Exercise 22: Anatomy of Blood Vessels

Arteries
Arteries
Transport blood away from the heart

Elastic arteries
The largest arteries, they give rise to muscular arteries & arterioles
-Include the great arteries ( aorta & pulmonary trunk) & some of their primary branches; compared to other arteries,they have the largest luminal diameters but their walls are relatively thin

Capillaries
Capillaries
Microscopic vessel through which exchanges take place between the blood and cells of the body

Veins
Veins
Are blood vessels that transport blood toward the heart

Venules
Venules
Are the smallest veins that directly receive the blood that flows out of capillary beds; converge to form small veins

Tunica intima (interna)
Tunica intima (interna)
Is the innermost layer of blood vessels; it contains a simple squamous epithelium, referred to as the endothelium which lines the lumen (internal space) of blood vessels, a basal lamina; & a thin layer of loose connective tissue

Tunica media
Tunica media
Is the middle layer of blood vessels; it is usually the thickest layer & is composed of smooth muscle & elastic fibers

Tunica externa (adventitia)
Tunica externa (adventitia)
Is the outermost layer of blood vessels; composed of connective tissue with numerous elastic & collagen fibers & is continuous with the connective tissue of adjacent structures

Muscular arteries
Deliver blood to specific body regions or organs; proportionately, muscular arteries have the thickest walls of all blood vessels
-The tunica media contains mostly smooth muscle & relatively few (compared to elastic arteries) elastic fibers

Arterioles
Are small arteries that deliver blood to capillary beds; the walls of arterioles are very thin but contain all three tissue layers
-The tunica media consists mostly of smooth muscle with very few elastic fibers
-As arterioles get closer to capillary beds, their walls become progressively thinner; the smallest arterioles contain only an endothelium & a single layer of smooth muscle fibers in the tunica media

Continuous capillaries
Continuous capillaries
Are the least permeable because the endothelium lining is uninterrupted & the cells are sometimes held together by tight junctions

Fenestrated capillaries
Fenestrated capillaries
Are more permeable than the continuous variety because their endothelial cells contain pores (fenestrae) that are covered by a very thin basal lamina

Sinusoids
Sinusoids
Are the most permeable capillaries; their endothelial lining is highly irregular & loosely arranged, with many pores & spaces between cells

Microcirculation
Microcirculation
-The tiny web of vessels that provides oxygen, nutrients and the elimination of waste materials
-Micro circulation will impact skin healing significantly

Pulmonary circulation
Is driven by the pumping actions of the right side of the heart, delivers deoxygenated blood to pulmonary capillary networks in the lungs,& returns oxygenated blood back to the heart

Right & left pulmonary arteries
Right & left pulmonary arteries

Branches of the pulmonary arteries
Travel through the lungs; these blood vessels deliver blood to pulmonary capillary beds

Pulmonary capillaries
Pulmonary capillaries
Surround tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs

Pulmonary veins
Deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium

Aortic arch
Aortic arch
Blood vessels located between ascending and descending aortas that deliver blood to most of the upper body

Brachiocephalic trunk
Brachiocephalic trunk
Travels a short distance & then bifurcates (splits into two branches) to form the right common carotid artery, which supplies the head and neck on the right side, & the right subclavian artery, which supplies the neck & upper limb on the right side

Left common carotid artery
Left common carotid artery
Supplies the head & neck on the left side

Left subclavian artery
Left subclavian artery
Supplies the neck & upper limb on the left side

Internal carotid artery
Internal carotid artery
Either of the two large arteries, one on each side of the head, an internal branch supplying the brain, eye, and other internal parts

External carotid artery
External carotid artery
Carry blood to the head and that divide into an external branch supplying the neck, face, and other external parts

Vertebral arteries
Vertebral arteries
Branches of the subclavian arteries, travel superiorly through the neck by passing through the series of transverse foramina on each side of the cervical vertebrae
-As the arteries ascend toward the brain, they give off branches to the spinal cord & vertebrae; they enter the skull by passing through the foramen magnum

Middle cerebral artery
One of two branches of the internal carotid artery; divides into three branches

Anterior cerebral artery
One of a pair of arteries on the brain that supplies oxygenated blood to most midline portions of the frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes

Ophthalmic artery
Ophthalmic artery
-First branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus
-Branches of the OA supply all the structures in the orbit as well as some structures in the nose, face and meninges

Right & left brachiocephalic veins
Right & left brachiocephalic veins
Either of the veins formed by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins above the heart, carries deoxygenated blood to right atrium of heart through anterior vena cava

Superior vena cava
Superior vena cava
-It is formed by the union of the right & left brachiocephalic veins
-A vein that is the second largest vein in the human body and returns blood to the right atrium of the heart from the upper half of the body

Dural sinuses
Dural sinuses
Drains blood from the brain

Internal jugular veins
Internal jugular veins
They run parallel to the common carotid arteries; the internal jugular veins receive blood from the dural sinuses

External jugular veins
External jugular veins
Descend through the neck, superficial to the sternocleidomastoid muscles; they drain blood from the face, scalp, & neck

Vertebral veins
Vertebral veins
Are usually not demonstrated on models, travel alongside these arteries; these veins drain blood from the brain, posterior skull bones, & cervical vertebrae

Subclavian veins
Subclavian veins
Are on each side of the body, the internal jugular vein & subclavian vein merge

