Anatomy Chapter 22 – Respiratory System

What are the two basic functions of the respiratory system?
– Supplies blood with oxygen
– Disposes of carbon dioxide

What are the four processes involved in respiration?
1. Pulmonary ventilation
2. External respiration
2. Transport of respiratory gases
4. Internal respiration

What are the respiratory organs?
– Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
– Pharynx, larynx, and trachea
– Bronchi and smaller branches
– Lungs and alveoli

What are the two divisions of respiratory organs?
– Conducting zone
– Respiratory zone

What is the conducting zone?
– Respiratory passageways that convey air
– Filter, humidify, and warm incoming air

What is the respiratory zone?
– Site of gas exchange in the lungs
– Includes structures that have alveoli

Functions of the nose
– Provides an airway for respiration
– Moistens and warms air
– Filters inhaled air
– Resonating chamber for speech
– Houses olfactory receptors

What are the external nares?
Nostrils

What structure divides the nostrils?
– Nasal septum
– Continuous was nasopharynx

What are the two types of mucous membranes?
– Olfactory mucosa
– Respiratory mucosa

Where is the olfactory mucosa located?
– Near roof of nasal cavity
– Houses olfactory receptors

Where is the respiratory mucosa located?
Lines nasal cavity

What type of epithelia comprises the respiratory mucosa?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelia

What kind of epithelia comprises respiratory mucosa?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelia

What kind of cells are within the epithelium of respiratory mucosa?
Goblet cells

What is the function of respiratory mucosa cilia?
– Moves contaminated mucus posteriorly to the pharynx
– Filtered particles and mucus are swallowed
– Eventually digested by digestive juices in the stomach

What are the three nasal conchae?
1. Superior nasal conchae
2. Middle nasal conchae
3. Inferior nasal conchae

Where are the nasal conchae located?
Project medially from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity

Where are the superior and middle nasal conchae located?
Part of the ethmoid bone

Where is the inferior nasal conchae located?
Separate from ethmoid bone

What are the three functions of the nasal conchae?
– Deflect particulate matter to mucus-coated surfaces
– Filter, heat and moisten incoming air
– Moisture and heat are reclaimed during exhalation

What four locations are the paranasal sinuses located?
1. Frontal bone
2. Maxillary bones
3. Sphenoid bones
4. Ethmoid bones

What structure do sinuses open to?
Nasal cavity

What is the pharynx
What is the pharynx
Funnel-shaped passageway

What two structures does the pharynx connect?
Nasal cavity and mouth

What are the three divisions of the pharynx?
1. Nasopharynx
2. Oropharynx
3. Laryngopharynx

Where is the nasopharynx located?
Where is the nasopharynx located?
– Superior to the point where food enters
– Continuous with the nasal cavity

What is the function of the nasopharynx?
– Air passageway
– Closed off during swallowing by the uvula

Where are the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) located?
– Located on posterior wall of nasopharynx
– Contains the opening to the pharyngotympanic tube

What is the pharyngotympanic tube?
– Auditory tube
– Contains tube tonsils

What is the function of the tubal tonsils?
Provides some protection from infection

What is the function of the pharyngeal tonsils?
– Destroys entering pathogens

What are the two types of tonsils in the oropharynx?
1. Palatine Tonsils
2. Lingual Tonsils

Where are the palatine tonsils located?
Where are the palatine tonsils located?
In the lateral walls of the fauces

Where are the lingual tonsils located?
Where are the lingual tonsils located?
Cover the posterior surface of the tongue

What is the function of the laryngopharynx?
Passageway for both food and air

What type of epithelium are within the laryngopharynx?
Stratified squamous epithelium

Where is the laryngopharynx located?
Where is the laryngopharynx located?
– Continuous with the esophagus and the larynx
– Extends to inferior boundary of cricoid cartilage

Where is the larynx located?
Where is the larynx located?
– Extends from the 4th to the 6th cervical vertebrae
– Attaches to hyoid bone superiorly
– Inferiorly continuous with the trachea
– Opens into laryngopharynx

What are the three functions of the larynx?
What are the three functions of the larynx?
1. Voice production
2. Open airway
3. Routes air and food into the proper channels

What are the two functions of the superior opening of the larynx?
– Closed during swallowing
– Open during breathing

What are the three cartilages of the larynx?
What are the three cartilages of the larynx?
1. Epiglottis
2. Thyroid cartilage
3. Cricoid cartilage

What is the function of the epiglottis?
What is the function of the epiglottis?
Tips inferiorly during swalloing

What is the function of the thyroid cartilage?
– Adam’s Apple
– Shield-shaped, forms laryngeal prominence

