Anatomy Bone Quiz

What are the parts of the skeletal system?
bones, cartilage, joints, ligaments

What tissue type are ligaments made up of?
dense connective

What are the two regions that the skeletal system is divided into?
axial and apendicualar

What is axial?
thorax (rib cage), spinal column and head

What is apendicular?
limbs and pelvic area

What are the functions of bones?
supports the body (light but strong), protection of soft organs, movement due to attached skeletal muscles (tendons), storage of minerals and fat (calcium and phosphorus), blood cell formation (hematopoiesis by bone marrow)

Name two ways that the skeleton protects soft organs
skull- brain; ribs- lungs

How can you improve bone strength?
calcium supplements, exercise, Vitamin D

explain the connection between osteoclasts and nutrients
we can release a hormone that target osteclast- will release the nutritents to the blood if we lack it

How many bones does the skeleton have?
206

Two basic types of bone tissue
compact: homogenous, more superficial
spongy: sharp ends and open spaces for blood supply; this is where bone cancer starts
-both types in every type of bone, just different amounts

t or f: bones have nerves
true

4 classifications of bones
long, short, flat, irregular

long bone
-Have a shaft with heads at both ends
-Contain mostly compact bone
-Examples: Femur, humerus, tibia fibula (arms, legs)

short bone
-Generally cube-shape
-Contain mostly spongy bone
-Examples: Carpals, tarsals (wrist, ankles)
-sesamoid bones

flat bone
-Thin and flattened
-Usually curved
-Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone
-Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

irregular bone
Irregular shape
-Do not fit into other bone classification categories
-Example: Vertebrae and hip

sesamoid bone
type of short bone that is formed within tendons
-ex patella

back of skull
occipital

skull is a…
fused bone

flat bone (specific types)
skull, ribs, sternum

irregular (specific types)
vertebra, hips

long bone (specific types)
Femur, humerus, tibia, fibula, phalanges

short (specific types)
carpals (wrist), tarsal (ankle), patella

gross anatomy of long bones
Diaphysis, epiphysis, Periosteum, Sharpey’s fibers, arteries, articular cartilage, and medullary cavity, epiphysial plate (line)

Diaphysis
Shaft (length of bone)
-Composed of compact bone
-yellow marrow cavity

epiphysis
Ends of the bone
-Composed mostly of spongy bone
-red marrow cavity

epiphysial line
site of longitudinal growth; filled in when you are done growing (growth plate)…cartilage when you are young, filled in with bone when you grow older
-remnant of the plate

articular cartilage
covers epiphysis; made up of hyaline cartilage
-Decreases friction at joint surfaces

periosteum
cover diaphysis; Fibrous connective tissue membrane

sharpey’s fibers
Secure periosteum to underlying bone

arteries
Supply bone cells with nutrients

What is the last bone to completely ostefiy?
clavical when you are about 25

medullary cavity
-Cavity of the shaft
-Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults
-Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants

Where is yellow marrow found?
diaphysis (medullary cavity)

Where is red marrow found?
medullary cavity in babies…fills with bone as grows, so red marrow is move to the ends (epiphysis)

What is red marrow for?
growth

What are bone markings?
-surface feature of bones; Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments
-Passages for nerves and blood vessels

Two general categories of bone markings
-Projections and processes – grow out from the bone surface (T)
-Depressions or cavities – indentations (F)

Microscopic anatomy of bones
osteon, central haversian canal, Perforating (Volkman’s) canal, lacunae, lamellae, Canaliculi, matrix

concentric lamellae
layers of calcified matrix; sites of lacunae

lacunae
where osetocytes are; gap space, concentric

central haversian canal
longitudinal canal, carrying blood vessels and nerves
-Opening in the center of an osteon
-Carries blood vessels and nerves

bone matrix
nonliving, structural part of the bone

canaliculi
tiny canals connecting lacunae
-Radiate from the central canal to lacunae
-Form a transport system for capillaries
-branches of for nutrients to each cell

osteon
made up of multiple lamellae (whole thing)
-unit of bone
-run lengthwise/ cylindrical structure

Perforating (Volkman’s) canal
Canal perpendicular to the central canal
Carries blood vessels and nerves

Why would we want more arteries going different directions?
Provide additional strength and nutrients, faster transportation, healing, if you have a clot, than that bone dies if you don’t have multiple networks

Bone remolding requires both
osteoblasts and clasts

osteoblasts and clasts are types of…
osteocytes

parathyroid horomone
opposite of calcitonin; releases osteoclasts

clacitonin
releases osteoblasts

What regulates hormones?
brain

is calcium only used for bones?
no

How many bones in upper limb?
30

what is the “funny bone”
inner condyle where ulnar nerve is exposed

For long bones, what is the most distinct feature?
proximal ends (heads)

features of humerus
greater and lesser tubercle; head fits into scapula

ulna
medial bone in anatomical position; remember inline with pinky side
-proximal end looks like C

radius
inline with thumb

Which bone reticulates with humerus?
ulna

The ulna and radius both reticulate with
carpal

How many carpal bones?
8

How many metacarpals?
5

How many phalanges?
14

metacarpals are blank to blank
palms to knuckles

phalanges and metacarpals are what type of bones?
long

t or f: the thumb (pollex) has a middle phalange
false

what are the three types of phalanges
distal, middle, proximal

what are the three fused bones that make up the hip bones
Ilium, Ischium, Pubic bone

function of pelvic girdle
total weight of upper body rests on it, protects organs (reproductive organs, urinary bladder, large intestine)

What is the Acetabulum?
large holes in the hip bones…femur head fits in

What makes up pelvic girdle?
hip bones, saccrum, coccyx

T or F: its easy to tell whether a skeleton is male or female based off th hip bone?
true

Ciatic nerve
thickest nerve in body: spine to leg

greater sciatic notch
nerves (hip)

Difference between male and female hip shape
in females the space is more circular, sides are less curved (of space), pubic arch is more than 90 degrees

How many bones are in the lower limb?
25

difference between upper and lower limb?
thicker and stronger for weight bearing

How many bones in the thigh?
one (femur)

femur
no other bone has long neck extending into head of femur
-flat surface for the patellar to sit
-patella sits on top of femur
-lateral and medial condyle for tibia

Tibia
intercondylar eminence; medial malleolus
-larger, medial, (shin), interacts with femur

Fibula
– plain bone…like a stick
-distal end has an arrowhead shaped structure
-lateral malleolus

How many bones in tarsus?
7

3 parts of the foot?
tarsus (ankle), metatarsas, phalanges

Calcaneus
heel

3 cuniforms
medial, intermediate, and lateral cuniform

spine
sharp, slender process

tubercle
small rounded projection

crest
narrow ridge of bone

tuberosity
large rounded projection

head
structure supported on the neck

ramus
armlike projection

condyle
rounded convex projection

fissure
narrow depression or opening

meatus
canal-like structure

foramen
opening through a bone

fossa
shallow depression

sinus
airfilled cavity

trochantar
large, irregularly shaped projection

epicondyle
raised area of condyle

process
projection or promeinence

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