus

ELECTRON
area of space a given distance from an atom’s nucleus in which electrons are grouped

ELEMENT
substance that cannot be created or broken down by ordinary chemical means

ENZYME
protein or RNA that catalyzes chemical reactions

EXCHANGE REACTION
type of chemical reaction in which bonds are both formed and broken, resulting in the transfer of
components

FUNCTIONAL GROUP
group of atoms linked by strong covalent bonds that tends to behave as a distinct unit in chemical
reactions with other atoms

HYDROGEN BOND
dipole-dipole bond in which a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is weakly
attracted to a second electronegative atom

INORGANIC COMPOUND
substance that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen

IONIC BOND
atom with an overall positive or negative charge

ION
attraction between an anion and a cation

ISOTOPE
one of the variations of an element in which the number of neutrons differ from each other

KINETIC ENERGY
energy that matter possesses because of its motion

LIPID
class of nonpolar organic compounds built from hydrocarbons and distinguished by the fact that they are not
soluble in water

MACROMOLECULE
large molecule formed by covalent bonding

MASS NUMBER
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

MATTER
physical substance; that which occupies space and has mass

MOLECULE
two or more atoms covalently bonded together

MONOSACCHARIDE
monomer of carbohydrate; also known as a simple sugar

NEUTRON
heavy subatomic particle having no electrical charge and found in the atom’s nucleus

NUCLEOTIDE
class of organic compounds composed of one or more phosphate groups, a pentose sugar, and a base

ORGANIC COMPOUND
substance that contains both carbon and hydrogen

pH
negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration of a solution

PEPTIDE BOND
covalent bond formed by dehydration synthesis between two amino acids

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
arrangement of the elements in a table according to their atomic number; elements
having similar properties because of their electron arrangements compose columns in the table, while elements
having the same number of valence shells compose rows in the table

PHOSPHOLIPID
a lipid compound in which a phosphate group is combined with a diglyceride

PHOSPHORYLATION
addition of one or more phosphate groups to an organic compound

POLAR MOLECULE
molecule with regions that have opposite charges resulting from uneven numbers of electrons in the
nuclei of the atoms participating in the covalent bond

POLYSACCHARIDE
compound consisting of more than two carbohydrate monomers bonded by dehydration synthesis via
glycosidic bonds

POTENTIAL ENERGY
stored energy matter possesses because of the positioning or structure of its components

PRODUCT
one or more substances produced by a chemical reaction

PROSTAGLANDIN
lipid compound derived from fatty acid chains and important in regulating several body processes

PROTEIN
class of organic compounds that are composed of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds

PROTON

PURINE
nitrogen-containing base with a double ring structure; adenine and guanine

PYRIMIDINE
nitrogen-containing base with a single ring structure; cytosine, thiamine, and uracil

RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE
unstable, heavy isotope that gives off subatomic particles, or electromagnetic energy, as it decays;
also called radioisotopes

REACTANT
one or more substances that enter into the reaction

RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)
ribose-containing nucleotide that helps manifest the genetic code as protein

SOLUTION
homogeneous liquid mixture in which a solute is dissolved into molecules within a solvent

STEROID
(also, sterol) lipid compound composed of four hydrocarbon rings bonded to a variety of other atoms and
molecules

SUBSTRATE
reactant in an enzymatic reaction

SUSPENSION
liquid mixture in which particles distributed in the liquid settle out over time

SYNTHESIS REACTION
type of anabolic reaction in which two or more atoms or molecules bond, resulting in the
formation of a larger molecule

TRIGLYCERIDE
lipid compound composed of a glycerol molecule bonded with three fatty acid chains

VALLENCE SHELL
outermost electron shell of an atom

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