What are the two vocal ligaments of the larynx?
– Vocal folds
– Vestibular folds

What is the function of the vocal folds?
– Act in sound production
– “True vocal cords”

What is the function of vestibular folds?
– No role in sound production
– “False vocal cords”

What is the glottis?
What is the glottis?
Vocal folds and the opening between them

What two types of epithelium are in the larynx?
1. Stratified squamous
2. Pseduostratified ciliated columnar

What portion of the larynx has stratified squamous epithelium?
Superior portion

What portion of the larynx has pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium?
Inferior portion

How is voice production achieved within the larynx?
– Length of the vocal folds changes with pitch
– Loudness depends on the force of air across the vocal folds

What is the Valsalva’s maneuver?
– Sphincter function of the larynx
– Closes glottis

Innervation of the larynx?
Recurrent laryngeal nerves (branch of vagus)

What is the trachea?
What is the trachea?
C-shaped cartilage rings keep the airways open

Where is the trachea located?
Where is the trachea located?
Descends into the mediastinum

Trachealis
Trachealis
Located between open ends of C-shaped cartilage rings along length of posterior trachea

What is the Carina?
What is the Carina?
Marks where trachea divides into two primary bronchi

What type of epithelium is within the Carina?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

What is the bronchial tree?
What is the bronchial tree?
Extensively branching respiratory passageways

What are the two main bronchi of the bronchial tree?
What are the two main bronchi of the bronchial tree?
– Primary bronchi (main bronchi)
– Right main bronchi

What is the shape and size of the right main bronchi compared to the left bronchi?
Wider and shorter

What are the other four bronchi?
What are the other four bronchi?
1. Secondary (lobar) bronchi
2. Tertiary (segmental) bronchi
3. Bronchioles
4. Terminal bronchioles

Secondary (lobar) bronchi
Secondary (lobar) bronchi
– Three on the right
– Two on the left

Tertiary bronchi
Tertiary bronchi
Branch into each lung segment

Bronchioles
Bronchioles
Little bronchi, less than 1 mm in diameter

Terminal bronchioles
Less than 0.5 mm in diameter

Within the bronchial tree, what change do supportive connective tissues change?
C-shaped rings replaced by cartilage plates

Within the bronchial tree, what changes occur?
– Initially pseudostratified ciliated columnar
– Replaced by simple columnar, then simple cuboidal epithelium

What is the importance of smooth muscle in the bronchial tree?
– Airways *widen with sympathetic stimulation*
– Airways *constrict under parasympathetic direction*

What types of structures comprise the respiratory zone?
Air-exchanging structures

What is the function of respiratory bronchioles?
What is the function of respiratory bronchioles?
Gas exchange occurs where smooth muscle is absent
– Lead to *alveolar ducts* which lead to *alveolar sacs*

Where are respiratory bronchioles located?
Where are respiratory bronchioles located?
Branch from terminal bronchioles

Function of alveoli?
Gas exchange

What are the two types of alveolar cells?
1. Type 1 alveolar cells
2. Type 2 alveolar cells

Type 1 alveolar cells
– Single layer of simple squamous epithelial cells
– Surrounded by basal lamina

Alveolar and capillary walls plus their basal lamina form…
Respiratory membrane

Type 2 alveolar cells
– Are scattered among type I alveolar cells
– Are cuboidal epithelial cells
– Secrete surfactant

Function of surfactant
Reduces surface tension within alveoli

Alveolar macrophages
– Remove tiniest inhaled particles
– Migrate into bronchi

How do alveolar macrophages reach the pharynx?
Ciliary action

What are three features of alveoli?
1. Surrounded by elastic fibers
2. Interconnect by way of alveolar pores
3. Internal surfaces

What occurs within the internal surfaces of the alveoli?
Site for free movement of alveolar macrophages

What are the four major landmarks of the lungs
1. Apex
2. Base
3. Hilum
4. Root

Where is the apex of the lungs located?
Where is the apex of the lungs located?
Superior tip of lung

Where is the base of the lungs located?
Where is the base of the lungs located?
Concave inferior surface

Where is the hilum of the lung located?
Where is the hilum of the lung located?
Indentation on mediastinal surface

What structures enter and exit the hilum?
Blood vessels, bronchi, and nerves

What is the root of the lung?
What is the root of the lung?
The structures that enter and leave the lung at the hilum

What are the lobe divisions of the left lung?
What are the lobe divisions of the left lung?
Superior and inferior lobes

What is the cardiac notch?
– In left lung
– Depression that accommodates the heart

What type of fissure is within the left lung?
Oblique fissure

What are the lobe divisions of the right lung?
What are the lobe divisions of the right lung?
Superior, Middle, and Inferior lobes

