Skeletal Muscles (With Anatomical Cat Examples)

Xiphihumeralis
Xiphihumeralis
Chest Muscles: Bottom muscle of the 4 chest muscles. (note for identifying chest muscles on cat: Find center line, identify the lines going up diagonally, and start at the bottom)

Pectoralis Minor
Pectoralis Minor
Chest Muscle: Next muscle up from the xiphihumeralis. (note for identifying chest muscles on cat: Find center line, identify the lines going up diagonally, and start at the bottom)

Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Major
Chest Muscle: Top muscle of the 4 chest muscles. Large. (note for identifying chest muscles on cat: Find center line, identify the lines going up diagonally, and start at the bottom)

Pectoantebrachialis
Pectoantebrachialis
Chest Muscle: Always cut and reflected.

Trapezius
Trapezius
Back Muscle (Surface Muscle): Always cut on the cat, and reflected. Top muscle of the 2 large flaps.

Latissiumus Dorsi
Latissiumus Dorsi
Back Muscle (Surface Muscle): Bottom muscle of the 2 large flaps. Always cut and reflected on a cat. Very large flap area.

Serratus Anterior
Serratus Anterior
Deeper/Scapula Muscles: Muscles look serrated. Connected from chest to scapula.

Rhomboids
Rhomboids
Deeper/Scapula Muscles: Connected from spine to scapula.

Supraspinatus
Supraspinatus
Shoulder/Upper Back Muscle. Runs from scapula to humerus.

Stabilizes and provides strength to shoulder joint and initiates abduction.

Infraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Shoulder/Upper Back Muscle. Scapula to Humerus.

Provides posterior strength to shoulder joint and laterally rotates humerus (external rotation).

Teres Major
Teres Major
Shoulder/Upper Back Muscle. Runs from lateral border/inferior angle of scapula to Bicipital Groove of Humerus.

Shoulder extension, assists in adduction and medial rotation of humerus (internal rotation).

Subscapularis
Subscapularis
Shoulder/Upper Back Muscle. Runs from Subscapular fossa of scapula to Lesser tubercle of humerus. (actually found below scapula)

Provides anterior strength to shoulder joint, adduction and medial rotation of humerus (internal rotation).

Clavobrachialis
(clavodeltoid)
Clavobrachialis
(clavodeltoid)
Shoulder/Rotator Cuff: Runs from Clavicle to Deltoid Tuberosity of Humerus. (only found in cats?)

Flexion of shoulder and medial rotation of humerus. (I think it’s number 1 on image. Cat will be on it’s back or front.)

Acromiodeltoid
Acromiodeltoid
Shoulder/Rotator Cuff: Runs from Acromion to Deltoid Tuberosity of Humerus. (only found in cats)

Shoulder abduction. (Number 7 in image.)

Spinodeltoid
Spinodeltoid
Shoulder/Rotator Cuff: Runs from Spine of Scapula to Deltoid Tuberosity of Humerus.

Extension of shoulder, lateral rotation of humerus (external rotation). (number 7 in image?)

Brachialis
Brachialis
Upper Arm Muscle. Runs from Anterior shaft of humerus to Coronoid process of ulna and ulnar tuberosity.
Elbow flexion.

Biceps Brachii
Biceps Brachii
Upper Arm Muscle. Runs from Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula (Long Head), Coracoid process of scapula (Short Head) to Radial tuberosity (Both Heads).

Shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, and forearm supination (Both Heads).

Epitrochlearis
Epitrochlearis
Upper Arm Muscle. Not in humans. Number 12 in image. Will likely be cut and reflected.

Long Triceps
Long Triceps
One of three muscles that make up the Triceps Brachii. Runs from scapula to ulna. Long triceps runs immediately beneath epitrochlearis. (Number 5 in image.)

Extension of Forearm.

Lateral Triceps
Lateral Triceps
One of three muscles that make up the Triceps Brachii. Runs from scapula to ulna. (Number 4 on image?)

Extension of Forearm.

Medial Triceps
Medial Triceps
One of three muscles that make up the Triceps Brachii. Runs from scapula to ulna. (6/7 ish in image)

Extension of Forearm.

Pronator Teres
Pronator Teres
Forearm Musculature. Runs from Medial epicondyle of humerus and coranoid process of ulna to Midlateral surface of radius.

Pronation of forearm and assists with elbow flexion.

Flexor Carpi Radialis
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Forearm Musculature. Runs from Medial epicondyle of humerus to 2nd and 3rd metacarpals, passes under flexor retinaculum.

Elbow flexion, wrist flexion and abduction.

Palmaris Longus
Palmaris Longus
Forearm Musculature. Runs from Medial epicondyle of humerus to Palmar aponeurosis and flexor retinaculum.

Elbow flexion, wrist flexion.

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Forearm Musculature. Runs from Medial epicondyle of humerus to Pisiform, hook of hamate and base of 5th metacarpal, passes under flexor retinaculum.

Elbow flexion, wrist flexion and adduction

Extensor
Carpi Radialis Longus
Extensor
Carpi Radialis Longus
Forearm Musculature. Runs from Above lateral epicondyle of humerus to Base of 2nd metacarpal. (yellow arrow)

Wrist extension and abduction.

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
Forearm Musculature. Runs from Lateral epicondyle of humerus to Base of 3rd metacarpal. (blue arrow)

Wrist extension and abduction.

Extensor Digitorum
Extensor Digitorum
Forearm Musculature. Runs from Lateral epicondyle of humerus to Distal and middle phalanges of each finger.

Wrist extension, metacarpal and interphalangeal extension.

Extensor Digitorum Lateralis
Extensor Digitorum Lateralis
Forearm Musculature. Cats only. Runs next to Extensor Digitorum.

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Forearm Musculature. Runs from Lateral epicondyle of humerus to Base of 5th metacarpal.

Wrist extension and adduction.

Sartorius
Sartorius
Upper Leg Musculature. Runs from Anterior superior iliac spine to Medial side of tibia. (may be reflected)

Hip flexion and lateral rotation, knee flexion.

Gracilis
Gracilis
Upper Leg Musculature. Runs from Body and Inferior Ramus of pubis to Medial side of tibia. (may be reflected)

Hip adduction, flexion, and medial rotation, knee flexion.

Iliotibial Band
Iliotibial Band
Upper Leg Musculature.
O- Illiac Crest
I – Illiotibial band to tibia
F – Hip flexion, abduction and medial rotation

Vastus Lateralis
Vastus Lateralis
Upper Leg Musculature. (Outer muscle of three- vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis. Furthur from pubis.)

O – Lateral aspect of femur
I – Patella via quadriceps tendon, then tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon
F – Knee extension

Vastus Medialis
Vastus Medialis
Upper Leg Musculature. (Outer muscle of three- vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis. Closer to pubis)

O – Medial aspect of femur
I – Patella via quadriceps tendon, then tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon
F – Knee extension

Rectus Femoris
Rectus Femoris
Upper Leg Musculature. (Middle muscle of three- vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis)

O – Anterior inferior iliac spine
I – Patella via quadriceps tendon, then tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon
F – Flexion of hip and knee extension

Semitendinosus
Semitendinosus
Upper Leg Musculature. (if posterior view, right above tail kinda. May be cut.)

O – Ischial tuberosity
I – Medial side of tibia
F – Hip extension and knee flexion

Semimembranosus
Semimembranosus
Upper Leg Musculature.
O – Ischial tuberosity
I – Medial condyle and side of tibia
F – Hip extension and knee flexion

Adductor Femoris
Adductor Femoris
Upper Leg Musculature. – Not in humans.

Adductor Longus
Adductor Longus
Upper Leg Musculature.
O – Pubic crest and symphysis
I – Linea aspera of femur
F – Hip adduction and flexion

Biceps Femoris
Biceps Femoris
Upper Leg Musculature. (may be cut from posterior view)

O – Ischial tuberosity (Long Head), Posterior lateral side of femur (Short Head)
I – Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia
F – Long head extends hip and flexes knee, Short head flexes knee

Gastrocnemius
Gastrocnemius
Lower Leg Musculature. (cat’s calf muscle)

O – Just above lateral and medial femoral condyles
I – Calcaneus via Achilles tendon
F – Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion

Plantaris
Plantaris
Lower Leg Musculature.
O – Just above lateral condyle of femur
I – Calcaneus via Achilles tendon
F – Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion

Soleus
Soleus
Lower Leg Musculature. (connects to Achilles’ Heel)
O – Head of fibula and medial border of tibia
I – Calcaneus via Achilles tendon
F – Ankle plantar flexion

Tibialis Anterior
Tibialis Anterior
Lower Leg Musculature.

O – Lateral condyle and anterior upper shaft of tibia
I – Base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
F – Ankle dorsi flexion and inversion

Extensor Digitorum Longus
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Lower Leg Musculature.
O – Lateral condyle of tibia, anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
I – Middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
F – Ankle dorsiflexion and extension of toes

Peroneus Longus
Peroneus Longus
Lower Leg Musculature. Directly next *closer to the center line* of extensor digitorum longus.

O – Lateral side and head of fibula
I – Dorsal surface of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
F – Plantar flexion and ankle eversion

Peroneus Brevis
Peroneus Brevis
Lower Leg Musculature. Directly next *closer to the center line* of peroneus longus.

