Anatomy Lab exam 1

Cephalic
head
Cranial
skull
Occipital
back of head
Facial
face
Frontal
forehead
Orbital
eye
Otic
ear
Nasal
nose
Oral
mouth
Mental
chin
Buccal
cheek
Cervical
neck
Nuchal
back of neck
Acromial
shoulder
Axillary
armpit
Thoracic
chest
Sternal
breastbone
Mammary
breast
Abdominal
belly
Umbilical
navel
Pelvic
lower abdomen
Coxal
hip
Inguinal
groin
Pubic
genital region
Dorsal
back
Scapular
shoulder blade
Vertebral
backbone
Lumbar
lower back
Gluteal
buttocks
Sacral
between buttocks
Perineal
between anus & genitalia
Brachial
upper arm
Olecranal
elbow
Antecubital
front of elbow
Antebrachial
forearm
Carpal
wrist
Manus
hand
Palmar
palm
Dorsum
back of hand
Digital
finger
Pollex
thumb
Femoral
thigh
Patellar
knee
Popliteal
back of knee
Crural
lower leg
Fibular
outside of the leg
Sural
calf
Tarsal
ankle
Pedal
foot
Calcaneal
heel
Dorsum
top of foot
Plantar
sole of foot
Digital
toe
Define the anatomical position?
the body is erect, the feet are flat on the floor with the toes pointing straight ahead, the eyes are lookin
The parasagittal plane?
passes vertically through the body and divides the body into unequal left and right portions
The lmidsagittal plane?
a sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves
The frontal plane?
(coronal plane) passes throught the body vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
Ventral?
towards the front
Dorsal?
towards the back
The verse plane?
divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Superior?
toward the head, the upper part of a structure within the trunk
Inferior?
Away from the head, the lower part of a structure within the trunk
Anterior (ventral)?
Nearer to or at the front of the body
Posterior (dorsal)?
Nearer to or at the back of the body
Lateral?
Away from the midline of the body
Medial?
Closer to the midline of the body
Intermediate?
Between two structures
Proximal?
Closer to the attachment point of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the orgin of a structure
Distal?
Farther away from the attachment point of a limb to the trunk; farther away from the orgin of a structure
Superficial?
Towards or on the surface of the body
Deep?
Away from the surface of the body
Dorsal Cavity contains?
the brain and the spinal cord
Brain is found?
in the cranial cavity
Spinal cord is found?
vertebral cavity
The ventral cavity is?
divided by the diaphragm muscle into the superior thoracic cavity and the inferior abdominopelvic cavity.
The thoracic cavity is divided into?
two pleural cavities and the pericardial cavity with the superior mediastinum dividing the two
The pleural cavities contain?
a lung
The pericardial cavity contains?
the heart
The superior mediastinum contains?
the thymus gland, esophagus, trachea and several large blood vessels
The superior adominal cavity contains?
most digestive organs, alimentary canal, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys
The inferior pelvic cavity contains?
surrounded by the pelvis and contains the rectum, urinary bladder, and female and male parts
Describe epithelial tissue?
-found in diverse areas of the body
-cover or line all body surfaces, cavities, and tubular structures such as blood vessels
-avascular and receive nourishment from
Function of epithelial tissue?
selective diffusion, absorption, secretion, protection, and containment
How are epithelial tissues classified?
by shape and number of layers
Describe simple squamous tissue?
-shape is flat
-layers: 1
-example: alveolar sacs in the lungs alveoli of lungs
Describe simple cuboidal tissue?
-shape is cube
-layers: 1
-example: kidney tubules
Describe simple columnar tissue?
-shape is colimn
-layers: 1
-ex:lining of the gallbladder
Describe stratified squamous tissue?
-shape is flat
-layers are multiple
-example: epidermis of skin
Describe stratified cuboidal tissue?
-shape is cube
-layers: multiple
-example: eccrine glands of skin
Describe pseudostratified columnar tissue?
-shape is column
-layers: 1
-example: lining of trachea
Apical surface?
upper surface
basal surface?
(basement membrane)
lower surface
Describe connective tissues?
-the major supporting tissues of the body and also serve in protection, transport, storage, and repair
-classified based on their extracellular matrix
Connective tissue proper?
-adipose
-loose(areolar)
-dense
-regular
-irregular
Specialized connective tissue?
-cartilage
-hyaline
-elastic
-bone
-compact
-spongy
-blood
Fibroblasts are?
-thecells that secrete the extracellular matrix
-composed of fibers and amorphous ground substance
-two types of fibers: collagen and elastin
Describe collagen?
-the main fiber type of extracellular matrix and is most abundent protein in the body
-inelastic and provides great tensile strength
-19 types occuring
-thicker
Describe elastin?
-very thin and elastic
-found in areas of the body where stretching and recoil is needed, such as the skin, lungs, blood vessels, and epiglottis
-thin and stringy
Describe the ground substance of the extraxellular matrix of connective tissue?
-composed of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin, sulfates and proteoglycans
-cells and fibers are surrounded by the porous ground substance and extracellular fluid permitting diffusion of nutrients to and metabolic wastes from fibroblasts
Describe adipocytes?
-most connective tissues contain these cells
-adapted for fat storage
-scattered in clumps in loosed connective tissue
-may be predominant cell as in adipose tissue
Desrcibe adipose tissue?
-extremely important in metabolic proccess
-insulates body and serves as protective cushion
-found in hypodermis of skin, yellow bone marrow, around heart and kidneys, deep to the patella, posterior to eyeballs and in suoerficial fascia
Describe loose connective tissue?
-found throughout body
-fibers loosely and randomly arranged making it able to flex in all directions
– present in LAMINA PROPRIA of mucous membranes, surrounding blood vessels, nerves, organs, and in superficial layer of dermis
-along with adipose tissue forms hypodermis
Describe dense regular connective tissue?
-large, thick collagen fibers that are arranged in PARALLEL bundles
-fibroblastes appear in rows between bundles of collagen fibers
–tremendous tensile strength because of parallel arrangment
-found in ligaments, tendons, and in aponerosis
Describe dense irregular connective tissue?
-collagen fibers seem scattered irregularly throughout providing tensile strength in many directions
Describe hyaline cartilage?
Describe elastic cartilage?
Describe compact bone?
Describe the e
Describe chondroblasts?
-growing cartilage is produced by this
-secrete the extracellular matrix and when they become entrapped within the extracellular matrix they’re called chondocytes
Compact bone model

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