What type of fissures are in the right lung?
What type of fissures are in the right lung?
Oblique and horizontal

What is the function of the pulmonary arteries?
Deliver oxygen-poor blood to the lungs

What is the function of pulmonary veins
Carry oxygenated blood to the hearts

What three types of fibers innervate the lungs?
1. Sympathetic
2. Parasympathetic
3. Visceral sensory fibers

What is the function of parasympathetic fibers in the lungs?
Constrict airways

What is the function of sympathetic fibers in the lungs?
Dilate airways

What is the Pleurae?
What is the Pleurae?
A double-layered sac surrounding each lung

What are the two layers of the pleurae?
What are the two layers of the pleurae?
1. Parietal pleura
2. Visceral pleura

What is the pleural cavity?
Potential space between the visceral and parietal pleurae

How does the pleurae help to divide the thoracic cavity?
– Central mediastinum
– Two lateral pleural compartments

What are the two phases of pulmonary ventilation?
Inspiration and Expiration

What is inspiration?
What is inspiration?
Inhalation

What is expiration?
What is expiration?
Exhalation

During inspiration, as the volume of the thoracic cavity increases, the internal gas pressure…?
Decreases

During inhalation, what is the action of the diaphragm?
During inhalation, what is the action of the diaphragm?
Diaphragm flattens

During inhalation, what is the action of the intercostal muscles?
During inhalation, what is the action of the intercostal muscles?
Contraction raises the ribs

What four structures does *deep* inspiration require?
What four structures does *deep* inspiration require?
– Scalenes
– Sternocleidomastoid
– Pectoralis minor
– Erector spinae—extends the back

What type of process is quiet expiration?
What type of process is quiet expiration?
A *passive* process

What occurs during quiet expiration?
What occurs during quiet expiration?
– Inspiratory muscles relax
– Diaphragm moves superiorly
– Volume of thoracic cavity decreases

What type of process is forced expiration?
What type of process is forced expiration?
An *active* process

What contractions produce forced expiration?
What contractions produce forced expiration?
– Internal and external oblique muscles
– Transversus abdominis muscle

What is the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)?
Most important respiratory center

Where is the VRG located?
Located in reticular formation in the medulla oblongata

What is the function of the VRG?
Neurons generate respiratory rhythm

What is the respiratory center?
Generates baseline respiration rate

Where is the respiratory center located?
In the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata

What is the function of chemoreceptors?
Sensitive to rising and falling oxygen levels

What are the two types of chemoreceptors?
Central chemoreceptors and Peripheral chemoreceptors

Where are central chemoreceptors located?
In the medulla

What are the two types of *peripheral chemoreceptors*
What are the two types of *peripheral chemoreceptors*
– Aortic bodies
– Carotid bodies

What is bronchial asthma?
– Disorder of lower respiratory structures
– *Type of allergic inflammation*
– Hypersensitivity to irritants in the air or to stress

What two things characterize an asthma attack?
– Contraction of bronchiole smooth muscle
– Secretion of mucus in airways

What is cystic fibrosis (CF)?
– Inherited
– Disorder of lower respiratory structures
– Exocrine gland function is disrupted
– Oversecretion of viscous mucus

What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?
– Airflow into and out of the lungs is difficult
– History of smoking
– Obstructive emphysema
– Chronic bronchitis

By week 4 of development, what respiratory structures appear?
– Olfactory placodes appear
– Invaginate to form *olfactory pits*
– Laryngotracheal bud

What structures does the ;arynhotracheal bud form?
Trachea, bronchi, and bronchi subdivisons

When does the respiratory system reach functional maturity?
Late in development

What happens as the respiratory system ages?
– Number of glands in the nasal mucosa declines
– Nose dries, thicker mucus
– Thoracic wall becomes rigid
– Lungs lose elasticity
– Blood-ox levels fall

Which of the following organs is not part of the lower respiratory system? A) oropharynx B) trachea C) larynx D) bronchi E) alveoli A oropharynx The epiglottis is part of the _____ and covers the glottis. A) trachea B) oropharynx …

Respiratory Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: Overview Respiratory diagnostic procedures are used to evaluate a client’s respiratory status by checking indicators such as the oxygenation of the blood, lung functioning, and the integrity of the airway. Respiratory Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: …

A 30-year-old female presents with a five day history of a sore throat. She denies cough or nasal congestion. She also denies vomiting or diarrhea. On physical exam, her temperature is 101˚F, the pharynx is red with tonsillar exudates, and …

Air in the conducting zone airways that does not contribute to gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood is called _________. alveolar air dead space volume expiratory reserve volume residual volume tidal volume dead space volume Dead space volume …

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