Intro Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy defined
– Latin:”to cut up”
– to understand structure
and the relationship between the different parts of the body

Essential tools for studying anatomy
– Mastery of anatomical terminology
– Observation
– Manipulation
– Palpation
– Auscultation

Physiology
-“Nature”
– concerned with the function of the different body parts
– how things work to keep us alive.

Observation
paying attention to the appearance and behavior of the patient

Manipulation
– move diff parts of body to diagnose/ help p feel better
– to access movement and flexibility
– therapeutically for joint and spine problems.

Palpation
– to feel with fingers
– palpating the pulse

auscultation
– to listen to the sounds the organs are making
– the heart beat, respiratory, intestinal sounds

Gross (Macroscopic) Anatomy
study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye
– (e.g., heart, brain, lungs, etc.)

surface anatomy
– anatomy / an approach to study gross anatomy/
– the study of body form and anatomical landmarks
– visually inspecting the outside of the body.

Anatomical landmarks
– made by?
– usage?
– anatomy / an approach to study gross anatomy/
surface anatomy /
– made by bony protuberance, tendons, ligaments, muscles that lie under the skin
– used clinically to locate internal structures without opening up the body.

jugular notch
– anatomical landmark for?
– anatomy / gross anatomy / surface anatomy – anatomical landmark
– landmark for structures in the region of the thyroid gland
– ridge-like sternal angle directs you to the second ribs (which attach to it).
– count down to identify the other ribs comprising the rib cage
– ribs can be used to locate other important organs in the thorax.

costal margin
– formed by?
– anatomical landmark for?
– anatomy / gross anatomy / surface anatomy – anatomical landmark
– formed by the bottom of the ribcage
-landmark for defining abdominopelvic regions

midpoint of the clavicle
-anatomical landmark for?
– anatomy / gross anatomy / surface anatomy – anatomical landmark
– landmark from which to “drop” a midclavicular line all the way to the groin
– line is used to define the boundaries of some of the abdominopelvic regions.

systematic / systemic anatomy
– def?
– eg?
– benefit?
– anatomy / gross anatomy
– the study of entire organ systems, one at a time
– eg. skeletal system, muscular system, and digestive system
– clarifies functional relationships between component organs of a system

regional anatomy
– def?
-who uses this?
– benefit?
– anatomy / gross anatomy
– all the structures in a particular body region are studied at once
– if studying the arm, look at the skin, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, bones, etc. in that specific region.
– many med schools
– emphasizes the spatial relationships

radiographic anatomy
– anatomy / gross anatomy
– X-rays to record image of internal structures in the body (dense enough to be visible)
eg. examine bones, look 4 foreign objects, dense masses

anatomical pathology
– anatomy / gross anatomy
– study of disease at the anatomical level
– structural changes that are associated with a particular disease state.

developmental anatomy
– anatomy /
– study of structures and structural changes: conception (fertilized egg / zigot) to adulthood.

embryology
– anatomy / developmental anatomy/
– study of development from the fertilized egg to the eighth week of gestation (1st 2 months)
– all the organ systems are in place, heart is beating

microscopic anatomy
– anatomy /
– study of structure of the body’s organs at the microscopic level
– structure too small to be seen with the naked eye

cytology
– anatomy / microscopic anatomy
– study of cells (the smallest unit of structure considered to be alive)

histology
– anatomy / microscopic anatomy
– study of tissues
– tissues are groups of specialized cells that carry out a particular function for the body, such as respiration, reproduction, protection, digestion, etc.

Subdivision of anatomy
1. gross anatomy
2. developmental anatomy
3. microscopic anatomy

subdivions of gross anatomy
1. surface anatomy
2. systemic / systematic ay
3. regional ay
4. radiographic ay
5. anatomical pathology

subdivions of developmental anatomy
1. embryology

subdivions of microscopic anatomy
1. cytology
2. histology

cell physiology
:
– study of the functions of cells at the chemical and molecular levels
– how cells work at the chemical and molecular levels

pathologic physiology
– study of the effects of disease on organ or system functions
– lung, brain, heart, etc

systemic physiology
– def?
– eg?
– study of all functional aspects of specific organ systems
– cardiovascular physiology: the function of the heart, blood, and blood vessels
– renal physiology: how the kidneys make urine and balance fluid, electrolytes, blood pH, etc.
– neurophysiology: how the brain and nerves and sense organs carry out their role to receive, process and respond to stimuli

special physiology
– study of the functions of specific organs

subdivisions of physiology
1. cell physiology
2. special physiology
3. systemic physiology
4. pathologic physiology

ex of how manipulation is being used
therapeutically for joint and spine problems

what would you auscultate?
– heart beat
– intestinal sounds
– repiratory

sternal angle used for
direct you to 2nd rib (attached to it)

landmark to identify /locate ribs
– ridge-like sternal angle directs you to the second ribs (which attach to it).
– count down to identify the other ribs comprising the rib cage
– ribs can be used to locate other important organs in the thorax.

rib cage used for
– ridge-like sternal angle directs you to the second ribs (which attach to it).
– count down to identify the other ribs comprising the rib cage
– ribs can be used to locate other important organs in the thorax.

landmark to identify abdominopelvic regions
coastal margin

landmark to identify 2nd rib
sternal angle

landmark to identify/locate important oragns in the thorax
rib cage

list anatomical landmarks
– jugular notch
– coastal margin
– sternal angle
– rib cage
– clavicle

Chapter 01 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology True / False Questions 1. Sometimes anatomical terms come from origins that do not lend any insight into their meaning. TRUE Blooms Level: 1. Remember Gradable: automatic HAPS Topic: Module A05 Basic …

*Surface Anatomy of Anterior Thorax (chest wall) suprasternal – on top of the sternum Axilla – armpit See Diagram: -clavicular head of pectorals major -suprasternal (jugular) notch -clavicle -deltoid -sternum -axilla -external oblique -linea alba -rectus abdominus -serratus anterior -sternocostal …

thorax a cage composed of bones and cartilages which offer protection for several vital organs such as the heart great blood vessels and respiratory organs skeleton of the thorax includes 12 thoracic vertebrae sternum 12 pairs of ribs 12 pairs …

What is anatomy? Anatomy is the study of external and internal structures and the physical relationships between body parts; careful observation of the human body. Anatomical information provides clues about probable functions. What is physiology? Physiology is the study of …

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