Basilar artery
An unpaired artery that is formed by the union of the two vertebral arteries, runs forward within the skull just under the pons, divides into the two posterior cerebral arteries, and supplies the pons, cerebellum, posterior part of the cerebrum, and the inner ear

Posterior cerebral arteries
Posterior cerebral arteries
Branch off the end of the basilar artery; these two blood vessels supply the occipital lobes & portions of the temporal lobes

Cerebral arterial circle (Circle of Willis)
Cerebral arterial circle (Circle of Willis)
Interconnects the arteries that supply blood to the brain

Anterior communicating artery
Anterior communicating artery
Connects the two anterior cerebral arteries

Posterior communicating arteries
Posterior communicating arteries
Connect the internal carotid arteries with the posterior cerebral arteries on each side

Thoracic division of the descending aorta (thoracic aorta)
It ravels along the posterior wall of the thoracic cavity

Superior phrenic arteries
Superior phrenic arteries
A pair of small vascular branches of the thoracic artery that exit immediately above the diaphragm

Bronchial arteries
-Supply the lungs with nutrition and oxygenated blood
-Although there is much variation, there are usually two bronchial arteries that run to the left lung, and one to the right lung

Esophageal arteries
-A branch of the descending thoracic aorta
-Supplies blood to the esophagus as well as the left gastic artery

Mediastinal arteries
Small twigs supplying anterior mediastinal structures: mainly thymus and lymph nodes

Pericardial arteries
One of several small vessels branching from the thoracic aorta, supplying the dorsal surface of the pericardium

Posterior intercostal arteries

Azygos system of veins
A highly variable system of blood vessels that drains blood from most thoracic structures

Azygos vein

Hemiazygos vein

Posterior intercostal veins

Pericardial veins

Bronchial veins

Celiac trunk
Arises from the aorta just inferior to the diaphragm

Superior mesenteric artery
Originates about 2.5 cm inferior to the celiac trunk

Inferior mesenteric artery
Arises about 3 to 4 cm superior to the termination of the abdominal aorta

Inferior phrenic arteries
Arise just superior to the celiac trunk; they supply the inferior surface of the diaphragm

Adrenal arteries
Supply the adrenal glands, located on the superior poles of the kidneys

Renal arteries
Arise just inferior to the superior mesenteric artery; they supply the kidneys

Gonadal arteries
Branch off the aorta between the superior & inferior mesenteric arteries; they supply the primary sex organs

Lumbar arteries
Supply the lumbar vertebrae & abdominal wall

Inferior vena cava
Ascends to the right of the aorta along the posterior abdominal wall

Common iliac veins

Phrenic veins

Hepatic veins

Adrenal veins

Renal veins

Gonadal veins
The right gonadal vein empties into the inferior vena cava; however, the left gonadal vein often drains into the left renal vein

Lumbar veins
Empty into the inferior vena cava in the lumbar region; these veins drain the posterior abdominal wall

Portal system
Is a modified portion of the systemic circulation, in which blood passes through an extra capillary bed before entering the veins that return blood to the heart

Hepatic portal system
Drains blood from the capillaries of the digestive organs into a set of veins leading into the hepatic portal vein; the hepatic portal vein directs blood into the liver sinusoids, which serve as the second capillary bed
-Blood percolates through the sinusoids & drains into the hepatic veins & inferior vena cava for its return to the heart

Hepatic portal vein

Gastric vein
Drains blood from the stoamch

Splenic vein

Superior mesenteric vein

Inferior mesenteric vein

Subclavian artery

Internal thoracic artery

Anterior intercostal arteries

Axillary artery
It begins at the lateral border of the first rib as a direct continuation of the subclavian artery; as it travels through the axilla, the axillary artery gives off several branches that supply the shoulder & thoracic wall

Brachial artery

Deep brachial artery

Ulnar artery
Travels along the medial side of the forearm

Radial artery
Passes along the lateral side of the forearm

Superficial palmar arch

Deep palmar arch

Axillary vein

Subclavian vein

Brachial vein

Radial vein

Ulnar vein

Internal thoracic vein

Anterior intercostal vein

Basilic vein

Cephalic vein

Median cubital vein

Left & right common iliac arteries

External iliac artery

Internal iliac artery

Femoral artery

Medial femoral circumflex artery

Lateral femoral circumflex artery

Deep femoral artery

Popliteal artery

Anterior tibial artery

Posterior tibial artery

Fibular artery

Dorsalis pedis artery

Internal iliac veins

External iliac veins

Femoral vein

Popliteal vein

Anterior tibial vein

Posterior tibial vein

Fibular vein

Great saphenous vein

External jugular vein

Medial cubital vein

Dorsal venous network

Dorsal venous arch

medial rectus muscle right eye lateral rectus muscle right eye WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample superior rectus muscle right eye inferior rectus muscle right eye superior …

cervical What type of vertebrae is shown in blue? lumbar (5 largest) What type of vertebrae is shown in blue? WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample sacrum …

Arch of the aorta Ascending aorta WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Brachiocephalic trunk Also called the Innominate artery Great cardiac vein Anterior interventricular artery Left auricle …

veins drain tissues and return blood to the heart. Low pressure vessels so they have thinner walls. Lumens are larger than arteries however and valves in larger veins prevent backflow of blood. This is because blood returning to the heart …

David from ajethno:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy