A&P 22 Part 1 Respiratory Anatomy

Upper Respiratory Tract
Upper Respiratory Tract
nose, pharynx etc.

Lower Respiratory Tract
Lower Respiratory Tract
larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs

Conducting Zone
Conducting Zone
brings air to the site of external respiration.
Includes: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles

Respiratory Zone
Respiratory Zone
main site of gas exchange
Includes: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli

Direction of Air Through the Respiratory Tract
Nasal Cavity->Pharynx->Larynx->Trachea->Primary Bronchi->Secondary Bronchi->Tertiary Bronchi->Bronchioles->Alveoli

External Nose
External Nose
visible on the face

Internal Nose
Internal Nose
large cavity beyond the nasal vestibule, divided by a nasal septum (into right and left nares)

Nasal Conchae (Turbinates)
Nasal Conchae (Turbinates)
3 protrude from each lateral wall into the breathing passages

Meatus
Meatus
opening under each concha, for a duct that DRAINS secretions of the sinuses and tears

Nasal Mucosa and Conchae (Inhalation)
filter, heat and moisten the air

Nasal Mucosa and Conchae (Exhalation)
reclaims heat and moisture

Pharynx
Pharynx
A common passageway for solid food, liquids and air, houses tonsils, assists in swallowing

Nasopharynx
Nasopharynx
behind the internal nares, contains the tonsils and eustachian tubes (auditory tubes)

Oropharynx
Oropharynx
behind the mouth, participates both in respiration and digestion, main palatine tonsils are housed here

Laryngopharynx
Laryngopharynx
most inferior and opens into the larynx and esophagus, participates in both respiration and digestion

Larynx
Larynx
9 pieces of cartilage, forms a passageway CONNECTING the laryngopharynx to the trachea (windpipe), thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage marks the spot for emergency airway

Epiglottis
Epiglottis
flab of elastic cartilage covered with a mucus membrane, it is attached to the root of the tongue, guards the glottis, held open during breathing, during swallowing it is closed off

Glottis
Glottis
the opening between the vocal folds

Rima Glottis (Glottic Opening)
Rima Glottis (Glottic Opening)
formed by a pair of mucus membrane vocal folds (true vocal cords)

Cilia in Upper Respiratory Tract
move mucous and particles DOWN toward the pharynx

Cilia in Lower Respiratory Tract
Cilia in Lower Respiratory Tract
move mucous and particles UP toward the larynx

Where does the Lower Respiratory Tract Start?
At the Larynx

Trachea
Trachea
semi-rigid pipe made of cartilaginous rings, made of 4 layers (mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage and adventitia), about 12cm long, divides into the R and L primary Bronchi

Tracheal Cartilage Rings
Tracheal Cartilage Rings
INCOMPLETE facing the esophagus, to allow stretch in case things try to obstruct the airway

Primary Bronchi (mainstem)
Primary Bronchi (mainstem)
branch from the inferior part of the trachea

Carina
Carina
internal ridge located in the middle of the primary bronchi, very sensitive, triggers cough reflex

Secondary and Tertiary Bronchi
Secondary and Tertiary Bronchi
each supply individual sides of the L and R lungs

Bronchioles
Bronchioles
come from the tertiary bronchi and branch into 22 more divisions

Smallest of the Bronchi?
Smallest of the Bronchi?
Terminal Bronchioles

Sympathetic Stimulation
causes airway dilation

Parasympathetic Stimulation
causes airway constriction

Where do the first alveoli appear?
in the respiratory bronchioles (marks the beginning of gas exchange)

Alveolar Ducts
epithelium there changes to simple squamous

Pulmonary Lobule
the functional unit of the lung, wrapped in elastic C.T, each contains a lymphatic vessel, an arteriole, venule and terminal bronchiole

Type I Alveolar Cells
allow for gas exchange

Type II Alveolar Cells
secrete surfactant

Surfactant
a substance that decreases the surface tension and prevents the collapse of the alveoli during exhalation

What surface area do Alveoli make up?
750 square feet

Alveoli Macrophages (Dust Cells)
engulf and remove microscopic debris, traps foreign particles in the alveolar surface

Alveolar-Capillary Membrane (AC Membrane)
alveoli in close proximity to the capillaries

Pulmonary Arteries
carry dexoygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation

Bronchial Arteries
delivers oxygenated blood to the lungs, perfusing the muscular walls of the bronchi and bronchioles

Ventilation-Perfusion Coupling
matching blood flow to each area of the lungs, to the extent of ventilation or air flow
BloodFlow=AirFlow

Vasoconstriction in the Lungs
diverts blood from poorly ventilated areas of the lungs (hypoxia) to better ventilated regions

Right Lung
Right Lung
3 lobes (superior, middle and inferior)

Left Lung
Left Lung
2 lobes, has the cardiac notch

Cardiac Notch
Cardiac Notch
in the left lung, makes the L lung 10% smaller to make room for the heart

Partial Pleura
lines the walls of the thoracic cavity

Visceral Pleura
adhere tightly to the surface of the lungs themselves

Pleural Membrane
encloses each lungs by a sealed double-layered membrane

Pleural Cavity
space between the parietal and visceral pleura, filled with pleural fluid to reduce friction and produce surface tension,

Which of the following organs is not part of the lower respiratory system? A) oropharynx B) trachea C) larynx D) bronchi E) alveoli A oropharynx The epiglottis is part of the _____ and covers the glottis. A) trachea B) oropharynx …

What is the function of the respiratory system? To supply the body with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. What are the 4 main processes that make up respiration? Ventilation, external respiration, transport, and internal respiration. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Respiratory Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: Overview Respiratory diagnostic procedures are used to evaluate a client’s respiratory status by checking indicators such as the oxygenation of the blood, lung functioning, and the integrity of the airway. Respiratory Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: …

A 30-year-old female presents with a five day history of a sore throat. She denies cough or nasal congestion. She also denies vomiting or diarrhea. On physical exam, her temperature is 101˚F, the pharynx is red with tonsillar exudates, and …

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