O – Lateral shaft of fibula
I – Base of 5th metatarsal
F – Plantar flexion and ankle eversion

Tibialis Posterior
Tibialis Posterior
Lower Leg Musculature. (blue arrow)
O – Posterior tibia and fibula and interosseous membrane
I – Broad attachment on plantar surface of foot
F – Ankle plantar flexion and inversion

Flexor Digitorum Longus
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Lower Leg Musculature.
O – Lateral condyle of tibia, anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
I – Middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
F – Ankle plantar flexion and toe flexion

Flexor Hallucis Longus
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Lower Leg Musculature.
O – Posterior and inferior surface of fibula
I – Distal phalanx of big toe
F – Ankle plantar flexion and big toe flexion

Gastrocnemius (Yellow) and Plantaris (Blue)
Gastrocnemius (Yellow) and Plantaris (Blue)

Lateral Lower Leg Musculature: 
Blue- Tibialis Anterior
Yellow: Extensor Digitorum Longus
Green: Peroneus Longus
Red: Peroneus Brevis
Lateral Lower Leg Musculature:
Blue- Tibialis Anterior
Yellow: Extensor Digitorum Longus
Green: Peroneus Longus
Red: Peroneus Brevis

Tibialis Posterior and Flexor Digitorm Longus
Yellow: Flexor Digitorum Longus
Blue: Tibialis Posterior
Tibialis Posterior and Flexor Digitorm Longus
Yellow: Flexor Digitorum Longus
Blue: Tibialis Posterior

Sartorius and Gracilis - Not Reflected
Blue: Sartorius
Yellow: Gracilis
Sartorius and Gracilis – Not Reflected
Blue: Sartorius
Yellow: Gracilis

Quadriceps
Blue: Vastus Medialis
Yellow: Rectus Femoris
Green: Vastus Lateralis
Quadriceps
Blue: Vastus Medialis
Yellow: Rectus Femoris
Green: Vastus Lateralis

Hamstrings and Adductors
Purple: Sartorius
Yellow: Adductor Longus
Light Green: Adductor Femoris
Red: Semimembranosus
Dark Green: Gracilis - Reflected
Blue: Semitendinosus
Hamstrings and Adductors
Purple: Sartorius
Yellow: Adductor Longus
Light Green: Adductor Femoris
Red: Semimembranosus
Dark Green: Gracilis – Reflected
Blue: Semitendinosus

Forearm Flexors
Blue: Pronator Teres
Yellow: Flexor Carpi Radialis
Green: Palmaris Longus
Red: Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Forearm Flexors
Blue: Pronator Teres
Yellow: Flexor Carpi Radialis
Green: Palmaris Longus
Red: Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

Forearm Extensors
Yellow: Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Blue: Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
Green: Extensor Digitorum
Red: Extensor Digitorum Lateralis
Purple: Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Forearm Extensors
Yellow: Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Blue: Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
Green: Extensor Digitorum
Red: Extensor Digitorum Lateralis
Purple: Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Posterior Upper Body Musculature
Purple: Trapezius Reflected
Grey: Spinodeltoid
Yellow: Teres Major
Green: Infraspinatus
Red: Supraspinatus
Blue: Latissimus Dorsi
Posterior Upper Body Musculature
Purple: Trapezius Reflected
Grey: Spinodeltoid
Yellow: Teres Major
Green: Infraspinatus
Red: Supraspinatus
Blue: Latissimus Dorsi

Deltoids: Posterior View
Blue: Clavodeltoid
Red: Acromiodeltoid
Yellow: Spinodeltoid
Deltoids: Posterior View
Blue: Clavodeltoid
Red: Acromiodeltoid
Yellow: Spinodeltoid

Chest Musculature:
Blue: Xiphihumeralis
Yellow: Pectoralis Minor
Green: Pectoralis Major
Red: Pectoantebrachialis
Chest Musculature:
Blue: Xiphihumeralis
Yellow: Pectoralis Minor
Green: Pectoralis Major
Red: Pectoantebrachialis

Blue: Latissimus Dorsi - Not Reflected

Yellow: Trapezius - Not Reflected
Blue: Latissimus Dorsi – Not Reflected

Yellow: Trapezius – Not Reflected

TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE *Origin*: base of skull, spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae *Insertion*: Clavicle; acromion process and scapular spine *Action*: Elevates and depresses scapula, retracts scapula, also rotates scapula *Innervation*: Accessory N. C3 and C4 Blood supply: transverse cervical …

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Agonist (prime mover): muscle that, when it contracts, causes an action; plays major role in accomplishing movement Antagonist a muscle working in opposition to agonist Example: the biceps brachii can be used to lift weights and is the agonist, but …

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